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Nanotechnology: Understanding the Applications in Nutrition Science

  1. Physics ChemistryBiology Design Nano Technology The word “Nano” comes from the Greek for ‘Dwarf’. 1nm= 10-9 m Which is 60,000 times smaller than a human hair in diameter. A red blood cell is about 2,000 to 5,000 nm. DNA is about 2.5nm, protein is 10nm and atom is 0.1nm.
  2. • When we modify materials at their atomic and molecular level, some very unusual and useful properties are generated. Since the dimensions of atoms and molecule are in nanometers, this technology is called nanotechnology. • The resulting materials are called nanomaterials. Nanomaterials can be used for wide variety of things, ranging from purification of water to wrinkle free fabrics to curing cancer.(CeNSE, research news) • How different atoms can be arranged in a way which decides how strong or weak it would be?
  3. The formal definition of nanotechnology from the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) is: • Nanotechnology is the understanding and control of matter at dimensions between approximately 1 and 100 nanometers, where unique phenomena enable novel applications. • Encompassing nanoscale science, engineering, and technology, nanotechnology involves imaging, measuring, modeling, and manipulating matter at this small scale. • NANOTECHNOLOGY IS VERY, VERY SMALL. • AT THE NANOSCALE, MATERIALS MAY BEHAVE IN DIFFERENT AND UNEXPECTED WAYS. • RESEARCHERS WANT TO HARNESS THESE DIFFERENT AND UNEXPECTED BEHAVIORS TO MAKE NEW TECHNOLOGIES.
  4. Father of Nanotechnology: Richard Feynman invented it as an idea in1954. Nobel Prize in Physics in1965 1974: Nario Taniguchi :used the term Nanotechnology 1985: Buckyball discovered 1986: K.Eric Drexler developed and popularized the concept of Nanotechnology and founded the field of molecular nanotechnology.
  5. Father of Indian Nanotechnology: Prof. C.N.R.Rao • India’s first nanotechnology magazine: Nano Digest • Efforts to promote research in nanotechnology in India began early in the millenium. • The “NanoScience and Technology Initiative” started with a funding of Rs. 60 crores . • In 2007, the government launched a 5 year program called Nano Mission with wider objectives and larger funding of USD 250 million. The funding spanned multiple areas like basic research in nanotechnology, human resources development, infrastructure development and international collaboration. 2013
  6. HISTORY CONTD… • Multiple institutions like Department on Information Technology (DoIT), Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), Council of Scientific and Industrial Research(CSIR) and Department of Biotechnology (DBT) provided the funding to researchers, scholars and projects. • National Centers for Nanofabrication and Nanoelectronics were started in Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore and Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai. • The efforts have paid off well. • India published over 23000 papers in nanoscience in the past 5 years. • In 2013, India ranked third in the number of papers published, behind only China and USA. There have been 300 patent applications in the Indian Patent Office in 2013, ten times that of 2006. Clearly, this points to the success of Nano Mission initiative.
  7. … • One of the most attractive and earliest commercial area of Food Nano Science Research and Development is : Packaging • In 2008 the profit was $4.13 Billion which increased in 2014 to $7.3 Billion with an annual growth rate of 11.65% ( • When the nanomolecules are arranged to get desired structure the surface area increases and this leads to increase in reactivity as reactivity is a function of surface area. For same reactivity level, less amount is required. • Nanotechnology has the potential to impact many aspects of food and agricultural systems. Food security, disease treatment delivery methods, new tools for molecular and cellular biology, new materials for pathogen detection, and protection of the environment are examples of the important links of nanotechnology to the science and engineering of agriculture and food systems.
  8. TOP-DOWN APPROACH • These seek to create smaller devices by using larger ones to direct their assembly. • Usually top-down approach is used less than bottom-up approach Solid-state silicon methods. • They can create features smaller than 100 nm. • This device transfers energy from nano-thin layers of quantum wells to nanocrystals above them, causing the nanocrystals to emit visible light. BOTTOM-UPAPPROACH • Assembling nano materials atom – by – atom or molecule – by – molecule (self assembling). • This approach is much cheaper. • Things become much larger. • Examples of molecule self assembly are Watson–Crick base pairing and nano- lithography.
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  10. Nanoparticles upgrade food stability, color, and property of flow. Initially, deployed for drug delivery but now a days in the food industry and related fields including clinical nutrition . Their efficacy depends on their bioavailability. Silicate and other nanoparticles are used to limit oxygen flow in packaging containers (Jones et al., 2008); moisture leakage is also checked and reduced hence the food remains fresh for a longer duration. Certain nanoparticles selectively bind pathogens thus removing them altogether in the process (Nam et al., 2003).
  11. Type Characteristics Compounds/Metals/ Substances Inorganic Nanomaterials U.V. Protection, Mechanical Strength, surface coating, processing aid Silver, Iron, alkaline earth metals Ca, Mg, non metals: Selenium and silicates, Titanium oxide, Zinc and copper oxide Surface Functionalized Nanomaterials Functionality: Antimicrobial, antioxidant, or preservative action, Mechanical strength, barrier to gases movement Functionalized nano-clays, second generation ENMs. Organic Nanomaterials Increased uptake, improved absorption and bioavailability, hydrophilic properties Vitamins, antioxidants, colors, flavors, and preservatives
  13. Nanoencapsulation is defined as the technology of packaging nanoparticles of solid, liquid, or gas, also known as the core or active, within a secondary material, named as the matrix or shell, to form nanocapsules. According to Chaudhry et al., 2008, Ease of handling, protection against oxidation, improved stability, increased bioavailability etc are the benefits of nanoencapsulation. It entraps odor and any other unwanted component in food as it delivers the component to the target which helps in preservation. It can also be utilized for the delivery of lipophilic health supplements, vitamins and minerals, in food in the process enhancing the nutrient content of the food (Dreher, 2004).
  14. Nanoemulsions are colloidal particulate system in the submicron size range acting as carriers of drug molecules. Their size varies from 10 to 1,000 nm. The operation is by the release of different flavors with several stimulants such as heat, pH, ultrasonic waves and many others (Kumar, 2000). Lipase readily digests the smaller droplets of nanoemulsions in GIT (Zarif, 2003). Nanoemulsions in the form of carbohydrates or proteins have improved the texture that aids in ice cream uniformity (Hogan et al., 2001). Nanoemulsions contain antimicrobial agents, which are more efficient on Gram-positive bacteria, which makes them decontamination purposes of food packaging articles (Wang et al., 2012). Nanoemulsions made from tributyl phosphate, soybean or nonionic surfactants have been used to check microbial growth hence reducing the extent of food-spoilage. (Sanguansri and Augustin, 2006).
  15. Nanosensors are nanoscale devices that measure physical quantities and convert those quantities to signals that can be detected and analyzed. Nanosensors have a high sensitivity and selectivity to such changes making them more efficient than the conventional methods of sensors (Mannino and Scampicchio, 2007). The gas sensors are made of gold, platinum, and palladium. Aflatoxin B1 toxin that is found in milk can be detected by the gold-based nanoparticles (Mao et al., 2006). In some cases, the packaging is made of DNA and single walled carbon nanotubes that greatly improves the sensitivity of the sensors. In The field of agriculture nanosensors are used to detect the pesticides on the surface of fruits and vegetables. Some nanosensors become fit to identify carcinogens in food materials (Meetoo, 2011).
  16. A combination of nanoparticles with polymers makes the nanocomposites. The high versatility of the chemical functionality of nanocomposites makes them suitable for the development of high barrier properties (Pandey et al., 2013). Nanocomposites aid in maintaining the food products fresh for some amount of time irrespective of the bacterial infestation of the food product. They minimize carbon dioxide leakages from carbonated beverages bottles by acting as gas barriers aiding in their shelf life(Pandey et al., 2013). Manufacturing industries could use nanocomposites in place of cans and glass bottles to layer their bottles and save on cost in the process. Enzyme immobilization, a type of nanocomposite is widely used due to its faster rates of transfer and its large surface area. The enzymes are incorporated into the nano-clays and used for packaging (Burdo, 2005).
  17. • Nanotubes are self-assembling, organic or inorganic, sheets of atoms arranged in tubes with single- or multiwalled structures, with large internal volume, used to control or enhance conductivity in polymers and are added to anti-static packaging.
  18. Credits: “Excipient nanoemulsions for improving oral bioavailability of bioactives,” by L. Salvia- Trujillo, O. Martı´n-Belloso, D.J.McClements, 2016, Nanomaterials, 6, p. 17 . Schematic diagram showing the delivery of bioactive components in food matrix. The overall oral bioavailability of bioactives is governed by three main factors: bioaccessibility, absorption, and transformation.
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  20. Foreign Companies Indian Companies (Source: NSTI) Cadbury Schwepes Ad-Nano Technologies Private Limited Shimoga, Karnataka Cargill DewDocs Pvt Ltd. Bangalore, Karnataka DuPont Indian Institute of Science Bangalore General Mills Nano Research Elements Sarita Vihar, New Delhi H.J. Heinz Nanorbital Advanced Materials Ahmedabad, Gujarat Nestle NoPo Nanotechnologies India Private Limited Bangalore Pepsico Norinco Private Ltd. Mumbai, Maharashtra Syngeta Quantum Corp. and Quantum Materials Corp. Bangalore Unilever Quantum Materials Private Limited Bangalore, Craft Saveer MatrixNano Pvt Ltd. Greater Noida, U.P.
  21. • Free Radical formation aggravation • Nutrient Toxicity • Unnatural in nature, so the effects can’t be stated • Transition of nano particles in placenta in pregnant mothers and effects on breast milk quality • DNA or Biological changes due to prolong intake of nanoparticles • Mercury, titanium oxide, metal toxicity or poisoning • Interaction of nanoparticles with each other and with in the body • Degradability • Financial effects or Affordability to general population • Applicability: As they say….One size doesn’t fit all
  22. Kumar, V., Sharma, N. & Maitra, S.S. In vitro and in vivo toxicity assessment of nanoparticles. Int Nano Lett 7, 243–256 (2017) doi:10.1007/s40089-017-0221-3
  23. Bonner, Nanoparticles and Lung Disease, Proceedings of the American Thoracic Society, Vol 7 2010, Pg 138-141
  24. References • • A.F. Hamad et al. / Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 25 (2018) 27–30 • Chaudhry, Q., Scotter, M., Blackburn, J., Ross, B., Boxall, A., Castle, L., Watkins, R., 2008. Applications and implications of nanotechnologies for the food sector. Food Addit. Contam. 25 (3), 241–258. • Dreher, K.L., 2004. Health and environmental impact of nanotechnology: toxicological assessment of manufactured nanoparticles. Toxicol. Sci. 77 (1), 3–5. • Kumar, M.N.R., 2000. A review of chitin and chitosan applications. Reactive Funct. Polym. 46 (1), 1–27. • Zarif, L., 2003. Nanocochleate cylinders for oral & parenteral delivery of drugs. J. Liposome Res. 13 (1), 109–110. • Wang, Y., Zhang, Q., Zhang, C.L., Li, P., 2012. Characterisation and cooperative antimicrobial properties of chitosan/nano-ZnO composite nanofibrous membranes. Food Chem. 132 (1), 419– 427. • Sanguansri, P., Augustin, M.A., 2006. Nanoscale materials development – a food industry perspective. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 17 (10), 547–556. • Mannino, S., Scampicchio, M., 2007. Nanotechnology and food quality control. Veterin. Res. Commun. 31 (1), 149–151. • Mao, X., Huang, J., Fai Leung, M., Du, Z., Ma, L., Huang, Z., Gu, L., 2006. Novel coreshell nanoparticles and their application in high-capacity immobilization of enzymes. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 135 (3), 229–239. • Meetoo, D.D., 2011. Nanotechnology and the food sector: from the farm to the table. Emirates J. Food Agric. 23 (5), 387–407.
  25. References • Pandey, S., Zaidib, M.G.H., Gururani, S.K., 2013. Recent developments in claypolymer nano composites. Sci. J. Rev. 2 (11), 296–328. • Burdo, O.G., 2005. Nanoscale effects in food-production technologies. J. Eng. Phys. Thermophys. 78 (1), 90–96. • Hogan, S.A., McNamee, B.F., O’Riordan, E.D., O’Sullivan, M., 2001. Microencapsulating properties of sodium caseinate. J. Agric. Food Chem. 49 (4), 1934–1938. • • Salvia-Trujillo L, Martı´n-Belloso O, McClements DJ.Excipient nanoemulsions for improving oral bioavailability of bioactives. Nanomaterials 2016;6:17. • GuhanNath S, Sam Aaron I, A. Allwyn Sundar Raj, T.V.Ranganathan Recent Innovations in Nanotechnology in Food Processing and its Various Applications –A Review Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Rev. Res., 29(2), November – December 2014; Article No. 22, Pages: 116-124 ISSN 0976 – 044X • BOOK Shefali. Gangwar, Rahul. Devi, Mona. Chhabra, Priya. B, Prasad.,2016/03/06 Role of Nano Science in Development of India • YunWangTimothy Vduncan, Nanoscale sensors for assuring the safety of food products • NSTI, Nano Science and Technology Institute, Austin, Texas
  26. References • Han C, Li H (2010) Visual detection of melamine in infant formula at 0.1 ppm level based on silver nanoparticles. Analyst 135:583–588. doi: 10.1039/b923424a • Ivanov P, Llobet E, Vilanova X, Brezmes J, Hubalek J, Correig X (2004) Development of high sensitivity ethanol gas sensors based on Pt-doped SnO2 surfaces. Sens Actuators B-Chem 99:201–206. doi: 10.1016/j.snb.2003.11.012 • way-for-better-business-20322627 • Bonner J.C., Nanoparticles and Lung Disease, Proc Am Thorac Soc Vol 7. pp 138– 141, 2010 DOI: 10.1513/pats.200907-061RM Internet address: • Kumar, V., Sharma, N. & Maitra, S.S. In vitro and in vivo toxicity assessment of nanoparticles. Int Nano Lett 7, 243–256 (2017) doi:10.1007/s40089-017-0221-3