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Climate change adaptation benefits
InThe San Francisco Bayareaare maintained several monitoring networks bydifferent organizations,
e.g.waterqualityin some Nature reserves bythe U.S. Natural Park services,waterqualityand sediment
of the Bay Area by SFEI, water levels of the Bat area by the Army Corps of Engineers, groundwater
levels at random locations bythe USGS and many more. Monitoring efforts could be improved after a
discussion about needed monitoring objectives, followed by evaluating the existing networks. It’s
clearthat monitoring need to be improved in this time of Climate Change and Sea Level. Therefore all
organizations should worktogether and design one ‘water and subsurface’ network, strengthen each
otherandinagreementwiththeobjectives.Inthefollowingtableallmonitoringtopicsaresummarized.
Of course, an optimized integral monitoring can be partly based on existing sites.
Eutrophication of the Bay Area example: To understand this process Bay water need to be sampled
at different locations and depths (condition monitoring). To understand this condition several other
impacts need to be monitored at the same time: the amount and quality of waste water discharge
into the Bay, the amount and quality of stream discharges, the influence of Sacramento River, the
temperature of the Bay, and the interaction with Bay dredge.
Towards one integrated and public accessible monitoring network for all water and subsurface data
Rain, evaporation, groundwater recharge • E.g. Lysimeter network (monitoring groundwater
recharge)
Groundwater • Design Bay area wide groundwater network for:
– Groundwater levels and hydraulic heads
– Groundwater quality
– Fresh-salt gradients
Rivers, streams • Design Bay area wide network:
– Discharge quantities in time
– Quality
– Aquatic ecology
Storm drainage pipes at Bay shoreline • Map and categorize outlets:
– Monitor quantity and quality of selection
Urban flooding (including transport lines) • Where, how much and when (camera’s)
Bay water • Optimize level, quality, salinity, temperature, water depth and sediments
monitoring sites if needed. Making use of Bay model
• Monitor ecological and morphological state of marshes and mudflats
Waste water treatment plants • Map locations WWTP’s and pipe outlets. Monitor:
– Discharge , quality and temperature
Groundwater pumping • Map all locations and categorize: drinking water, industrial, irrigation,
infrastructure (BART tunnels, basements, parking garages)
– Determine discharge quantity. quality and outlet
Subsidence • Using Lidar or satellite images and extensometers
All data in one web based database. Clear visualizations of the meaning of monitoring results. Agreements about
consequences of monitoring results.

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