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Domestic Violence PPT final

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Domestic Violence PPT final

  1. 1. Domestic Violence Erica Aler, Christina Chavez, Stacey Chung, Angela Hickman, Nishita Patolia
  2. 2. Domestic Violence “We define domestic violence as a pattern of abusive behavior in any relationship that is used by one partner to gain or maintain power and control over another intimate partner. Domestic violence can be physical, sexual, emotional, economic, or psychological actions or threats of actions that influence another person. This includes any behaviors that intimidate, manipulate, humiliate, isolate, frighten, terrorize, coerce, threaten, blame, hurt, injure, or wound someone” (USDOJ: Domestic Violence, 2013).
  3. 3. Population Chosen ▪ 40% of Domestic Violence victims are men ▪ Our focus is on the 60% of women ▪ According to “the United States Department of Justice estimates that 4.5 million women are violently victimized in the United States every year” (Santana, 2004).
  4. 4. Vulnerable Population “Domestic violence can happen to anyone regardless of race, age, sexual orientation, religion, or gender. Domestic violence affects people of all socioeconomic backgrounds and education levels. Domestic violence occurs in both opposite-sex and same-sex relationships and can happen to intimate partners who are married, living together, or dating” (USDOJ: Domestic Violence, 2013).
  5. 5. Background: Types of Abuse Physical Abuse Stalking Emotional Abuse Economic Abuse Sexual Abuse Psychological Abuse Spiritual Abuse
  6. 6. Effect on Public Health ▪ Clinical data indicate that 22-37% of emergency room visits made by women are for injuries sustained from relationship violence and 75% of those women will be re-victimized (Santana, 2004). ▪ Increased health problems such as injury, chronic pain, gastrointestinal, STDs, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder are well documented by controlled research in abused women in various settings (Lancet, 2002). ▪ In addition to the human costs, research also shows that violence has huge economic costs, including the direct costs to health, legal, police and other services (WHO, 2011).
  7. 7. World Wide ▪ More common in low socioeconomic families ▪ WHO would like to have a primary, secondary and tertiary level of prevention: including both services that respond to the needs of women living with or who have experienced violence and interventions to prevent violence. ▪ Limited research is available ▪ This is an area of health where further research is needed to address the most effective approach.
  8. 8. California ▪ Immigrants – fear of being deported if they report incident ▪ California law enforcement received 176,299 domestic violence-related calls in 2006. – Notes: 80,946 of the calls involved weapons, including firearms and knives. ▪ 43,911 people were arrested for domestic violence offenses in 2006. – Note: Of the 43,911 offenders, 80% were men and 20% were women. ▪ 134 homicides resulted from intimate partner violence in 2006. 110 of the victims were women and 24 were men. ▪ 9,213 forcible rapes were reported in California in 2006. ▪ In California, one forcible rape occurs every 56 minutes.
  9. 9. California According to the Attorney General’s report, the California criminal justice system is failing to enforce the state’s domestic violence laws. These failures include the following: •Courts failing to issue restraining orders •Restraining orders being issued, but not served •Prosecuting officers not fully utilizing community-based victims advocates •Batterers failing to attend court-ordered programs without repercussions •Lack of coordination of criminal justice agencies •The cost of intimate partner violence exceeds $5.8 billion each year • $4.1 billion of which is for direct medical and mental health services
  10. 10. Cultural Background Native Americans are victims of rape or sexual assault at more than double the rate of other racial groups. For Native American victims of violence, the offender was slightly more likely to be a stranger than an intimate partner, family member or acquaintance. Native Americans described the offender as an acquaintance in 34% of rapes/sexual assaults, and as an intimate partner or family member in 25% of sexual assaults.
  11. 11. Cultural Background Cont... African Americans, especially women, suffer deadly violence from family members at rates higher than other racial groups in the US. Black females experienced intimate partner violence at a rate 35% higher than that of white females, and about 22 times the rate of women of other races.
  12. 12. Cultural Background Cont... The rate of intimate partner violence for Hispanic women, like women of other races, peaked at ages 20-24. The victimization rates of Hispanic women peaked at lower levels than non-Hispanic women in every age group, but spread over a wider range of ages. 36% of all Hispanic report being severely abused in their lifetime.
  13. 13. Cultural Background Cont... Japanese study of a random sample of 211 Japanese immigrant women and Japanese American women in Los Angeles County conducted in 2005: 61% reported some form of physical, emotional, or sexual partner violence that they considered abusive - including culturally demeaning practices such as overturning a dining table, or throwing liquid at a woman. 52% reported having experienced physical violence during their lifetime. When the probability that some women who have not been victimized at the time of the interview, but may be abused at a later date is calculated, 57% of women are estimated to experience a partner's physical violence by age 49.
  14. 14. Cultural Background Cont... Asian & Pacific Islanders •12.8% of Asian and Pacific Islander women reported experiencing physical assault by an intimate partner at least once during their lifetime. •The rate of physical assault was lower than those reported by Whites (21.3%), African-Americans (26.3%), Hispanic, of any race, (21.2%); mixed race (27.0%), American Indians and Alaskan Natives (30.7%). The low rate for Asian and Pacific Islander women may be attributed to underreporting.
  15. 15. Psychosocial Concerns • Low self esteem • Emotional and economic dependency • Continued faith and hope abuser will "stop" • Depression and Stress disorders and/or psychosomatic complaints • Accepts blame and guilt for violence • Socially isolated • Believes social myths about battering, believes in stereotypical sex roles • Has poor self-image • Contemplates or attempts suicide or self-harms • Participation in pecking-order battering • Appears nervous or anxious • May defend any criticism of abuser. May have repeatedly left or considered leaving the relationship.
  16. 16. Economic Concerns “It’s important to note that domestic violence crosses all socioeconomic classes, professions, education levels, religious and ethnic groups. It’s not just the poor and uneducated.” In fact, experts say, when domestic violence happens to people of a higher income and educational level the stakes can be much higher and the shame much greater.
  17. 17. Health Concerns ▪ Chronic pain, gastrointestinal disorders, psychosomatic symptoms, eating problems ▪ Mental health problems (anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression) ▪ Increased risk of unplanned or early pregnancies and sexually transmitted disease ▪ Increased risk of substance abuses
  18. 18. Prevention and Control ▪ Primary – educational outreach to community groups, churches, schools. ▪ Secondary – routine assessments for domestic violence at standard medical visits (in pregnancy, especially). ▪ Tertiary – increase levels of services required by battered women (shelters, legal protection, emergency hotlines, etc)
  19. 19. Role of the PH Nurse ▪ Primary: Education about Domestic Violence ▪ Secondary: Routine screening of women for domestic violence ▪ Tertiary: Accept women’s decision for action or for lack of action. – Remain supportive of the family, and pursue alternative methods to solve the problem.
  20. 20. Core Functions ▪ Assessment: – Assess the immediate safety needs of the victim – Assess the pattern and history of abuse – Assess the connections between the domestic violence and the patient’s health issues ▪ Policy: – Domestic Violence Prevention Act – Penal Code ▪ Evaluation: – Listen and respond to safety issues the victim may have – Make referrals to local resources
  21. 21. Agencies 1. Orange County Domestic Violence Assistance Programs 2. Women’s Transitional Living Center 3. Laura’s House
  22. 22. Additional Resources ▪ 24-hour hotlines ▪ Counseling services ▪ Victim services and community resources ▪ Emergency shelters ▪ Victim/witness Assistance ▪ Posters/flyers
  23. 23. References The Advocates for Human Rights. (2013, August). Health Effects of Domestic Violence. Retrieved from www.stopvaw.org/health_effects_of_domestic_violence ChildWelfare Information Gateway (June 2014). https://www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/usermanuals/domesticviolence/domesticviolencec.cfm DomesticViolence. (n.d.). Orange County Sheriff's Department. Retrieved July 27, 2014, from http://media.ocgov.com/gov/sheriff/about/in DomesticViolenceAssessment and Intervention provided by the FamilyViolence Prevention Fund. (n.d.). Domestic Violence Assessment and Intervention provided by the Family Violence Prevention Fund. Retrieved July 27, 2014, from http://socialworkers.org/pressroom/events DomesticViolence:The Role of the Health Care Professional. (n.d.). Domestic Violence:The Role of the Health Care Professional. Retrieved July 27, 2014, from http://quod.lib.umich.edu/m/mfr/4919087.0002.105/-- domestic-violence-the-role-of-the-health-care-professional?rgn=main;view=fulltext
  24. 24. References Family Law: DomesticViolence Prevention Act forms. (n.d.). courts.ca.gov. Retrieved July 27, 2014, from http://www.courts.ca.gov/documents/w09-05.pdf Hagion, C. (2001). Preventing Domestic Violence. Retrieved from http://www.the-ripple- effect.info/pdf/PreventingDomesticViolence.pdf CA Codes (pen:). (n.d.). CA Codes (pen:). Retrieved July 27, 2014, from http://www.leginfo.ca.gov/cgi- bin/displaycode?section=pen&group=00001-01000&file=240-248 NCADV (n.d.). . Retrieved July 28, 2014, from http://www.ncadv.org/files/California%20revised%202.09.pdf Programs & Services. (n.d.). Laura's House. Retrieved July 27, 2014, from http://www.laurashouse.org/shelter.html Santana, I. DomesticViolence In Hispanics InThe Southeastern United States: A Survey And Needs Analysis. Journal of FamilyViolence, 107-115.
  25. 25. References Violence against women: an urgent public health priority. (n.d.).WHO. Retrieved July 28, 2014, from http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/89/1/10-085217/en WTLC 24-Hour Hotline 877-531-5522. (n.d.). Transitional Living Program. Retrieved July 27, 2014, from http://www.wtlc.org/transitional-housing.html
  26. 26. Physical Abuse: Hitting, slapping, shoving, grabbing, pinching, biting, hair pulling, etc. This type of abuse also includes denying a partner medical care or forcing alcohol / drug use. Go Back
  27. 27. Sexual Abuse: Coercing or attempting to coerce any sexual contact or behavior without consent. Sexual abuse includes, but is certainly not limited to, marital rape, attacks on sexual parts of the body, forcing sex after physical violence has occurred, or treating one in a sexually demeaning manner. Go Back
  28. 28. Spiritual Abuse: using religious or spiritual beliefs to manipulate someone, preventing the partner from practicing their religious or spiritual beliefs, ridiculing the other person’s religious or spiritual beliefs, forcing the children to be reared in a faith that the partner has not agreed to. Go Back
  29. 29. Stalking: calling, following, harassing, spying on, leaving messages, unwanted e-mails and phone calls. Go Back
  30. 30. Emotional Abuse: Undermining an individual's sense of self- worth or self-esteem. This may include, but is not limited to constant criticism, diminishing one's abilities, name-calling, or damaging one's relationship with his or her children. Go Back
  31. 31. Economic Abuse: Is defined as making or attempting to make an individual financially dependent by maintaining total control over financial resources, withholding one's access to money, or forbidding one's attendance at school or employment. Go Back
  32. 32. Psychological Abuse: Elements of psychological abuse include - but are not limited to - causing fear by intimidation; threatening physical harm to self, partner, children, or partner's family or friends; destruction of pets and property; and forcing isolation from family, friends, or school and/or work. Go Back