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Lucknow pact & the Morley Minto Reforms

This presentation is about the Lucknow Pact, which was held in 1916 between Muslim League, and the Morley-Minto Reforms, which were in 1906.

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Lucknow pact & the Morley Minto Reforms

  1. 1. BY NOOR FATIMA 9-T HISTORY  LUCKNOW PACT & THE MORLEY-MINTO REFORMS.
  2. 2. MORLEY-MINTO REFORMS [1909]
  3. 3. BACKGROUND  By 1909, great political consciousness was seen amongst the Indians.  Political parties , like Congress & Muslim League, had emerged.  British were affected by these parties.  All previous British attempts failed & they realized that in order to introduce new reforms they need to impoverish the grievances of the Indians, they need to cater these two well-known political parties.
  4. 4. LORD JOHN MORLEY  Born on 24th December 1838  Secretary of State for India.  Died on 23rd September 1923.  One of the chief leaders of the reforms of 1909.  Was known as “Viscount Morley of Blackburn”.
  5. 5. LORD MINTO  Viceroy of India, replacing Lord Curzon in 1905.  Grandson of the former general of Governor-general of India.  Lord Minto had two Assassination attempts before he became Viceroy.
  6. 6. REFORMS  Lord Morley announced that his government wanted to introduce new reforms for India.  In it, locals were to be given more powers in the legislative affairs.  A series of correspondences started between Lord Minto & Lord Morley.  A committee was appointed by the government of India to propose a scheme of reforms.  This Act of 1909 was passed by the British Parliament & is commonly know as “Morley-Minto Reforms”.
  7. 7. MAIN POINTS OF THE REFORMS  The number of the members of the Legislative Council at the Center was increased from 16 to 60.  The number of the members of the Provincial Legislatives was also increased. It was fixed as 50 in the provinces of Bengal, Madras and Bombay, and for the rest of the provinces it was 30.  Right of separate electorate was given to the Muslims.  At the Center, official members were to form the majority but in provinces non-official members would be in majority .
  8. 8.  The members of the Legislative Councils were permitted to discuss the budgets, suggest the amendments and even to vote on them.  The Secretary of State for India was empowered to increase the number of the Executive Councils of Madras and Bombay from two to four.  Two Indians were nominated to the Council of the Secretary of State for Indian Affairs. The Governor General was empowered to nominate one Indian member to his Executive Council.
  9. 9. REACTION OF CONGRESS AND LEAGUE CONGRESS’ REACTION:- Congress was divided into two factions/groups [moderate & extremist]. The moderate agreed with the Reforms saying that it has saved the country from anarchy and chaos. On the other hand, the extremist were not in favor of these Reforms.
  10. 10. MUSLIM LEAGUE’S REACTION:- On the contrary, the All India Muslim League welcomed the council act of 1909. The League passed a resolution, which offered cooperation with the government for the success of the Reforms, in the Delhi session on 1910.
  11. 11. CONCLUSION  In spite of all its demerits and flaws, the Reforms contributed and offered space for political development. The inclusion of the Indians in Councils was a great experience for the Indians. They became part of Legislative Councils.  In the constitutional evolution of India, the Act of 1909 was a decided step and opened the door for real politics.
  12. 12. LUCKNOW PACT [1916]
  13. 13. BACKGROUND  After joining the Muslim League in 1913 the Quaid-e- Azam started clearing the path of Hindu Muslim Unity. in 1915 the annual meeting of Congress and Muslim League were held together at Bombay because of his efforts. At last in 1916 once more the meeting of both parties were held together at Lucknow where a written agreement was signed between the two parties. Which in the history of sub- continent is called the Lucknow Pact 1916.
  14. 14. MUSLIM LEAGUE  Political party established in 1906.  Aimed for the establishment of a separate Muslim nation.  Fought for Muslim rights in the Sub-Continent.  Wanted a separate identity For Muslims.
  15. 15. QUAID-E-AZAM  Born in 25th December 1876 in Karachi.  Lawyer, Politician & founder of Pakistan.  Leader of Muslim League.  First Governor-General of Pakistan.  Died in 11th September 1948.
  16. 16. PACT  In 1913, a new group of Muslim leaders entered the folds of the Muslim League with the aim of bridging the gulf between the Muslims and the Hindus.  The Muslim League changed its major objective and decided to join hands with the Congress in order to put pressure on the British government.  The annual sessions of the Congress and the League in their annual session held at Lucknow on December 29 and December 31, 1916 respectively.
  17. 17. MAIN CLAUSES  There shall be self-government in India.  Muslims should be given one-third representation in the central government.  There should be separate electorates for all the communities until a community demanded for joint electorates.  The number of the members of Central Legislative Council should be increased to 150.  Members of Legislative Council should themselves elect their president.
  18. 18.  Half of the members of Imperial Legislative Council should be Indians.  Indian Council must be abolished.  Out of two Under Secretaries, one should be Indian.  The Executive should be separated from the Judiciary.
  19. 19. CONCLUSION  The agreement was very outstanding and its dreams were fulfilled the whole political scenario of Indian subcontinent were different. But, it was impossible to the parties to make a united India. The Hindus and Muslims are two different nation and they have different culture and civilization. Therefore the Lucknow Pact failed to make a long lasting cooperation in India among the Muslims and Hindus.
  20. 20. WE ARE A NATION OF WITH O UR DISTINCT CULTURE AND CIVILIZATION, LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE, ART & ARCHITECTURE, NAMES & NOMENCALATURE, SENSE OF VALUES & PROPORTIONS, LEGAL LAWS & MORAL CODES, COSTOMS & CALENDARS, HISTORY & TRADITION, IN SHORT WE HAVE OUR OWN DISTINCT OUTLOOK ON LIFE & OF LIFE, BY ALL CANONS OF INTERNATIONAL LAW WE ARE A NATION!

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