1. HYBRID SEED PRODUCTION
TECHNOLOGY OF MUSTARD
Scientiﬁc name : Brassica nigra
Family : Brassicaceae
Origin : Europe
Common name : Black mustard
Chromosome no. : 18
Local names : Mohari, Tikkya, Rai, Serson
The oil extracted from oilseeds forms an
important item of our diet.
Extracted oil is used as raw material for
manufacturing paints, varnishes, soaps,
perfumes, lubricants, etc.
Oil cakes is a by-product obtained after the
extraction of oil from oilseeds and is an
excellent cattle feed
Oil cakes are also used as fertilizers.
Aids in managing diabetes and cholesterol
Nutrients: Dietary ﬁber-59%
3. Area : 6323 hectares(India)
Production : 7977 tonnes(India)
Productivity : 1262kg/hec(India)
About 35% Area of the total cultivated area of world
is in India with 16% of shares in production.
Rajasthan contributes about 49% to the country's
total mustard production, followed by Uttar
pradesh(11%), Haryana(11%), Madhya pradesh(11%),
Gujarat(6%), West Bengal(5%), and other districts(7%)
4. Land selection
oilseed brassica crops can be grown
under wide range of soil conditions varying
from sandy loam to clay loam soils but thrive
best on light loam soils. It could not tolerate
water logging and heavy clayey soils. Plants
can tolerate moderate salinity reasonably well
but a soil having neutral
pH is ideal for proper growth and development.
5. Land preparation :
The ﬁeld should be given a deep ploughing soon
after the kharif crop in the middle of september.
Thereafter, it may be ploughed 3-4 times with country
plough followed by planking after each ploughing.
Weeds and stubbles should be removed from the
6. Seeds and sowing :
Maintenance of optimum plant population is essential for getting
good harvests. The seed rate depending on type of crop varies
4 –10kg/ha : line sowing
7kg/ha : broadcasting sowing
The normal spacing is...
Row to Row : 30cm (Toria, gobhi, sarson, yellowsarson,
brownsarson, and taramira) and 45cm(Indian mustard, karan rai);
Plant to plant : 15-20 cm. Though it varies from state to state.
7. Seed treatment :
The seed should be treated with 6g bavistin /kg seeds,
2.5g imidacloprid/kg seed and 40g biofertilizers
(azotobacter +PSB)/kg seed before sowing to control
fungal seed borne disease, insects(cut worm, painted bug,
leaf minor) and enhance nutrient use eﬃciency. An
integrated disease management strategy for white-rust
affected areas to control leaf and head phases of the rust
includes seed treatment with apron 35D@6g/kg of seed.
8. Time of sowing :
The normal/optimum date of sowing recommended for the region must be
adopted for the best results.
Mustard requires higher temperature for vegetative phases (30-32 degrees c max
and 20-22 degrees c min) and cool temperature and clear sky during reproductive
phase. Frost and cloudy weather during ﬂowering time adversely affect activities
of honey bees and causes various biotic stresses to the crops.
9. Source of seed :
Obtain nucleus/breeders/foundation seed
from source approved by a seed
Sowing practices :
Under dryland conditions, seed should be
sown in furrows with ridge seeder for maintaining a
perfect crop stand and better conservation of
moisture. While sowing care should be taken that
the seed does not come in contact with drilled
fertilizer as it affects germination. The should be
sown 4-5 cm deep, whereas fertilizer should be
drilled at 7-10cm depth. To ensure good
germination & early seedling vigour , seed must be
soaked in water before sowing. This is best done by
covering the seeds with moist gunny bag or directly
with damp earth overnight.
11. Manures and Fertilizers
Mustard responds well both to organic
and inorganic manures.
FYM : 15-20 tonnes/ha;at the time of ﬁeld
N : P : K(kg/ha)
80-100 : 40-50 : 40-50.
Half dose of nitrogen and full doses of
rest fertilizers should be applied basal at
last ploughing or through ferti-seed drill.
Remaining nitrogen should be at the time
of ﬁrst irrigation.
15. Anthesis and Flowering in mustard
4 ﬂowers with 6 stamens : 4 tall and 2 short.
Worldwide there are 375 genera and 3200
species. About 55 genera are found in North America.
Herbs with alternate, simpl leaves
Inﬂorescencs commonly : Raceme.
Flower buds that open next day are selected
and the remainder of the bud and ﬂowers and ﬂowering
branches are removed
19. Intercultural Operations :
One hand weeding and thinning at 15-20 days after
sowing is helpful in controlling the weeds and
ensuring better yield levels.
20. Water Management
Mustard requires about
30-40 cm of water and the
consumptive use of water
varies from 200-300 mm.
In general, mustard crop
requires 2 irrigations, ﬁrst
at branching stage (30
DAS) and the second at
pod formation stage
(60-65DAS)are critical for
21. WEED CONTROL :
Under rainfed conditions, one hand weeding 25DAS,
while under irrigated conditions, 2 hand weeding
25-40DAS for effective weed control
pre-planting incorporation of ﬂuchloralin @1kg/ha or
pre-emergence application of pendimethalin @1kg/
ha are quite effective in controlling weeds.
22. Insects and Disease Management
Sawﬂy : Dusting of 5%
malathian dust @20kg/ha
or spraying of
water, about 600litres
water/ha would be required)
Mustard aphid : spray of
metasystox 25 EC or rogor
23. Roguing and Field Inspection :
All the off-type plants, easily distinguishable on the
basis of plant characteristics, and other species plants
must be removed before ﬂowering to ensure pure
Remaining off-types, if any distinguishable on the
basis of siliqua characteristics should be removed
1st inspection : before ﬂower initiation.
2nd inspection : pod formation stage.
3rd inspection : at maturity.
If the % or no. Of off type plants are less or equal
to the given standards at the time of 3rd inspection, it
is accepted for seed production.
24. Field standards
A .General requirements
Foundation : self-incompatible types –200m
Foundation : self-compatible types-100m
Certiﬁed : self-incompatible types- 100m
Certiﬁed : self-compatible type- 50m
B .Speciﬁc requirements
Off types : 0.10%(foundation)
Objectionable weed plants :
25. Seed standards
Other crop seeds(maximum)
26. Harvesting and Threshing
Usually mustard crops are harvested as soon as the pods turn
yellowish and moisture content of the seed is around 40%. The
crop should be harvested preferably in the morning hours, when
the pods are slightly damp with night dew to minimize the
shattering losses. Bundles of the harvested plants are staked
and dried in the sun for a few days.
Threshing is done by the usual method of threshing by bullocks
or running a tractor over the dried plants. Seeds are separated
by winnowing. Moisture content of the seed must be less than
8%at the storage time. Then a sample of seed is taken to seed
testing laboratory for the examination of seed standards.
28. Yield :
Under normal conditions, Mustard yields 2.0-2.5
Storage : drying is recommended to ensure safe,
long-term seed storage. drying should not exceed 65
degrees c air temperature or 45 degrees c seed
temperature. It is important to remember that
mustard seed id denser than cereal seed and that it
will require 2 to 3times more static pressure to force
the air through the crop.
29. Recent research works on MUSTARD :
Mustard and its uses in Ayurveda.
Combining ability and Heterosis for seed yield & its
components in Indian Mustard .
Genetic diversity analysis of yellow mustard.
Effects of irrigation schedules and nutrient levels in