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The labour market integration of humanitarian migrants - Thomas Liebig

OECD CFE
22 de Dec de 2015
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The labour market integration of humanitarian migrants - Thomas Liebig

  1. The Labour Market Integration of Humanitarian Migrants Thomas Liebig International Migration Division Directorate for Employment, Labour and Social Affairs 26 November 2015
  2. Labour market integration of refugees takes time and requires active support Employment rate by immigrant categories and duration of stay in European OECD countries, 2008
  3. Available evidence from Nordic countries show, despite some progresses over time, a persisting employment gap for refugees 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Work Refugees Family Years since arrival Percentage of employed, by duration of residence in Sweden, cohort arriving 1997-99 Men Women 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 yr Years since arrival Source: Swedish Public Employment Service (Arbetsformedlingen)
  4. Integration of very low educated humanitarian migrants requires long-term training and support 4 Employment rate of humanitarian migrants by level of education and duration of stay in European OECD countries, 2008 • Reaching the minimum standards of what is needed to be employable may take several years - but this investment will pay off in the long run Australia, Norway and Sweden have longer introduction programmes for very low-educated refugees • Support needs to extend beyond training to help refugees enter employment Sweden and Denmark offer stepwise labour market introduction 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 1-4 5-7 8-10 11-14 15-19 Low-educated refugees Low-educated foreign-born Medium and highly educated refugees Medium and highly educated foreign-born Source: European Labour Force SurveyDuration of stay (in years) Employmentrate
  5. Early intervention is key 5 • Early labour market entry is a key predictor for integration outcomes in the long- run • Likewise, early intervention is crucial for future integration outcomes, particularly for young children • Where asylum procedures are lengthy, certain groups may benefit from up-front support – including language and job-preparation training, and skills assessment • Making labour market access subject to a waiting period and certain conditions helps preventing abuse of the asylum channel • Norway and Germany have opened integration measures for certain groups of asylum seekers
  6. • Where humanitarian migrants cannot chose their place of residence, policies usually aim at an equal ‘dispersal’ across the country – often paying little attention to employment • But the costs for neglecting employment-related aspects are high • Evidence from Sweden suggests: Humanitarian migrants should be put in places where jobs are and not where the cheap housing is 6 25% lower earnings 6-8 percentage points lower employment levels 40% higher welfare dependency ... eight years after dispersal for refugees subject to a housing-led dispersal policy (Edin et al. 2004) To be effective, dispersal policies ideally should consider:  skills profile of refugees  local job vacancies  structure of local economy  specific shortages  avoid segregation Sweden, New Zealand and Estonia are currently among the few countries explicitly considering employment opportunities
  7. • Refugees’ qualifications and skills are often undervalued due to – Different education and training contexts in origin countries – Lack of documentation – No access to / awareness about existing recognition mechanisms – Vocational skills aquired through non-formal learning • Only few countries have a systematic assessment of refugees’ skills • Need for systematic assessment and adjusted recognition procedures Humanitarian migrants’ foreign qualifications, work experience and skills are often undervalued 7
  8. Equal access to public services to migrants in different parts of the country is a key challenge 8 • Integration primarily takes place at the local level • Where standards are uneven, integration prospects depend on the area of settlement rather than on the refugee’s characteristics • To limit differences, countries should • Denmark developed a benchmarking system to monitor the effectiveness municipal integration measures; Switzerland has a binding federal framework with cantonal adaptations • build and exchange expertise in municipalities • provide adequate financial support and set incentives right • pool resources • allow for some specialisation • implement minimum standards • monitor how municipalities live up to these
  9. www.oecd.org/migration Thomas.Liebig@oecd.org For further information on the OECD’s work on the integration of refugees and other migrant groups: … coming soon: 9

Notas do Editor

  1. Sweden is the only country for which this data is available by reason for migration
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