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Lecture 5_M08_KARR120_10E_PPT_C08.ppt

  1. Book Title Edition Chapter 1 Lecture © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 8 Injuries to the Face, Eye, and Throat Slide Presentation prepared by Randall Benner, M.Ed., NREMT-P
  2. Learning Objectives • Describe the assessment and first aid care for a range of eye injuries including foreign or impaled objects, chemical burns, and eyeball, eyelid and eye socket injuries. • Describe the first aid care for injuries to the face, mouth, jaw, nose, and throat, including dental injuries. © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  3. Injuries to the Eye • True ocular emergencies tend to be urgent. • Other common, and less serious, eye injuries occur more frequently. • Can involve underlying bone and soft tissues. • Because of the potential for permanent damage, never assume an eye injury is minor until confirmed. • All eye injuries should receive immediate medical attention. • Almost half of all serious eye injuries occur in the home. © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  4. Occurrence of Eye Injuries © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  5. Assessment for Eye Injuries • Check eye sockets, lids, and eyeballs for bruising, swelling, laceration, or tenderness. • Check for redness, pus, and foreign objects. • Check pupils for size, shape, evenness, and reaction to light. • Check eye movements in all directions; look for abnormal or paralyzed gaze, or pain with movement. © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  6. Basic First Aid Care for Eye Injuries • Never put direct pressure on the eyeball. • Don’t irrigate except for chemical burns or foreign objects. • Don’t put salves (ointments) or medicine in the eye. • Don’t remove blood or blood clots. © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  7. Basic First Aid Care for Eye Injuries • Don’t try to force the eyelid open except to irrigate. • Have the victim lie down and stay still. • Limit use of the uninjured eye. • Give the victim nothing by mouth. • Get a physician’s evaluation. © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  8. Foreign Objects in the Eye • If not removed, can cause significant damage. • Pain is often severe. • Light may cause further irritation. • Never let a victim rub the affected eye. • Ask the victim to blink or cry to help remove objects. • Attempt to remove only objects that are not on or in the cornea. • Notify EMS. © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  9. Removing Particles From White of the Eye © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  10. Eye Socket Injuries • Be aware that Facial injury may also cause damage to skull bones. • When an eye socket has been fractured, always assume there is also head injury. • Signs and symptoms include – Double vision – Decreased vision – Loss of feeling – Nasal discharge – Paralysis of upward gaze © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  11. Eyelid Injuries • Include black eyes, burns, and lacerations • Due to the profusion of blood vessels, eyelid lacerations can cause profuse bleeding. • Always also check for eyeball injury. • Control bleeding and protect injured tissue and underlying structures. • Activate the EMS system. © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  12. Eyeball Injuries • Include bruising, cuts, foreign object damage, and abrasions • Deep lacerations can cut the cornea; if so, eyeball contents may spill out. • Severe blunt trauma can rupture the eyeball. • Signs and symptoms include an irregularly- shaped eyeball, and blood in the front chamber of the eye. © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  13. Chemical Burns of the Eye • Eye burns represent a dire emergency • Permanent damage can occur within seconds • The first ten minutes after a chemical burn injury can determine the final outcome • Burning and tissue damage continue while any substance remains in the eye • Signs and symptoms include irritation and swelling; redness; blurred vision; extreme pain; irritated skin around the eye © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  14. Light Burns of the Eye • Results from looking at ultraviolet light sources, tanning lamps, arc welders, etc. • Extreme pain follows one to six hours after exposure. • Victim should see an ophthalmologist. • Move the victim from light sources; keep in dark rooms. • Cover both eyes with moist gauze pads. • Discourage the victim from rubbing their eyes. © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  15. Impaled Objects or Extruded Eyeball • Should be removed only by a physician • Stabilize the object to prevent movement. • If serious, the eyeball may be forced out of its socket; if so, do not attempt to replace. • Activate the EMS immediately. • Treat the victim for shock. © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  16. Injuries to the Face • Always suspect additional spinal injuries of the neck and back. • Establish an airway if needed; inspect the mouth and remove fragments. • Immobilize the neck. • Control bleeding. • Cover injured nerves, tendons or blood vessels with moist, sterile dressing. • Inspect inside and outside of the cheeks and teeth. • Do not use force to stop bleeding; apply gentle pressure or just enough to stop bleeding. © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  17. Face and Jaw Fractures © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  18. Injuries to the Cheek and Nose • The only time to remove an impaled facial object is when it is in the cheek, has penetrated through, and is loose; this presents an airway obstruction danger. • Nose injuries are usually caused by blunt trauma; follow the same treatment guidelines as for other soft-tissue injuries. • Be careful to maintain an open airway; don’t allow blood to drain into the throat. • Best position for nose injury victims is usually sitting, leaning slightly forward. © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  19. Injuries to the Ear • Common, but rarely life-threatening • Sections may become severed • If so, treat the same as other soft-tissue injuries. • Generally, don’t probe the ear. • Never pack the ear to prevent canal bleeding; place a loose, clean dressing across ear opening; don’t apply pressure. • If you can see an embedded object, gently remove with tweezers. • Never irrigate to remove a foreign object; this will cause swelling and make removal harder. © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  20. Throat Injuries • Can be caused by blows, constriction, falls, cuts • If cut, major artery bleeding is a serious concern • Maintaining an open airway is critical. • Have the victim lie down to reduce the chance of air entering blood vessels. • Position the victim on her left side, and tilt her body downward at a 15 degree angle (head lower than legs). • Control bleeding. • Treat for shock. © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  21. Dental Emergencies • Rarely life threatening but can be very painful • Rapid first aid care can dramatically improve outcomes • In emergencies, the victim should see a dentist or oral surgeon promptly. • Check for and control bleeding. • Common problems include – Loose tooth – Broken tooth – Knocked-out tooth © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  22. Summary • Never try to remove a foreign object lodged in the cornea or main part of the eye. • For eyelid injuries, control bleeding but don’t apply pressure. • Irrigate chemical burns in eyes and seek immediate medical help. • With facial injuries, always suspect the possibility of additional spinal injury. • Top priority in treating victims of facial or jaw injury is to maintain an open airway. © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.