2. Parts of Speech
Traditional grammar usually
classifies words based on eight
parts of speech: nouns,
adjectives, adverbs, verbs,
conjunctions, and interjections.
blocks of a
• Luisa read.
• Luisa read a book.
• Luisa read a book
• Luisa read a book to him
• Wow! Luisa wrote and
read a book to him
4. Why should we know the parts of speech?
To understand grammar explanations.
To use the right word form in the right place.
To find the correct word in the dictionary.
5. Knowing the
of speech can
g of a text.
It can help you to…
- infer a word’s meaning
based on the context
- determine the word’s
importance within the
- have clues to see how words
relate to each other and make
sense of what you are reading.
• A noun is a naming
word. It names a
person, place, thing,
idea, living creature,
quality, or action.
theatre, box, thought,
tree, kindness, arrival
• A verb is a word
which describes an
something) or a state
Examples: walk, talk,
think, believe, live,
like, want, am, was
• An adjective is a word that
describes a noun. It tells you
something about the noun.
Examples: big, yellow, thin,
amazing, beautiful, quick,
• An adverb is a word which
usually describes a verb, an
adjective, or another adverb. It
tells you how something is
done. It may also tell you when
or where something happened.
Examples: slowly, intelligently,
well, yesterday, tomorrow, here,
10. The Adverbs and the Adjectives in English
• Adjectives tell us something about a person or a thing.
Adjectives can modify nouns (girl) or pronouns (she).
• Adverbs tell us in what way someone does something. Adverbs
can modify verbs (drive), adjectives or other adverbs.
Mandy is a careful girl. Mandy drives carefully.
She is very careful. She drives carefully.
Mandy is a careful driver. This sentence is
about Mandy, the driver, so use
Mandy drives carefully. This sentence is
about her way of driving, so use
13. Not all words ending in -ly are adverbs:
adjectives ending in -ly: friendly, silly, lonely, ugly
nouns ending in -ly: ally, bully, Italy, melancholy
verbs ending in -ly: apply, rely, supply
There is no adverb for an adjective ending in -ly.
14. How do you know whether to use an
adjective or an adverb?
John is a careful driver.
In this sentences we say how John is: careful.
If we want to say that the careful John did not drive the usual way yesterday – we have to
use the adverb:
John did not drive carefully yesterday.
Here is another example:
• I am a slow walker. (How am I? → slow → adjective)
• I walk slowly. (How do I walk? → slowly → adverb)