After attending this chapter you will be able to understand
o Project & its types
o Difference between project and routine work.
o Project Management & its Importance .
o Project Management Knowledge Areas
o Project Management and its life cycle or Stages.
o Role of strategy in projects management.
o Key Players of project and their roles
o How many of you have been involved in a project?
o Anyone serve as a project manager?
o How do projects differ from ordinary work?
o What makes project work more difficult?
o How important is project management?
o What constitutes success in projects and how do we
WHY PROJECT MANAGEMENT?
o Coordinate the various interrelated processes of
o Ensure project includes all the work required, and
only the work required, to complete the project
o Ensure that the project is completed on time and
o Ensure that the project will satisfy the needs for
which it was undertaken.
o Promote effective communication between the
projects team members and key stakeholders.
o Ensure that project risks are identifies, analyzed,
ADVANTAGES OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT
o Better control of human resources
o Improved customer relations
o Shorter development times, lead times
o Lower costs
o Higher quality
o Higher profit margins
o Improved productivity
WHAT IS PROJECT ?
A project is a sequence of Unique, Complex
and connected activities having one goal or
purpose must be completed by a specific
time, within budget, and according to
KEY CHARACTERISTICS OF PROJECTS
• A project has boundaries, so its extent is defined.
• A project is a one-time effort, usually requiring finite
• There are distinct start and end dates for projects.
• You know when you have reached the end of the
TYPES OF PROJECTS.
o Educational Projects.
o Engineering and technology Projects.
o Construction projects.
o Business projects.
o Service Projects.
o Marketing Projects.
o HR Projects.
CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD PROJECT
The major characteristics of a project are as follows:
1. An established objective.
2. A defined life span with a beginning and an end.
3. Usually, the involvement of several departments and
4. Typically, doing something that has never been done before.
5. Specific time, cost, and performance requirements.
Project management is the process of achieving set goals with in
the constrains of time, budget, and staffing restrictions. It allows
you to get the most out of your available resources.
It is the process of defining, planning, organizing, leading and
controlling the development of a project.
PROJECT MANAGEMENT HELPS YOU ANSWER
QUESTIONS SUCH AS:
What is to be done?
Who will complete the task?
When must it be done?
How much will it cost?
What happens if work isn’t completed on time?
WHAT ARE THE CRITERIA FOR SUCCESS IN
o Completion on time
o Completion within budget
o Completion with full functionality
o Project Plan
o Project Plan Execution
o Integrated Change
o Scope Planning
o Scope Definition
o Scope Verification
o Scope Change Control
o Activity Definition
o Activity Sequencing
o Activity Duration
o Schedule Development
o Schedule Control
o Resource Planning
o Cost Estimating
o Cost Budgeting
o Cost Control
o Quality Planning
o Quality Assurance
o Quality Control
o Staff Acquisition
o Team Development
o Performance Reporting
o Administrative Closure
o Risk Management
o Risk Identification
o Qualitative Risk
o Quantitative Risk
o Risk Response
o Risk Monitoring and
o Procurement Planning
o Solicitation Planning
o Source Selection
o Contract Closeout
THE TIME MANAGEMENT MATRIX
•Friend gets injured
•Planning, goal setting
•Paper due in a month
•Exercise & relaxation
•Too much TV
•Endless phone calls
•Other time wasters
• Excessive chatting
•Unimportant phone calls
•Some emails, trivial
Anticipation of Impact.
Concern of Credibility.
•Sharks use a forcing or competing conflict management style
•sharks are highly goal-oriented
•Relationships take on a lower priority
•Sharks do not hesitate to use aggressive behavior to resolve
•Sharks can be autocratic, authoritative, and uncooperative;
threatening and intimidating
•Sharks have a need to win; therefore others must lose, creating
If the shark’s decision is correct, a
better decision without compromise can
May breed hostility and resentment
toward the person using it.
Appropriate times to use a Shark Style:
when conflict involves personal differences that
are difficult to change
when fostering intimate or supportive relationships is
when others are likely to take advantage of noncompetitive
when conflict resolution is urgent; when decision is vital
when unpopular decisions need to be implemented
Turtles adopt an avoiding or withdrawing conflict
Turtles would rather hide and ignore conflict than resolve it;
this leads them uncooperative and unassertive
May help to maintain relationships that would be hurt by
Conflicts remain unresolved, overuse of the style leads to
others walking over them.
Turtles tend to give up personal goals and display passive
behavior creating lose-lose situations
May help to maintain
relationships that would be hurt
by conflict resolution.
Conflicts remain unresolved,
overuse of the style leads to
others walking over them.
Appropriate times to use a Turtle Style
when the stakes are not high or issue is trivial
when confrontation will hurt a working relationship
when there is little chance of satisfying your wants
when disruption outweighs benefit of conflict
•Teddy bears use a smoothing or accommodating
conflict management style with emphasis on human
•Teddy bears ignore their own goals and resolve
conflict by giving into others; unassertive and
cooperative creating a win-lose situation
Giving in may not be
productive, bear may be
taken advantage of
Appropriate times to use a Teddy Bear Style
when maintaining the relationship outweighs
when suggestions/changes are not important
to the accommodator
when minimizing losses in situations where
outmatched or losing.
•when time is limited or when harmony and stability are
•Foxes use a compromising conflict management
style; concern is for goals and relationships
•Foxes are willing to sacrifice some of their goals
while persuading others to give up part of theirs
•Compromise is assertive and cooperative-result is
either win-lose, lose-win or lose-lose
Relationships are maintained and
conflicts are removed.
Compromise may create less
than ideal outcome and game
playing can result.
Appropriate times to use a Fox Style
when important/complex issues leave no clear
or simple solutions
when all conflicting people are equal in power
and have strong interests in different solutions
when their are no time restraints
Both sides get what they want and
negative feelings eliminated
Takes a great deal of time and
•Owls use a collaborating or problem
confronting conflict management style valuing
their goals and relationships
•Owls view conflicts as problems to be solved
finding solutions agreeable to all sides (win-
Appropriate times to use an Owl Style
when maintaining relationships is important
when time is not a concern
when peer conflict is involved
when trying to gain commitment through consensus
when learning and trying to merge differing perspectives
Knowledge (I can define it)
Comprehension (I Understand it)
Application (I have used it)
Analysis (I know how each part works)
Synthesis (I can adopt it to other uses)
Evaluation (I know when to use it)
1-PROJECT OVERVIEW STATEMENT
o State the problem/Opportunity.
o Establish the Project Goal.
o Define the Project Objectives.
o Identify the Success Criteria.
o List Assumptions, Risk, Obstacles.
o Approval process.
2-PLANNING AND BUDGETING.
o Define WBS.
o identify Project Activities.
o Estimate Activity Durations.
o Set Milestones.
o Develop Relationships among Activities
o Gantt Chart
o Float and CPM (critical path method)
o Determine Resource Requirement.
o Analyzing Project NETWORK.
o Cost Estimation (Budgeting)
o Prepare Project Proposal
o Recruitment and organize the project team.
o Level Project Resource.
o Schedule and Document work packages.
o Monitor and control progress.
o Close out the project.
WHY PROJECT MANAGERS NEED TO UNDERSTAND STRATEGY
The first reason is so they can make appropriate decisions and
The 2nd reason project managers need to understand their
organization’s strategy is so they can be effective project
THE STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT :
Strategic management is the process of assessing
“what we are” and deciding and implementing
“what we intend to be and how we are going to
” Strategy describes how an organization intends to
compete with the resources available in the existing
and perceived future environment
FOUR ACTIVITIES OF THE STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PROCESS
The typical sequence of activities of the strategic management
process is outlined here; a description of each activity then follows:
1. Review and define the organizational mission.
2. Set long-range goals and objectives.
3. Analyze and formulate strategies to reach objectives.
4. Implement strategies through projects.
WHAT IS ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE?
Organizational culture refers to a system of shared
norms, beliefs, values, and assumptions which binds
people together, thereby creating shared meanings.
• Culture reflects the personality of the organization
and, similar to an individual’s personality, can enable
us to predict attitudes and behaviors of organizational
CHARACTERISTICS OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE
1. Member identity—the degree to which employees identify with the
organization as a whole rather than with their type of job or field of
2. Team emphasis—the degree to which work activities are organized
around groups rather than individuals.
3.Management focus—the degree to which management decisions
take into account the effect of outcomes on people within the
4. Unit integration—the degree to which units within the organization
encouraged to operate in a coordinated or interdependent manner.
5. Control—the degree to which rules, policies, and direct supervision
are used to oversee and control employee behavior.
6. Risk tolerance—the degree to which employees are encouraged to be
aggressive, innovative, and risk seeking.
7. Reward criteria—the degree to which rewards such as promotion and
increases are allocated according to employee performance rather than
seniority, favoritism, or other nonperformance factors.
8. Conflict tolerance—the degree to which employees are encouraged to
air conflicts and criticisms openly.
9. Means versus end orientation—the degree to which management
focuses on outcomes rather than on techniques and processes used to
achieve those results.
10. Open-systems focus—the degree to which the organization monitors
responds to changes in the external environment.
CHALLENGES IN INTERNATIONAL PROJECTS.
o Political disturbances.
o Economy instability.
o Sudden changes in Tax laws.
o Time consuming government procedures.
o Cultural barriers.
o Patent Laws.
o Dispute settlements.