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Session-1 Project Management.pptx

  2. LEARNING OUTCOMES After attending this chapter you will be able to understand o Project & its types o Difference between project and routine work. o Project Management & its Importance . o Project Management Knowledge Areas o Project Management and its life cycle or Stages. o Role of strategy in projects management. o Key Players of project and their roles
  3. ICE BREAKING o How many of you have been involved in a project? o Anyone serve as a project manager? o How do projects differ from ordinary work? o What makes project work more difficult? o How important is project management? o What constitutes success in projects and how do we achieve it?
  4. WHY PROJECT MANAGEMENT? o Coordinate the various interrelated processes of the project. o Ensure project includes all the work required, and only the work required, to complete the project successfully. o Ensure that the project is completed on time and within budget. o Ensure that the project will satisfy the needs for which it was undertaken. o Promote effective communication between the projects team members and key stakeholders. o Ensure that project risks are identifies, analyzed, and responded.
  5. ADVANTAGES OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT o Better control of human resources o Improved customer relations o Shorter development times, lead times o Lower costs o Higher quality o Higher profit margins o Improved productivity
  6. WHAT IS PROJECT ? A project is a sequence of Unique, Complex and connected activities having one goal or purpose must be completed by a specific time, within budget, and according to specification.
  7. KEY CHARACTERISTICS OF PROJECTS • A project has boundaries, so its extent is defined. • A project is a one-time effort, usually requiring finite resources. • There are distinct start and end dates for projects. • You know when you have reached the end of the project.
  8. TYPES OF PROJECTS. o Educational Projects. o Engineering and technology Projects. o Construction projects. o Business projects. o Service Projects. o Marketing Projects. o HR Projects.
  10. CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD PROJECT The major characteristics of a project are as follows: 1. An established objective. 2. A defined life span with a beginning and an end. 3. Usually, the involvement of several departments and professionals. 4. Typically, doing something that has never been done before. 5. Specific time, cost, and performance requirements.
  11. PROJECT MANAGEMENT. Project management is the process of achieving set goals with in the constrains of time, budget, and staffing restrictions. It allows you to get the most out of your available resources. In Short It is the process of defining, planning, organizing, leading and controlling the development of a project.
  12. PROJECT MANAGEMENT HELPS YOU ANSWER QUESTIONS SUCH AS: What is to be done? Who will complete the task? When must it be done? How much will it cost? What happens if work isn’t completed on time?
  13. WHAT ARE THE CRITERIA FOR SUCCESS IN PROJECT? o Completion on time o Completion within budget o Completion with full functionality
  15. Project Integration Management o Project Plan Development o Project Plan Execution o Integrated Change Control Project Scope Management o Initiation o Scope Planning o Scope Definition o Scope Verification o Scope Change Control Project Time Management o Activity Definition o Activity Sequencing o Activity Duration o Estimating o Schedule Development o Schedule Control Project Cost Management o Resource Planning o Cost Estimating o Cost Budgeting o Cost Control Project Quality Management o Quality Planning o Quality Assurance o Quality Control Project Human Resource Management o Organizational Planning o Staff Acquisition o Team Development Project Communication Management o Communications Planning o Information Distribution o Performance Reporting o Administrative Closure Project Risk Management o Risk Management Planning o Risk Identification o Qualitative Risk Analysis o Quantitative Risk Analysis o Risk Response Planning o Risk Monitoring and CONTROL, Project Procurement Management o Procurement Planning o Solicitation Planning o Solicitation o Source Selection o Contract Administration o Contract Closeout
  16. THE TIME MANAGEMENT MATRIX 21 •Exam tomorrow •Friend gets injured •Pressing problems •Deadline driven Projects, Crises •Planning, goal setting •Prevention •Paper due in a month •Exercise & relaxation •Relationship building •Too much TV •Endless phone calls •Excessive computer • games •Other time wasters • Excessive chatting •Unimportant phone calls •Interruptions •Some emails, trivial issues •Peer pressure
  17. Stress Quadrant Value Quadrant Deception Quadrant Regret Quadrant Time management
  18. Just Do It Adopt It Delegate It Avoid It Strategies
  20. DELEGATIONS REQUIRES A CLEAR, UP-FRONT MUTUAL UNDERSTANDING OF AND COMMITMENT TO EXPECTATION IN FIVE AREAS. 25 1. Desired Results 2. Guidelines 3. Resources 4. Accountability 5. Consequences
  22. Business Achievement Competencies. Business Awareness. Business partner Orientation. Commitment to quality. Problem solving Competencies Initiatives Information Gathering Analytical Thinking Conceptual Thinking Influencing Competencies Interpersonal Awareness. Organizational Awareness. Anticipation of Impact. People Competencies. Motivating others. Communication Skills. Developing others. Monitoring and controlling. Self Management Competencies Self Confidence. Self Management. Concern of Credibility. Flexibility.
  24. Shark Turtle Teddy bear Owl What's Your Score ? Fox
  25. 36 The Competing Shark
  26. 37 •Sharks use a forcing or competing conflict management style •sharks are highly goal-oriented •Relationships take on a lower priority •Sharks do not hesitate to use aggressive behavior to resolve conflicts •Sharks can be autocratic, authoritative, and uncooperative; threatening and intimidating •Sharks have a need to win; therefore others must lose, creating win-lose situations Advantage Disadvantage If the shark’s decision is correct, a better decision without compromise can result. May breed hostility and resentment toward the person using it.
  27. 38 Appropriate times to use a Shark Style: when conflict involves personal differences that are difficult to change when fostering intimate or supportive relationships is not critical when others are likely to take advantage of noncompetitive behavior when conflict resolution is urgent; when decision is vital in crisis when unpopular decisions need to be implemented
  28. 39 The Avoiding Turtle
  29. Turtles adopt an avoiding or withdrawing conflict management style Turtles would rather hide and ignore conflict than resolve it; this leads them uncooperative and unassertive May help to maintain relationships that would be hurt by conflict resolution. Conflicts remain unresolved, overuse of the style leads to others walking over them. Turtles tend to give up personal goals and display passive behavior creating lose-lose situations Advantage Disadvantage May help to maintain relationships that would be hurt by conflict resolution. Conflicts remain unresolved, overuse of the style leads to others walking over them.
  30. Appropriate times to use a Turtle Style : when the stakes are not high or issue is trivial when confrontation will hurt a working relationship when there is little chance of satisfying your wants when disruption outweighs benefit of conflict resolution
  31. 42 The Accommodating Teddy Bear 42
  32. •Teddy bears use a smoothing or accommodating conflict management style with emphasis on human relationships •Teddy bears ignore their own goals and resolve conflict by giving into others; unassertive and cooperative creating a win-lose situation Advantage Disadvantage Accommodating maintains relationships. Giving in may not be productive, bear may be taken advantage of
  33. 44 Appropriate times to use a Teddy Bear Style when maintaining the relationship outweighs other considerations when suggestions/changes are not important to the accommodator when minimizing losses in situations where outmatched or losing. •when time is limited or when harmony and stability are valued
  34. The Compromising Fox 45
  35. •Foxes use a compromising conflict management style; concern is for goals and relationships •Foxes are willing to sacrifice some of their goals while persuading others to give up part of theirs •Compromise is assertive and cooperative-result is either win-lose, lose-win or lose-lose Advantage Disadvantage Relationships are maintained and conflicts are removed. Compromise may create less than ideal outcome and game playing can result.
  36. 47 Appropriate times to use a Fox Style when important/complex issues leave no clear or simple solutions when all conflicting people are equal in power and have strong interests in different solutions when their are no time restraints
  37. 48 The Collaborating Owl
  38. 49 Advantage Disadvantage Both sides get what they want and negative feelings eliminated Takes a great deal of time and effort. •Owls use a collaborating or problem confronting conflict management style valuing their goals and relationships •Owls view conflicts as problems to be solved finding solutions agreeable to all sides (win- win)
  39. 50 Appropriate times to use an Owl Style when maintaining relationships is important when time is not a concern when peer conflict is involved when trying to gain commitment through consensus building when learning and trying to merge differing perspectives
  40. COMPETENCY LEVELS: Knowledge (I can define it) Comprehension (I Understand it) Application (I have used it) Analysis (I know how each part works) Synthesis (I can adopt it to other uses) Evaluation (I know when to use it)
  42. STAGE 1: Conceptualizin g-and-Defining STAGE 2: Planning-and- Budgeting STAGE 3: Executing STAGE 5: Terminating- and-Closing STAGE 4: Monitoring-and-Controlling STAGE 4: Monitoring-and-Controlling Project overview Statement
  43. 1-PROJECT OVERVIEW STATEMENT o State the problem/Opportunity. o Establish the Project Goal. o Define the Project Objectives. o Identify the Success Criteria. o List Assumptions, Risk, Obstacles. o Approval process.
  44. 2-PLANNING AND BUDGETING. o Define WBS. o identify Project Activities. o Estimate Activity Durations. o Set Milestones. o Develop Relationships among Activities o Gantt Chart o Float and CPM (critical path method) o Determine Resource Requirement. o Analyzing Project NETWORK. o Cost Estimation (Budgeting) o Prepare Project Proposal
  45. 3-EXECUTING o Recruitment and organize the project team. o Level Project Resource. o Schedule and Document work packages. o Monitor and control progress. o Close out the project.
  46. 4-TERMINATING & CLOSING o Train Customer. o Transfer Documents. o Reporting.
  47. ORGANIZATION STRATEGY AND PROJECT MANAGEMENT Strategy is implemented through projects. Every project should have a clear link to the organization’s strategy
  48. WHY PROJECT MANAGERS NEED TO UNDERSTAND STRATEGY  The first reason is so they can make appropriate decisions and adjustments.  The 2nd reason project managers need to understand their organization’s strategy is so they can be effective project advocates.
  49. THE STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT : Strategic management is the process of assessing “what we are” and deciding and implementing “what we intend to be and how we are going to get there. ” Strategy describes how an organization intends to compete with the resources available in the existing and perceived future environment
  50. FOUR ACTIVITIES OF THE STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PROCESS The typical sequence of activities of the strategic management process is outlined here; a description of each activity then follows: 1. Review and define the organizational mission. 2. Set long-range goals and objectives. 3. Analyze and formulate strategies to reach objectives. 4. Implement strategies through projects.
  51. Organization Culture and Project management
  52. WHAT IS ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE? Organizational culture refers to a system of shared norms, beliefs, values, and assumptions which binds people together, thereby creating shared meanings. • Culture reflects the personality of the organization and, similar to an individual’s personality, can enable us to predict attitudes and behaviors of organizational members
  53. CHARACTERISTICS OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE 1. Member identity—the degree to which employees identify with the organization as a whole rather than with their type of job or field of professional expertise. 2. Team emphasis—the degree to which work activities are organized around groups rather than individuals. 3.Management focus—the degree to which management decisions take into account the effect of outcomes on people within the organization. 4. Unit integration—the degree to which units within the organization are encouraged to operate in a coordinated or interdependent manner. 5. Control—the degree to which rules, policies, and direct supervision are used to oversee and control employee behavior.
  54. 6. Risk tolerance—the degree to which employees are encouraged to be aggressive, innovative, and risk seeking. 7. Reward criteria—the degree to which rewards such as promotion and salary increases are allocated according to employee performance rather than seniority, favoritism, or other nonperformance factors. 8. Conflict tolerance—the degree to which employees are encouraged to air conflicts and criticisms openly. 9. Means versus end orientation—the degree to which management focuses on outcomes rather than on techniques and processes used to achieve those results. 10. Open-systems focus—the degree to which the organization monitors and responds to changes in the external environment.
  55. CHALLENGES IN INTERNATIONAL PROJECTS. o Political disturbances. o Economy instability. o Sudden changes in Tax laws. o Time consuming government procedures. o Cultural barriers. o Patent Laws. o Dispute settlements.