3. Brand management is a communication function in
Retail that includes analysis and planning on how
that brand is position in the Retail house, which
target public the brand is targeted at, and maintain a
desired reputation of the brand.
Brand Equity can be thought of as the marketing
effects uniquely attributable to the brand. Brand
Equity represents the added value endowed to a
product as a result of past investments in the
marketing activity for a brand. Brand Equity serves as
the bridge between what happened to the brand in
the past and what should be happen to the brand in
4. Brand management begins with having a
thorough knowledge of the term “brand”.
It includes developing a promise, making that
promise and maintaining it. It means defining the
brand, positioning the brand, and delivering the
brand. Brand management is nothing but an art
of creating and sustaining the brand. Branding
makes customers committed to your business. A
strong brand differentiates your products from
the competitors. It gives a quality image to your
5. Brand Value Differences Themselves
become a basis for differentiation
important in identifying
No Need for Product
Increasing Importance of
6. To a consumer, brand means and signifies:
Source of product
Delegating responsibility to the manufacturer of
Less search cost
Deal or pact with the product manufacturer
7. Formed in1946,is dairy co-operative movement in India.
Jointly owned by 2.6 million milk producer in Gujarat.
Spurred the white revolution of India, which has made
India the largest producer of milk and milk product in the
Overseas market Mauritius, UAE, USA, Bangladesh,
The McDonald's Corporation is the world's largest chain of
hamburger fast food restaurants, serving around 68 million
customers daily in 119 countries across 35,000 outlets.
8. Successful Retail Branding Ensures:
Stable long term demands,
Differentiation by way of creating long term
Adds value to the product,
Trust of Fulfillment of service expectations,
Protection form growing competition,
Images as a company attractive enough to work for,
Negotiation with suppliers from a position of improved
10. Brand as “a name, term, sign, symbol, or design, or a
combination of them, intended to identify the goods or
services of one seller or group of sellers and to differentiate
them from those of competitors.”
Philip Kotler (1997)
A brand is not a product. It is the product‟s essence, its
meaning and its direction, and it defines its identity in time
A brand is basically a name that refers to the products of a
particular manufacturer in a particular product category. A
brand includes tangible or intrinsic qualities, such as
appearance, performance data, package, and the guarantees
or warranties that are attached to it. Perhaps more
Importantly, A brand involves aspects that the consumer
attributes to it, beyond its tangible features. These aspects
may include attitudes towards the company that produce the
product or towards the brand itself, beliefs about the brand in
relationship to it self and others, and so on.
11. The benefit of developing a strong brand is that
consumers are often prepared to pay a price
premium for perceived added values related to
buying well marketed brands. The price premium,
also know as brand equity, is the price customers are
prepared to pay above the commodity value of a
product or service. A successful brand is a flag bearer
as it provides visible signals of positional strength in
the market place.
12. 1. Build Stable,
2. Build and hold better Margins,
3. Differentiate themselves,
4. Add values,
5. Expectations fulfillment,
6. Customer Loyalty,
7. Protect from Competition alternatives,
8. Superior offer,
9. Image creation,
10. Consistency in availability
13. The American Marketing Association
(2011) defines brand loyalty as:
◦ Consumer Behaviour Definition
"The degree to which a consumer
consistently purchases the same
brand within a product class"
◦ AMA - Sales Promotion Definition
"The situation in which a
consumer generally buys the same
or service repeatedly over time
rather than buying from multiple
suppliers within the category"
16. Exists when customers have:
◦ “a high relative attitude toward
the brand which is then
exhibited through repurchase
Dick and Kunal (1994)
Great asset to a firm:
Willing to pay higher prices,
Cost less to serve,
Bring new customers
From marketers viewpoint
◦ Loyalty a key factor in terms of
17. Dramatic effects on profitability
Longer tenure as a customer
Lower sensitivity to price increases.
19. Positioning is owning a piece of consumer‟s mind
Positioning is not what you do to a product
◦ It‟s what you do to the mind of the prospect
You position the product in the prospect‟s mind
◦ „It‟s incorrect to call it Product Positioning‟ – Ries & Trout
Colgate is Protection
Lux is Glamour
Pond’s DFT is Confidence
Axe is Sexual Attraction
Gillette is Quality
20. BRAND POSITION =
BRAND DIFFERENTIATION × BRAND SEGMENTATION
Apparent to consumers and offers real added
value to them,
Built upon real brand strengths which reflect
Clearly differentiated form competitor and
communicate to all stakeholders groups,
Able to be achieved
21. Key Insight is „seeing below the surface‟ /
„seeing inside the consumer‟
Insight expresses the totality of all that we
know from seeing inside the consumer
An insight is a single aspect of this that we
use to gain competitive advantage
By identifying a specific way…
That the brand can either solve a problem or
Create an opportunity for the consumer
23. Key Insight
„Fragrance of my
current talc does not
last long and I miss
opportunities to enjoy
„Soap leaves my skin
feeling dry and tight‟
„Heavy and Long lasting‟
All is well
25. As markets have become more competitive and
products have only marginal differences in their
physical formulation, it becomes more important to
create distinction by adding relevant psychological
values through advertising, packaging and other
aspects of the marketing mix.
Brand Personality as being a unique mix of functional
attributes and symbolic values.
A strong brand personality is an effective added
value at the augmented stage and is reflected in the
way consumers describe a brand.
28. Consumers look to brand not only for what they can do, but
also to help say something about themselves to their peer
groups. Brand reflects following things for the owner:
Set social sense and enable people to mix with other
Enable consumer to convey messages about themselves,
Provide a basis for a better understanding of the way
Help consumers to say something to themselves.
Self Image:- Consumers hold a view of themselves – what
is called their self image – and buy brands which conform to
29. The term proposition is used for a set of statements
which summarizes the combination of positioning
Image is the outcome of the consumer‟s
interpretation of the brand.
Brand identity is the central concept in promoting a
brand. Identity comprises durability, coherence and
realism, embodying the personality of brand.
30. A brand name is that components of the brand which
consists of words or letters to provide means by
which the company can be recognized and
distinguished from other companies in the
Through the use of the brand name, the company is
able to recall numerous attributes, for example
quality, availability, guarantee, advertising, support
and so on.
31. People will often buy a familiar brand because
they are comfortable with things familiar.
Advertising is often aimed at facilitating the
growth of brand awareness.
The Awareness Pyramid:
Top of the Mind
32. Life Cycle theories believe that a brand is launched,
wins market share, enjoys a period of maturity and
It is less expensive to revitalize an established brand
than it is to develop and launch a new brand
consumers are less familiar with.
33. 1. Same Advertisement can be replicated by
2. Help to break down loyalty of competitors as well
3. Sales promotion suffer losses,
4. Sales promotion can put pressure to reduce
5. Sales promotion also cause to erosion of
6. Poorly presented sales promotions campaigns
may create negative images.
34. A Successful brand is an identifiable product, service, person or
place augmented in such a way that the buyer, or user, perceives
relevant, unique added values which match their needs most
closely. Its success results from being able to sustain these
added values against competitors.
Successful brands therefore are required to have unique added
Rituals (campaigns of celebrations),
Symbols (veg / non- veg symbols),
Heritage of good (Kellog‟s as a reflection of time – honored
Aloofness (Carlsberg time spent brewing and storing)
Belonging (Budha Air Royal Club Customer),
Legend (Johny Walker, Red Label),
Quality and trust
Exclusivity (Zara, Gucci)
35. Kapferer (1992) maintains that a brand is updated
nor as many think, by communication but through its
products and meaningful actions. For instance,
technical progress alerts the public to a brand‟s
revival and intentions.
Role of Pricing for Brands:
36. Counterfeit or Copycat Brands:
Cheap imitated brand lead to proliferation and hence
dilute the brand image.
Own brands are the names given to consumer
products produced by, or on behalf of, distributors
and sold under the distributors own name or trade
mark through the distributor‟s own outlet.
37. OWN BRANDS
There are main four types of OWN BRAND:-
2. Price led retailer Brand:-
3. Quality led own brand:-
4. Exclusive own brand:-
Advantages of OWN BRANDS:-
1. The exclusivity of a good quality own brand, at the right price, can boost
2. Own label price Flexibility,
3. Store Image Enhanced through OWN- Brand if the own brand well
4. Attracts higher customers and lead higher profits through increased
5. Own- label products are free from restrictions of display, promotion, or
6. Supermarkets own brands can become powerful to put pressure for
manufacturers to make concession on brands,
7. Own- Brand can fill gaps of Competition as an opportunity,
8. Launching and distribution cost be much more lesser than Branded
38. It is important to position organization as a „Brand‟ in
the mind of actual and potential consumers.
The communication of a company brand is
necessarily targeted at a wider variety of „audiences‟
rather than simply consumers. Relevant audiences
include shareholders, suppliers, government
agencies, banks, employees and potential employees
as well as immediate customers.
40. A Brand Extension occurs when a firm uses an established
brand name to introduce a new product,
When a new brand is combined with an existing brand, the
brand extension can also be called a sub-brand.
An existing brand that gives birth to a brand extension is
the parent brand.
If the parent brand is already associated with multiple
products through brand extensions, then it may also be
called a family brand.
41. The parent brand is used to brand a new product
that targets a new market segment with in a product
category currently served by the parent brand.
A line extension often adds a different flavor or
ingredient variety, a different form or size, or a
different application for the brand.
Eg: Head & Shoulders
44. The parent brand is used to enter a different product
category from that currently served by the parent brand.
45. 1. Introduce the same product in a different form
2. Introduce product that contain the brand’s distinctive
taste, ingredient or component.
3. Introduce companion product for the brand.
4. Introduce products relevant to the customer franchise
of the brand.
5. Introduce products that capitalize on the firm’s
6. Introduce products that reflect the brands distinctive
benefit, attribute or feature.
7. Introduce products that capitalize on distinctive image
or prestige of the brand.
46. Leveraging brand equity/value by introduction of
logical & complementary new product categories
E.g Bhatbhateni Super Market
Product Innovation to surpass consumer
It increases awareness of the brand name
Increases profitability from offerings in more than
one product category.
It’s a great way to reinforce a brand, reach out to
new customers, create a BUZZ
47. Facilitate New Product Acceptance
Improve brand image
Reduce risk perceived by Customers
Permit consume variety-seeking
48. Increase the probability of gaining distribution and
Increase efficiency of promotional expenditures
Reduce costs of introductory & follow-up marketing
programs (save 40-80%)
E.g. Apple iPods
Avoid costs of developing a new brand
Allow for packaging & labeling efficiencies
49. Provide Feedback Benefits to the Parent Brand
Clarify brand meaning
Enhance the parent brand image
Bring new customers into brand franchise and
increase market coverage
Revitalize the brand
Permit subsequent extensions
50. Can confuse or frustrate consumers
Can encounter retailer resistance
Can fail & hurt parent brand image
Xerox Computers-synonymous with copiers & no
one believed they could make computers
Can succeed but cannibalize sales of parent
Amul Butter-”reduced salt butter” is slowly
eating up Amul normal butter
51. Can succeed but diminish identification with any
Can succeed but hurt the image of parent brand
Can dilute brand meaning
Can cause the company to forgo the chance to
develop a new brand
52. The ability of the brand to travel across products,
The capability of management to market a new
product while not neglecting the core business and
overestimating the new brand.
53. Four Brand Extension were identified by Peter
1. If the brand segment to the same target segment
and have the same differential advantage, then
they can safely share the same company name or
2. if the differential advantage is the same but the
target market differs, then the company name can
be extended because the benefit is similar.
3. If a company has differential advantages, then it
should use separate brand names.
4. If both the target customers and the differential
advantages are different, then using unique brand
names is the most appropriate strategy.