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Drug and Alcohol Abuse

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Drug and Alcohol Abuse

  1. 1. Drug & Alcohol Abuse Dr Neeta Gupta Practitioner Of CBT,REBT & EFT Associate Professor Department of Psychology DAV (PG) College Dehradun
  2. 2. Behavioural Risk Factorsinclude many things. Such as 1. Drug and Alcohol Use 2. Smoking Tobacco 3. Unsafe Sex Behaviour
  3. 3. Drug/Substance Abuse: The use of illegal drugs or the use of prescription or over-the-counter drugs for purposes other than those for which they are meant to be used, or in excessive amounts. Drug abuse and addiction, now both grouped as substance or drug use disorder is a condition characterized by a self-destructive pattern of using a substance that leads to significant problems and distress, which may include tolerance to or withdrawal from the substance.
  4. 4. DREs (Drug recognition Experts/Evaluators) classify drugs in one of seven categories: 1.Central nervous system (CNS) depressants 2.CNS stimulants 3.Hallucinogens 4.Dissociative anesthetics
  5. 5. 5.Narcotic analgesics 6.Inhalants 7.Cannabis Drugs from each of these categories can affect a person's central nervous system and impair a person's normal faculties, including a person's ability to safely operate a motor vehicle.
  6. 6. 1) Central Nervous System (CNS) Depressants CNS depressants slow down the operations of the brain and the body. Examples of CNS depressants include alcohol, barbiturates, anti-anxiety tranquilizers (e.g., Valium, Librium, Xanax, Prozac, and Thorazine), GHB.
  7. 7. 2) CNS Stimulants CNS stimulants accelerate the heart rate and elevate the blood pressure and "speed-up," or over- stimulate, the body. Examples of CNS stimulants include cocaine, "crack" cocaine, amphetamines
  8. 8. 3) Hallucinogens: Hallucinogens cause the user to perceive things differently than they actually are. Examples include LSD, peyote, psilocybin and MDMA (Ecstasy).
  9. 9. 4) Dissociative Anesthetics Dissociative anesthetics include drugs that inhibit pain by cutting off or dissociating the brain's perception of the pain. PCP, its analogs, and dextromethoraphan are examples of dissociative anesthetics.
  10. 10. 5) Narcotic Analgesics: Narcotic analgesics relieve pain, induce euphoria, and create mood changes in the user. Examples of narcotic analgesics include opium, codeine, heroin, demerol, morphine, methadone, and oxycontin.
  11. 11. 6) Inhalants: Inhalants include a wide variety of breathable substances that produce mind-altering results and effects. Examples of inhalants include Toluene, plastic cement, paint, gasoline, paint thinners, hair sprays, and various anesthetic gases.
  12. 12. 7) Cannabis: Cannabis is the scientific name for marijuana. The active ingredient in cannabis is delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC. This category includes cannabinoids and synthetics like Dronabinol.
  13. 13. Symptoms of a drug problem: It may include: 1. recurrent drug use that results in legal problems, 2. occurs in potentially dangerous situations. 3. interfere with important obligations, 4. results in social or relationship problems,
  14. 14. 5.tolerance, 6.withdrawal symptoms, 7.using a lot of the drug or for a long period of time, 8.persistent desire to use the drug, unsuccessful efforts to stop using the drug, 9. neglecting other aspects of life because of their drug use, and 10.spending inordinate amounts of time or energy getting, using, or recovering from the effects of the drug.
  15. 15. While the specific effects of drugs on the brain can somewhat vary depending on the drug that is being used, virtually every substance that is abused has an effect on the executive- functioning areas of the brain. Drugs particularly affect the brain's ability to inhibit actions that the person would otherwise delay or prevent.
  16. 16. Addiction is a disease that affects our brain and behaviour. When someone is addicted to drugs, he can’t resist the urge to use them, no matter how much harm the drugs may cause. The earlier one gets treatment for drug addiction, the more likely he is likely to avoid some of the more dire consequences of the disease. Drug addiction isn’t about just heroin, cocaine, or other illegal drugs. One can get addicted to alcohol, nicotine, sleep and anti-anxiety medications, and other legal substances as well.
  17. 17. Addiction is when a person can’t stop. Not when it puts his health in danger. Not when it causes financial, emotional, and other problems for him or his loved ones. That urge to get and use drugs can fill up every minute of the day, even if he wants to quit. Addiction also is different from physical dependence or tolerance. In cases of physical dependence, withdrawal symptoms happen when you suddenly stop a substance. Tolerance happens when a dose of a substance becomes less effective over time.
  18. 18. Drug abuse is an intense desire to obtain increasing amounts of a particular substance. Drug dependence is the body’s physical need, or addiction, to a specific agent. Over the long term, this dependence results in physical harm which causes tolerance. Thus it creates a vicious cycle.
  19. 19. DRUG Drug Dependence Drug Abuse
  20. 20. Psychological-Dependence: is a state in which individuals feel a computation to use a substance for the pleasant effect it produces, without necessarily being physically dependent on it. They rely heavily on it-often to help them adjust to life and feel good-and they centre many activities on obtaining and using it.
  21. 21. Physical dependence is a state in which the body has adjusted to a substance and incorporated it into the “normal” functioning of the body’s tissues. This state has two characteristics: a)Tolerance: is the process by which the body increasingly adapts to a substance and requires larger and larger doses of it to achieve the same effect. At some point, this increases reach a plateau.
  22. 22. b) Withdrawal: refers to unpleasant physical and psychological symptoms people experience when they discontinue using a substance on which the body has become physically dependent. The symptoms experienced depend on the particular substance used,and can include anxiety, irritability, intense cravings for the substance, hallucinations, nausea, headache, and tremors.
  23. 23. Addiction vs. Abuse and Tolerance Drug abuse is when one uses legal or illegal substances in ways one shouldn’t. One might take more than the regular dose of pills or use someone else’s prescription. One may abuse drugs to feel good, ease stress, or avoid reality. But usually, one is able to change one’s unhealthy habits or stop using altogether.
  24. 24. People learn to depend on substances through repeated use. Individuals who become addicted first become psychologically dependent later they become physically dependent as their bodies develop a tolerance for it. The potential for producing Psychological dependence differs from one substance to another-it seems to be high for heroine and cocaine and low for LSD.
  25. 25. Substance abuse is diagnosed on the basis of two criteria- 1. A person shows a clear and persistent pattern of pathological use, such as heavy daily use and an inability to stop or decrease using a substance. 2. The abuse has produced at least one of the following problems. a. Failing to fulfil important obligations such as in repeatedly neglecting a child or being absent from work. b. Putting oneself or others at risk for physical injury for instance by driving while intoxicated
  26. 26. c.Having legal difficulties such as being arrested for disorderly conduct d.Having serious social or interpersonal problems for instance repeated arguments with family or co-workers.
  27. 27. Effect of Drug Abuse: 1.Loss of appetite 2.Rapid Breathing and heartbeat 3.High BP 4.Dilated pupil 5.Fever,sweating, headache 6. Blurred vision and dizziness 7.Flushing,Tremors 8.Loss of Coordination
  28. 28. Prevalence of Drug Abuse in India: In the last three decades (following the inception of the NDPS), the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment has conducted two nation-wide drug surveys, published in 2004 and 201918,19. The results of these surveys suggest that drug use in India continues to grow unabated. Opioid use has increased from 0.7 per cent in the previous report to a little >2 per cent in the present one - in terms of magnitude from two million to more than 22 million. More disturbingly, heroin has replaced the natural opioids (opium and poppy husk) as the most commonly abused opioids.
  29. 29. Ganja is the most widely used drug in India, has been the first ever-abused drug for most of drug abusers, also known as Marijuana followed by Charas known as Hashish form of Cannabis which is hand made in Indian subcontinent and Jamaica.
  30. 30. Alcohol Use and Abuse: Alcohol affects people in different ways. Some people can enjoy a glass of wine with food and drink moderate amounts of alcohol in social settings without any problems. Having one or fewer drinks per day for women and two or fewer drinks per day for men is considered moderate drinking, according to the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention.
  31. 31. The symptoms of alcohol abuse include: 1.Drinking to relax 2.Driving under the influence of alcohol problems with family and friends because of drinking 3.Neglecting responsibilities 4.Having legal problems because of alcohol
  32. 32. People who abuse alcohol may deny a problem, but there are ways to recognize alcohol abuse in others. People who abuse alcohol may drink often and experience family, work, or school problems because of drinking. People who abuse alcohol may deny a problem, but there are ways to recognize alcohol abuse in others. People who abuse alcohol may drink often and experience family, work, or school problems because of drinking.
  33. 33. People who experience the following are also more likely to deal with their problems with alcohol: 1.Depression 2.Loneliness 3.Emotional stress 4.Boredom This is dangerous because alcohol abuse can lead to alcoholism. This is because alcohol tolerance levels can gradually increase. Some people start to drink more and more with each passing day.
  34. 34. Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism: The terms “alcohol abuse” and “alcoholism” are often used interchangeably. Both connote a problem with drinking and negative impacts on day-to-day life from alcohol consumption. But there are subtle yet important distinctions between these two terms.
  35. 35. According to the American Psychological Association (APA), alcohol abuse is a pattern of drinking that results in “significant and recurrent adverse consequences.” People who abuse alcohol may have repeated problems with the law, difficulty maintaining relationships, or trouble holding down a job because of their habitual drinking. Yet they continue to drink despite these consequences.
  36. 36. Alcoholism. Alcoholism is a chronic disease characterized by a physical and psychological dependence on alcohol. People with an alcohol addiction need to drink in order to function. Signs that you may be struggling with alcohol dependence include: 1. Tolerance You find yourself needing to drink larger quantities of alcohol to get the same mind- altering effects.
  37. 37. 2.Alcohol withdrawal Someone with alcohol dependence who stops drinking may have withdrawal symptoms. Withdrawal symptoms include: 1.Nausea 2.Shaking 3.Sweating 4.Irritability 5.Anxiety
  38. 38. Alcohol withdrawal can be a medical emergency. Seek medical help right away if someone experiences: 1.seizures 2.severe vomiting 3.hallucinations 4.fevers If you have alcoholism and a history of withdrawal symptoms, see a doctor before quitting. You should also see a doctor before quitting alcohol if you have other health conditions.
  39. 39. 3.Compulsion You experience intense cravings to drink alcohol, and find yourself unable to stop drinking even when you want to. Long-term alcoholism can result in life-threatening conditions, such as heart disease, cancer, and cirrhosis.
  40. 40. WHO DRINKS Age and Gender affect people’s experience with drinking Alcoholic beverages in most societies. One reason for Gender Differences in drinking is that female on average experience more intoxication than males from the same amount of alcohol. This is because, even when body size is the same, females metabolize alcohol less quickly than males.
  41. 41. How alcohol affects your health Alcohol is used to make wine, beer, spirits and liqueurs. It is a legal, sedative drug that can cause addiction or dependency for people who drink too much. Alcohol can change behaviour. Alcohol abuse harms your health and damages relationships and society through violence, crime, accidents and drink driving.
  42. 42. 1.Binge drinking Binge drinking means drinking too much alcohol in a short time. For a man, drinking more than eight units of alcohol on one occasion is a binge. For a woman, it’s more than six units on one occasion. If you binge drink, you could develop long-term or permanent health problems. Binge drinking can cause: blackouts, memory loss, anxiety, irregular heartbeat.
  43. 43. 2.Hangover A hangover follows a bout of heavy drinking. When you have hangover, you’re dehydrated and experiencing alcohol poisoning. You also: have a headache, feel sick ,feel tired, become irritable.
  44. 44. Alcohol and Health: 1.Brain damage: Alcohol can damage your brain. Brain damage affects your: Behaviour, memory, ability to learn. Alcohol is very harmful to young people because their brains are still developing. If you’re a regular heavy drinker, you risk: permanent brain damage, mental health problems and alcoholism.
  45. 45. 2.Cancer Alcohol is the second biggest risk for cancer after smoking. If you regularly drink above the weekly alcohol limits, you're at greater risk of developing: mouth cancer, throat cancer (upper throat),oesophageal cancer (food pipe), colon cancer, breast cancer, bowel cancer, liver cancer.
  46. 46. 3.Heart and circulation Alcohol can cause high blood pressure, which increases your risk of having a heart attack or stroke. 6.Excess drinking alcohol can make a person more prone to lung infections such as pneumonia. One could also suffer a collapsed lung. When a person vomits due to drinking alcohol, they could choke if vomit gets into their lungs.
  47. 47. 4.Pancreas-Inflamation: Heavy or long-term drinking can cause inflammation of the pancreas. It is a very painful condition where a drinker experiences: vomiting, fever, weight loss.
  48. 48. 5. Alcohol-Abuse and Fertility: Long-term drinking can cause infertility in men and women. Men can also become impotent. Drinking alcohol when pregnant can damage your unborn baby's development. 6.Alcohol-Abuse and Bones: Alcohol interferes with your body's ability to absorb calcium. If you lack calcium, your bones become weak and thin.
  49. 49. Why people use and abuse alcohol: 1.Socio cultural Factors: The main reasons for starting to drink involves social and cultural factors particularly the expectancies that form from watching other individuals enjoying themselves while drinking. For example: The more teens see alcohol see in movies and on TV the more they are likely to drink in the future.
  50. 50. 2. Reinforcement: With continued drinking the strength of behaviour through positive and negative reinforcement and substance related cue develop. a. Positive Reinforcement: Individual may receive positive reinforcement for drinking if they like the taste of a drink or the feeling they get from it or if they think they succeeded in business dells or social relationships as a consequence of drinking
  51. 51. b. Negative Reinforcement : In case of negative reinforcement-that is, the reduction of an unpleasant situation- we have seen that people often use alcohol to reduce stress and unpleasant emotions. They may drink to suppress their negative thoughts or feelings of anxiety in social situations .
  52. 52. 3.Developmental and Biological Factors a.Heredity: It plays a much stronger role when the abuse begins before age 25 than after. b.People with a family history of alcoholism appear to develop a tolerance to alcohol, drink increasing amount to feel the same affect.
  53. 53. c. People with a specific gene pattern experience stronger cravings for alcohol after having a drink than other individuals do.
  54. 54. d. People with high genetic risk for alcohol dependence find alcohol rewarding each time they drink but low risk people do not.
  55. 55. 4. Avoiding Withdrawal: Because withdrawal symptoms are very unpleasant so people want to avoid it so they drink.
  56. 56. 5.Expectancies: People develop expectancies or ideas about the outcomes of their behaviour from their own experiences and from watching other people. Some expectancies are positive for example we may decide by watching others that drinking alcohol is fun. Other expectancies are negative that drinking can lead to hangover.
  57. 57. Types of Treatment of Alcohol Abuse Behavioural Treatments Behavioural treatments are aimed at changing drinking behaviour through counselling. They are led by health professionals and supported by studies showing they can be beneficial.
  58. 58. Medications:Three medications are currently approved in the United States to help people stop or reduce their drinking and prevent relapse. They are prescribed by a primary care physician or other health professional and may be used alone or in combination with counseling.
  59. 59. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved three medications for treating alcohol dependence, and others are being tested to determine if they are effective. Naltrexone can help people reduce heavy drinking. Acamprosate makes it easier to maintain abstinence. Disulfiram blocks the breakdown (metabolism) of alcohol by the body, causing unpleasant symptoms such as nausea and flushing of the skin. Those unpleasant effects can help some people avoid drinking while taking disulfiram.
  60. 60. Self-Care Groups Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and other 12-step programs provide peer support for people quitting or cutting back on their drinking. Combined with treatment led by health professionals, Self-care groups can offer a valuable added layer of support.
  61. 61. Types of Behavioural Treatments 1.Cognitive–Behavioural Therapy The goal is to change the thought processes that lead to excessive drinking and to develop the skills necessary to cope with everyday situations that might trigger problem drinking. 2.Motivational Enhancement Therapy The therapy focuses on identifying the pros and cons of seeking treatment, forming a plan for making changes in one’s drinking, building confidence, and developing the skills needed to stick to the plan.
  62. 62. 3.Marital and Family Counselling strong family support through family therapy increases the chances of maintaining abstinence (stopping drinking), compared with patients undergoing individual counselling.
  63. 63. 4.Brief Interventions are short, one-on-one or small- group counselling sessions that are time limited. The counsellor provides information about the individual’s drinking pattern and potential risks. After receiving personalized feedback, the counsellor will work with the client to set goals and provide ideas for helping to make a change.
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