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By 1909, great political consciousness was seen
amongst the Indians.
Political parties , like Congress & Muslim League,
British were affected by these parties.
All previous British attempts failed & they realized
that in order to introduce new reforms they need to
impoverish the grievances of the Indians, they need
to cater these two well-known political parties.
LORD JOHN MORLEY
Born on 24th December 1838
Secretary of State for India.
Died on 23rd September 1923.
One of the chief leaders of the
reforms of 1909.
Was known as “Viscount
Morley of Blackburn”.
Viceroy of India, replacing
Lord Curzon in 1905.
Grandson of the former general
of Governor-general of India.
Lord Minto had two
before he became Viceroy.
Lord Morley announced that his government wanted
to introduce new reforms for India.
In it, locals were to be given more powers in the
A series of correspondences started between Lord
Minto & Lord Morley.
A committee was appointed by the government of
India to propose a scheme of reforms.
This Act of 1909 was passed by the British
Parliament & is commonly know as “Morley-Minto
MAIN POINTS OF THE REFORMS
The number of the members of the Legislative
Council at the Center was increased from 16 to 60.
The number of the members of the Provincial
Legislatives was also increased. It was fixed as 50 in
the provinces of Bengal, Madras and Bombay, and
for the rest of the provinces it was 30.
Right of separate electorate was given to the
At the Center, official members were to form the
majority but in provinces non-official members
would be in majority .
The members of the Legislative Councils were
permitted to discuss the budgets, suggest the
amendments and even to vote on them.
The Secretary of State for India was empowered to
increase the number of the Executive Councils of
Madras and Bombay from two to four.
Two Indians were nominated to the Council of the
Secretary of State for Indian Affairs. The Governor
General was empowered to nominate one Indian
member to his Executive Council.
REACTION OF CONGRESS AND LEAGUE
Congress was divided into two factions/groups
[moderate & extremist]. The moderate agreed with the
Reforms saying that it has saved the country from
anarchy and chaos. On the other hand, the extremist
were not in favor of these Reforms.
MUSLIM LEAGUE’S REACTION:-
On the contrary, the All India Muslim League
welcomed the council act of 1909. The League passed a
resolution, which offered cooperation with the
government for the success of the Reforms, in the
Delhi session on 1910.
In spite of all its demerits and flaws, the Reforms
contributed and offered space for political
development. The inclusion of the Indians in
Councils was a great experience for the Indians. They
became part of Legislative Councils.
In the constitutional evolution of India, the Act of
1909 was a decided step and opened the door for real
After joining the Muslim League in 1913 the Quaid-e-
Azam started clearing the path of Hindu Muslim
Unity. in 1915 the annual meeting of Congress and
Muslim League were held together at Bombay
because of his efforts. At last in 1916 once more the
meeting of both parties were held together
at Lucknow where a written agreement was signed
between the two parties. Which in the history of sub-
continent is called the Lucknow Pact 1916.
Political party established
Aimed for the establishment
of a separate Muslim nation.
Fought for Muslim rights
in the Sub-Continent.
Wanted a separate identity
Born in 25th December
1876 in Karachi.
Lawyer, Politician &
founder of Pakistan.
Leader of Muslim League.
Died in 11th September
In 1913, a new group of Muslim leaders entered the
folds of the Muslim League with the aim of bridging
the gulf between the Muslims and the Hindus.
The Muslim League changed its major objective and
decided to join hands with the Congress in order to
put pressure on the British government.
The annual sessions of the Congress and the League
in their annual session held at Lucknow on
December 29 and December 31, 1916 respectively.
There shall be self-government in India.
Muslims should be given one-third representation in
the central government.
There should be separate electorates for all the
communities until a community demanded for joint
The number of the members of Central Legislative
Council should be increased to 150.
Members of Legislative Council should themselves
elect their president.
Half of the members of Imperial Legislative Council
should be Indians.
Indian Council must be abolished.
Out of two Under Secretaries, one should be Indian.
The Executive should be separated from the
The agreement was very outstanding and its dreams
were fulfilled the whole political scenario of Indian
subcontinent were different. But, it was impossible
to the parties to make a united India. The Hindus
and Muslims are two different nation and they have
different culture and civilization. Therefore the
Lucknow Pact failed to make a long lasting
cooperation in India among the Muslims and
WE ARE A NATION OF WITH O UR DISTINCT CULTURE
AND CIVILIZATION, LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE,
ART & ARCHITECTURE, NAMES & NOMENCALATURE,
SENSE OF VALUES & PROPORTIONS, LEGAL LAWS &
MORAL CODES, COSTOMS & CALENDARS, HISTORY &
TRADITION, IN SHORT WE HAVE OUR OWN DISTINCT
OUTLOOK ON LIFE & OF LIFE, BY ALL CANONS OF
INTERNATIONAL LAW WE ARE A NATION!