• Functional English is usage of the English language required
to perform a specific function
• Like: academic study or career progression.
• To provide the essential knowledge, skills and understanding
that will enable the user to operate confidently, effectively
and independently in life and at work.
• Individuals who possess these skills will be able to participate
and progress in education, training and employment as well
as develop and secure the broader range of aptitude, attitude
and behavior that will enable them to make a positive
contribution to the communities in which they live and work.
Why to learn Functional English
• Helping learners to become functional with English means
• helping learners to:
• choose appropriate communication methods
• ensure their communication methods are fit for purpose
• communicate in ways that meet the needs of the audience and
• apply English skills in a range of meaningful contexts
• become increasingly independent in their learning.
What to learn
• Learning through application
• Learner-centered approaches
• Active learning
• Partnership learning
• Assessment for learning.
• “APA” stands for the American Psychological Association.
• This is often the standard format used in
the social sciences.
• It's a consistent way for writers to document sources
and avoid plagiarism.
What do I need to cite?
• Cite anything that’s not your own (ideas of others, words of others
(quotes), paraphrases of others’ ideas in your own words, statistics,
Why reference ?
• Consistency Gives Clarity
The Basics of APA Style
• - APA style typically breaks papers down into eight sections; title page,
abstract, introduction, method, results, discussion, references and
• - Each page is numbered in the right-hand corner and has a header with
the title of the paper on it.
• -The entire paper should be double-spaced with no extra spaces
• -The font should be set at eitherTimes New Roman, 12 point, or Arial, 12
• - Standard margins are one inch all the way around.
When and how to cite a source
• Whenever you use someone else’s words, research, results or ideas in the
body of your paper, there should be a citation.
• If you are ever in doubt, play it safe and cite the source. Citations in the
body of the paper, called in-text citations, have the author’s last name
and year of publication in parenthesis.
• If there is a citation in the body of the paper, it must also be listed on the
reference page and vice versa.