3. 1)Groundwater is the underground water which
occurs in the saturated zone of earth surface.
2)Cracks and pores in existing rocks makes
this ground water reservoir.
3)Ground water utilized through wells and tube
4. 1)When two or more wells are constructed near
to each other and their cones of depression
interact they are said to be interfere.
2)Due to interference of wells discharge gets
decreases among these well.
5. 1)Developing of artificial underground
reservoir by artificial recharging for storing
water underground called recharging of
2)It is quite advantages as compared with
3)Artificial recharging technique is under
intensive research and is being increasingly
used in france, Germany etc.
6. There are three methods of groundwater
In this method water is spreads over the
surface of permeable open land and pits from
where it is directly infiltrates to shallow
7. In this method water is stored in shallow
ditches or spread over open area by
constructing low earth dykes.
Rate of recharging depends upon permeability
of spreaded area and depth of water stored.
Also some chemicals are added in soil to
increase rate of recharging.
8. In this method water is injected into the bore
Water is fed into recharge wells by gravity or
pumped under pressure.
Ordinary wells also perform the work of
recharging water during off season.
9. In this method water table gradient is
increased from source of recharge.
In this method special type of wells are
constructed near the banks of river having
The percolating water is collected from radial
collector and the discharge as recharge in to
lower level aquifer ‘B’ as shown in fig.
10. 1)Rise of water table is called water-logging.
2)An agricultural land is said to be water-
logged when its productivity gets affected by
high water table.
3)Productivity gets affected when root zone of
plants gets flooded with water.
11. 1)OVER AND INTENSIVE IRRIGATION
Policy of intensive irrigation increases water
To avoid this policy of extensive irrigation
should be used.
2)SEEPAGE OF WATER FROM ADJOINING HIGH
Water from adjoining high lands may seep
into subsoil of affected land and may raise
12. 3) SEEPAGE OF WATER THROUGH CANALS:
water may seep through beds and sides of
canals, reservoirs etc. which increase water table.
Due to impervious strata water table rises
from upstream side.
5)INADEQUATE MATURAL DRAINAGE:
Soil having less permeable substratum below
pervious soil will not able to drain water deep into
ground causes high water table.
13. 6)INADEQUATE SURFACE DRAINAGE:
If proper drainage is not provided then the
storm water constantly percolates and rise level
of water table.
7) EXCESSIVE RAIN:
Excessive rainfall may create temporary water
8) IRREGULAR OR FLAT TOPOGRAPHY :
In steep terrain water is drained quickly but in
flat terrain drainage is poor which raise water
14. Normal cultivation operations can not be
carried out easily in wet soil.
Free water may rise above the surface of the
land, making cultivation operation impossible
Certain water loving plants like grasses,
weeds etc grow fastly in water logged land
and affects the growth of the crops.
Water logging also leads salinity.
15. 1. Lining of canals and water course:
lining of canals reduces seepages of water.
2. Reducing the intensity of irrigation :
in area where there is possibility of water
intensity of irrigation should be reduced.
3. By introducing crop rotation:
certain crops require more water and others
less water so by rotation of crops avoid high
16. 4. Optimum use of water:
Certain fixed amount of irrigation gives best
results. less than and more than that
5. Providing intercepting drains:
Intercepting drains along canals should be
provided which prevent seeping canal water
from reaching the water logged area.
6. Provision of efficient drainage system:
A good drainage system provided for drain
17. 7. Improving natural drainage of area:
to reduce percolation of water the water
should not be stand for longer period.
8. Introducing to lift irrigation:
it helps in lowering the water table through
18. In irrigated area two types of drainage can
2. SURFACE DRAINAGE:
Surface drainage is the removal of excess
water by using and construction open
ditches, field drains, land grading, and
Open drains which used to remove water
from excess irrigated area and storm water
are broad and shallow called shallow
19. It carry runoff to outlet drains which large
enough to carry flood water these drains
called deep surface drains.
Land grading includes continuous land slope
towards field drains.
Shallow surface drains are trapezoidal in
cross section and constructed to carry normal
Deep surface drains are constructed to carry
storm water plus excess irrigated water from
tile drains .
23. Subsurface drains are required for soils with
poor internal drainage and high water table.
Construction of subsurface drainage is
Tile drains are pipe drains and made up of
porous material circular in cross section.
Diameter may vary from 10 to 30 cm.
These drains laid below ground level and
connected with each other by open joints.
The trenches are back filled with sand and
26. The tile drains should not place below less
When it situated below les permeable strata
then they are surrounded by graded gravels
called ‘Envelope filters’.
It prevent inflow of soil into drain and
increases effective tile diameter.
27. 2)Outlets for tile drains:
Water from tile drain is discharged into some
bigger drains called surface drains.
The water from tile drains may be discharged
by gravity or pumping.
a) Gravity outlets:
29. Tile drains are
aligned in different
Various types of
layout of tile
drains are shown
30. NATURAL SYSTEM:
This system is
adopted in rolling
isolated areas is
31. GRID IRON SYSTEM:
In this system
laterals are provided
only on one side of
main. It is adopted
when land is
32. HERRING BONE
in this system
laterals are joint the
main from each side
alternatively. It is
adopted when main
is laid depression.
33. DOUBLE MAIN
it has two mains
with separate laterals
for each main. It is
depression is wide.
34. INTERCEPTING TILE
In this system
there is no laterals
drains. A main is
provided at toe of
slope. It is adopted
when main source
of drainage is from
Irrigation Engg. And Hydraulic Structure by
S. K. Garg