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The Global Need for Plant Breeding Innovation - Petra Jorasch

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The Global Need for Plant Breeding Innovation - Petra Jorasch

  1. 1. The Global Need for Plant Breeding Innovation Dr. Petra Jorasch OECD Conference on Genome Editing Paris, June 28, 2018
  2. 2. What is ISF? • Voice of the global seed sector • Non-governmental, non-profit organization 2
  3. 3. Vision and Mission Vision “A world where the best quality seed is accessible to all, supporting sustainable agriculture and food security.” Mission “To create the best environment for the global movement of seed, and promote plant breeding and innovation in seed” 3
  4. 4. ISF in figures 4 58 National Seed Associations 7500+ companies 75 countries
  6. 6. The Plant Breeding Innovation Tradition
  7. 7. The Plant Breeding Innovation Cycle selection ( also with molecular markers) field trials (several years, different environments) Induced genetic variation random or targeted Mutations Cisgenesis Transgenesis crosses release of new varieties increasing variation decreasing variation germplasm input varieties (old and new), plant genetic ressources induced genetic variation random or targeted mutations cisgenesis, transgenesis, epigenesis
  8. 8. Genome Editing is more efficient: the result identical Crossing and Selection Genome Editing – SDN1/2 High-performance variety Wilde type with desired trait High-performance variety 7 generations / about 1000 plants 2 generations / about 20-50 plantsImproved high- performance variety © KWS
  9. 9. Breeding Goals can be achieved in a more efficient way 9 Quality Traits Yield Resistances Baking quality (e.g N-glycans modification in barley, gluten free wheat) Corn yield (pod shatter resistant oil seed rape, grain weight and enhanced grain number in rice, parthenocarpic tomato plants) Viruses (Cucumis: Zucchini Yellow Mosaic virus; Papaya ring spot Virus) Brewing quality (e.g. low lox barley) Biomass yield (improved C3-carbon metabolism in df) Bacteria Fatty acid composition (e.g. high oleic acid soybean/ Camelina; low sat. fatty acid canola) Starch, Protein, Sugar, Oil content (higher oil content Camelina) Insect Increased Vitamin content Nutrient use Efficiency Fungi (e.g. Powdery Mildew in Wheat and tomato, late blight potato, blast resistant rice) Improved shelf life (improved cold storage potato, non-browning mushroom/apple/potato) Water use Efficiency (drought tolerant soybeans) Drought, Heat, Salt (salt stress tolerant rice, drought stress resistant corn) Starch quality (e.g. waxy corn, amylopectin potato, high-amylose rice) Herbicides (e.g. oilseed rape, linum, rice, potato) Food/Feed quality (low-phytate maize, high fiber wheat) *examples achieved with latest breeding methods
  10. 10. The Technique Conundrum Technique Crossing & Selection Random Mutagenesis rDNA Genome Editing Result gmo-Regulation no no yes ? familiarity specificity e.g. Waxy Corn modified according to Jeffrey D. Wolt, “Regulatory Aspects of Genome-edited Crops”, VISCEA Conference, Vienna, July 2017
  11. 11. How to Approach Scope of Regulatory Oversight • Goal: Consistent, science-based approach for regulatory oversight • Agreement among governments on the criteria to determine the scope of regulatory oversight Underlying principle: “Plant varieties developed through the latest breeding methods should not be differentially regulated if they are similar or indistinguishable from varieties that could have been produced through earlier breeding methods.” 11
  12. 12. Consistent Criteria for Regulatory Oversight The resulting product would not fall under the current scope of GMO regulation if: • it does not contain a novel combination of genetic material; or • the final plant product solely contains the stable insertion of inherited genetic material from sexually compatible plant species; or • any form of mutagenesis is involved. 12
  13. 13. What we need…. Clear Guidance on • scope of regulatory oversight • timelines and requirements Consideration of the existing regulatory mechanisms for new plant varieties and resulting products • variety registration • national seed laws and regulations • phytosanitary regulations • general environmental safety/liability laws and regulations • general food/feed laws and regulations 13
  14. 14. Typical Seed Movement - Vegetables 14 1. Breeding parental lines 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 7 2. Production of parental seed 3. Seed processing 4. Production of hybrid seed 5. Seed processing 6. Commercial packaging 7. Final market
  15. 15. Impact of Public Policy-Lessons from the Past The risk is to create another system of patchwork regulations and asynchronous decisions repeating some of the mistakes of GMO regulation 1. Only the largest seed companies will have the financial capability to manage the costs related to regulation. 2. Only a limited number of crops and traits will benefit from breeding innovations. 3. The accessibility of these tools to the academic community, national agricultural research organizations, and international agricultural research centers / CGIAR centers will be restricted. 4. Global economic activity in the seed and grain trade will decrease. 5. Research cooperation and germplasm exchange for global breeding will become more challenging. 6. Increasing productivity in a sustainable way will become more challenging. 15
  16. 16. CONSISTENT, SCIENCE-BASED CRITERIA BRING BENEFITS FOR ACADEMIC INSTITUTIONS • opportunities for international collaborations • funding & public-private partnerships PLANT BREEDERS • access to latest methods • legal certainty • access to genetic diversity FARMERS • access to better seed • level playing field • ensure livelihood & prosperity • sustainable agricultural production TRADERS • ensure consistent supply • avoid new trade barriers CONSUMERS • high quality & wide variety • affordable prices
  17. 17. Conclusion The latest breeding methods provide opportunities to target global challenges as well as local needs and can help us achieve sustainable agricultural production and food security. 17
  18. 18. Chemin du Reposoir 7 | 1260 Nyon | Switzerland www.worldseed.org Seed is Life Contact: Dr. Petra Jorasch ESA - European Seed Association petrajorasch@euroseeds.eu