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Cross-cultural Variability of Communication in Personal Relationships

  1. Cross-cultural variability of communication in personal relationships William B. Gudykunst Yuko Matsumoto Prepared by NAOMIE BAGUINAT-DAGUINOTAS
  2.  In order to understand similarities and differences in communication across cultures, it is necessary to have a way of talking about how cultures differ and how they are similar. In other words, there are variables on which cultures can be different or similar that can be used to explain communication across culture.
  3. Dimensions of Cultural Variability  Individualism-collectivism  Uncertainty avoidance  Power distance  Masculinity-femininity
  4. The Influence of Culture and Strength of Cultural Identity on Individual Values in Japan and the United States William B. Gudykunst California State University, Fullerton Tsukasa Nishida Nihon University
  5. Two studies were conducted using data from Japan and the United States to examine the influence of the interaction between culture and strength of cultural identity on individual-level individualistic and collectivistic values. In the first study, culture and strength of cultural identity interacted to influence four values (freedom, pleasure, social recognition, and self-sacrifice). In the second study, culture and strength of cultural identity interacted to influence three values (being independent, harmony, and accepting traditions). The results suggest that strength of cultural identity must be taken into consideration in order to understand values that members of a culture hold.
  6.  One way to study cultural values is by focusing on cultural individualism collectivism (I-C), the major dimensions of cultural variability isolated by theorists across disciplines (e.g., Hofstede, 1980; Ito, 1989b; Kluckhohn & Strodtbeck, 1961; Triandis, 1988, 1990, 1995).
  7. Individualism and Collectivism  Definitions ◦ Individualist culture is a culture in which the goals of the individual take precedence over the goals of the group. ◦ Collectivist culture is a culture in which the goals of the group take precedence over the goals of the individual.
  8. Individualism and Collectivism  The distinction lies in what extent to which cultures promote individual values over collective values.  There is a correlation… ◦ Individualist cultures tend to be economically rich. ◦ Collectivist cultures tend to be economically poor.  … but there are exceptions.
  9. Individualism and Collectivism  Also applies on a personal level ◦ That is, one can personally be collectivist while his or her culture is individualist.  Cooperation versus competition  Importance of ingroup and outgroup members
  10. Individualism and Collectivism  In other words… ◦ In an individualist culture, members are responsible for themselves and, perhaps, their immediate families. ◦ In a collectivist culture, members are responsible for the group as a whole.
  11. Individualism and Collectivism  In other words… ◦ In an individualist culture, success is measured by how far one stands out from the crowd.  EX: self-made millionaires, employees of the month, standing out… ◦ In a collectivist culture, success is measured by one’s contributions to the group as a whole.  EX: loyalty to company or country, specialized skills, fitting in…
  12.  Individualistic cultures – individuals take precedence over groups; emphasized person-based information to predict each other’s behavior Triandis (1988)
  13. Individualism and collectivism exist in all cultures  Major dimension of cultural variability isolated by theorists across disciplines to explain similarities and differences in behavior ◦ one pattern tends to predominate
  14.  Individualistic Culture  emphasized person-based information to predict each others’ behaviour. As members of individualistic cultures are socialized into their culture, they learn the major values of their culture such as, independence and achievement . They also learn preferred ways for how members of the culture are expected to view themselves such as, unique persons.
  15. o Collectivistic Culture Emphasized group-based information to predict each others’ behaviour. As members of collectivistic cultures learn different major values such as, harmony and solidarity , and also different preferred ways to conceive f themselves such as interconnected with others.
  16.  Collectivistic cultures emphasized goals, needs, and views of the in group over those of the individual; the social norms of the ingroup, rather than individual pleasure; shared ingroup beliefs, rather than unique individual beliefs; and a value on cooperation with ingroup members, rather than maximizing individual outcomes.
  17.  However, members of Individualistic and Collectivistic culture do not just learn one set of values or just one way to conceive of themselves. Because individualism and collectivism EXIST in all cultures.  Both have direct influence on behaviour such as norms/rules used to guide behaviour. But one tends to predominate
  18.  Individualism- Collectivism Culture Is the major dimension of culture variability isolated by theorists across disciplines to explain similarities and differences in behaviour. It also influences behaviour indirectly through the personalities , values, and self construal that individual members learn when being socialized into their culture.
  19.  In individualist cultures, individual uniqueness, self-determination is valued. A person is all the more admirable if they are a "self-made man" or "makes up their own mind" or show initiative or work well independently.  Collectivist cultures expect people to identify with and work well in groups which protect them in exchange for loyalty and compliance.
  20.  Paradoxically, individualist cultures tend to believe that there are universal values that should be shared by all, while collectivist cultures tend to accept that different groups have different values.  Many of the Asian cultures are collectivist, while Anglo cultures tend to be individualist.
  21.  Culture and Communication Behaviour  Keesing (1974) argues that culture provides its members with an implicit theory about how to behave in different situations and how to interpret others’ behaviour in these situations. He contends that culture is shared in “its broad design and deeper principles,” but “that is not every individual shares precisely the same theory of the cultural code.”
  22.  Cultural- Level Individual- Collectivism Individuals’ goals are emphasized more than group’s goals in individualistic cultures. Group goals in contrast, take precedence over individuals’ goals in collectivistic culture. In individual cultures, “people are supposed to look after themselves and their immediate family only.” In collectivistic cultures, “people belong to ingroups or collectivities which are supposed to look after them in exchange for loyalty.”
  23. To summarize, individualism- collectivism has been used widely to explain cultural differences in behaviour.
  24. Individual- Collectivism at the Individual Level  There are three different aspects of cultural individualism- collectivism: Individuals’ personality Individuals’ values Self construals
  25. A. Personality Orientations The first factor that mediates the influences of cultural individualism- collectivism on communication behaviour. Idiocentrism and allocentrism as the personality factors that mediate the influence of individualism and collectivism, respectively.
  26.  Triandis, Leung, Villareal, and Clack (1985) found that allocentrism is correlated positively with social support and negatively with alienation and anomie in the United States.  In contrast, Idiocentrism is correlated positively with an emphasis on achievement and perceived loneliness in the United States.
  27.  Allocentrism is a collectivistic personality attribute whereby people center their attention and actions on other people rather than themselves. It is a psychological dimension which corresponds to the general cultural dimension of collectivism.  Idiocentrism is characterized by or denoting interest centered upon oneself or one's own ways, rather than upon others or the ways of others
  28.  Gudykunst, Gao, Nishida, Nadamitsu, and Sakai (1992) found that idiocentrism correlates negatively with sensitivity to others’ behaviour in the United States.  They also observed that idiocentrism is correlated negatively with sensitivity to others’ behaviour, attention to social comparison information, attention to others’ status characteristic, and concern for social appropriateness in Japan.
  29.  Gudykunst, Gao, and Franklyn- Strokes (1996) discovered that idiocentrism correlated negatively with attention to others’ status characteristics and concern for social appropriate in England and China.  Idiocentrism individuals in individualistic cultures see it as natural to “do their own thing” and disregard needs of their ingroup, whereas allocentric individuals in individualistic cultures are concerned about their ingroups (Triandis 1988).
  30.  Allocentric individuals in collectivistic culture feel positive about accepting ingroup norms and do not even raise the question of whether or not to accept them  Idiocentric individuals in collectivistic cultures feel ambivalent and even bitter about acceptance of ingroup norms (Triandis at al, 1988)
  31. Idiocentric individuals …  In individualistic cultures see it as natural to “do their own thing” and disregard needs of their ingroup  in collectivistic cultures feel ambivalent and even bitter about acceptance of ingroup norms  in individualistic cultures are concerned about their ingroups  in collectivistic culture feel positive about accepting ingroup norms and do not even raise the question of whether or not to accept them Allocentric individuals …
  32.  Yamaguchi (1994) argues that collectivism at the individual level involves tendency to give priority to the collective self over the private self, especially when the two are in conflict. He found that collectivism at the individual level is associated positively with affiliative tendencies and sensitivity to others, and negatively associated with need for uniqueness in Japan  Yamaguchi, Kuhlman, and Sugimori (1995) discovered that these tendencies also generalize to Korea and the United States.
  33. B. Individual Values  the second way that influence of cultural individualism- collectivism on communication is mediated is through the values individuals hold.  Ball- Rokeach, Rokeach, and Grube (1984) argue that values are the core to individual’s personalities and that values help individuals maintain and enhance their self- esteem.
  34.  Feather (1995) found that the values individuals hold influence the valences they attach to different ways to behave.
  35. Schwartz (1992) 11 Motivational Domains of Values: 1. Self- Direction. “ Independent thought and action- choosing, creating, and exploring (independent, freedom, curious). 2. Stimulation. “Excitement, novelty, and challenge in life” (exciting, life, daring). 3 Hedonism. “Pleasure or sensuous gratification for oneself” (pleasure, enjoy life).
  36. 4. Achievement. “ Personal success though demonstrated competence” (social recognition, capable, ambitious). 5. Power. “ attainment of social status and prestige, and control or dominance over people (authority, wealth, social recognition). 6. Security. “ safety, harmony, and stability of society, of relationships, and of self” (family security, social order, healthy).
  37. 7. Conformity. “ Restraint of actions, inclinations, and impulses likely to up set or harm others and to violet social expectations or norms” (obedient, politeness, self-discipline). 8.Tradition. “ respect, commitment and acceptance of the customs and ideas that one’s culture or religion impose on the individual ( respect for tradition, humble, moderate).
  38. 9. Spirituality. “ Endow life with meaning and coherence in the face of seeming meaningless of everyday existence” (meaning in life, inner harmony, devout) 10. Benevolence. “ preservation and enhancement of the welfare of people with whom one is in frequent social contact” (helpful, loyal, responsible).
  39. 11. Universalism. “ understanding, appreciation, tolerance, and protection for the welfare of all people and for nature” ( equality, world at peace, social justice) Schwartz argues that the interests served by the 11 value domains can be individualistic, collectivistic, or mixed.
  40. C. Self Construals  the third factor that mediates the influence of cultural individualism- collectivism on communication behavior ◦ Cultural variations in individualism- collectivism can be linked directly to the ways members of cultures conceive of themselves (Triandis, 1989)
  41.  The most widely used conceptualization of self construal is Markus and Kitayama’s (1991) distinction between independent and interdependent self construals.  People in individualistic cultures emphasize an independent construal of the self. The independent construal of self involves the view that an individual’s self is a unique, independent entity.
  42. Low- Context and high-context communication  Individualism- collectivism provides a powerful explanatory framework for understanding cultural similarities and differences in interpersonal communication. There are cultural differences in the communication processes that predominate individualistic and collectivistic cultures
  43. Edward T. Hall  Pioneer in this field  He was a cross-cultural researcher.  He is remembered for developing the concept of: ◦ Proxemics ◦ Chronemics (Polychronic and Monochronic Time) ◦ High and Low Context Culture 43
  44. CHARACTERISTICS OF LOW- AND HIGH -CONTEXT COMMUNICATION  Hall (1976) – a high-context communication or message is one in which most of the information is either in the physical context or internalized in the person while very little is in the coded, explicit transmitted part of the message.  - a low-context communication or message in contrast is one in which the mass of information is vested in the explicit code
  45.  People raised in a high-context systems expect more of others than do the participants in low-context systems.  When talking about something that they have on their minds, a high-context individual will expect his/her interlocutor to know what’s bothering him/her, so that he/she doesn’t have to be specific. The result is that he/she will talk around and around the point, in effect putting all the pieces in place except the crucial one. Placing it properly is the role of his/her interlocutor. CHARACTERISTICS OF LOW- AND HIGH -CONTEXT COMMUNICATION
  46. CHARACTERISTICS OF LOW- AND HIGH -CONTEXT COMMUNICATION  In low context communication, information is embedded mainly in the messages transmitted  Members of individualistic cultures predominately use low-context communication and tend to communicate in direct fashion  Collectivistic cultures: predominately use high-context messages and tend to communicate in an indirect fashion
  47.  Levine (1985) describes communication in the collectivistic Amhara culture in Ethiopia  Basic manner of communication is indirect, often secretive  Amhara, people of the Ethiopian central highlands. The Amhara are one of the two largest ethnolinguistic groups in Ethiopia (the other group being the Oromo). They constitute almost one-third of the country's population. The Amharic language is an Afro-Asiatic language belonging to the Southwest Semitic group.
  48.  Levine (1985) describes communication in the individualistic culture of the US  Affords little room for the cultivation of ambiguity  Dominant north american temper calls for clear and direct communication  “say what you mean, don’t beat around the bush, get to the point”
  49. Basic Cultural Dimensions  High Context vs. Low Context  Monochronic vs. Polychronic  Future vs. Present vs. Past Orientation  Power Distance  Individualism vs. Collectivism
  50.  Low context culture ◦ Things are fully (though concisely) spelled out ◦ Things are made explicit ◦ Considerable dependence is put on what is actually said or written. ◦ Use categorical words: Certainly, absolutely, positively  High context culture ◦ Communicators assume a great deal of commonality of knowledge and views ◦ much more is implicit or communicated in indirect ways ◦ More responsibility is placed on the listener ◦ Qualifiers: maybe, perhaps, probably (Okabe, 1983); used to avoid leaving an assertive impression with the listener ◦ Listeners infer; receiver’s sensitivity and abilities to capture the nonverbal aspect of indirect
  51.  Low context cultures include Anglos, Germanics and Scandinavians  High context cultures include Japanese, Arabs and French
  52. Implications  Interactions between high and low context peoples can be problematic ◦ Japanese can find Westerners to be offensively blunt. Westerners can find Japanese to be secretive, devious and bafflingly unforthcoming with information ◦ French can feel that Germans insult their intelligence by explaining the obvious, while Germans can feel that French managers provide no direction  Low context cultures are vulnerable to communication breakdowns when they assume more shared understanding than there really is. This is especially true in an age of diversity. Low context cultures are not known for their ability to tolerate or understand diversity, and tend to be more insular.
  53. Visualize it this way
  54. High-Context Cultures  Less verbally explicit  More internalized understandings  More long term relationships  Strong boundaries- who is accepted as belonging vs who is considered an "outsider"  Decisions and activities focus around personal face-to- face relationships.
  55. Low Context Cultures  Rule oriented, people play by external rules  Separation--of time, of space, of activities, of relationships  More interpersonal connections of shorter duration  Task-centered  Decisions and activities focus around what needs to be done.
  56. Edward T. Hall's Model High-context cultures  Long-lasting relationships  Exploiting context  Spoken agreements  Insiders and outsiders clearly distinguished  Cultural patterns ingrained, slow change Low-context cultures  Shorter relationships  Less dependent on context  Written agreements  Insiders and outsiders less clearly distinguished  Cultural patterns change faster
  57. Cultural Classification- Hall  Low-Context Cultures - what is said is more important than how or where it is said ◦ U.S. ◦ Germany  High-Context cultures - what is said and how or where it is said are significant ◦ Asia ◦ Latin America ◦ Middle East
  58. Low-context in business  Business before friendship  Credibility through expertise & performance  Agreements by legal contract  Negotiations efficient High-context in business  No business without friendship  Credibility through relationships  Agreements founded on trust  Negotiations slow & ritualistic
  59. High and Low Context Cultures Factors / Dimensions High Context Low Context Less important Is his or her bond Taken by top level Lengthy Japan Middle East Lawyers A person’s word Responsibility for organizational error Negotiations Examples: Very important Get it in writing Pushed to lowest level Proceed quickly U.S.A. Northern Europe
  60. High-context communication  Indirect  Ambiguous  Understate d with speakers being reserved and sensitive listeners Low- context communication  direct  explicit  Open  Precise  Consistent with one’s feelings
  61.  Individuals use low-and high-context messages depending upon their relationship with the person with whom they are communicating.  Individualistic culture of US: use low-context communication in the vast majority of their relationships (Hall, 1976); use high-context messages when communicating with a twin or their spouse of 20 years. In these relationships, it is unnecessary to be direct and precise to be clearly understood.  Asian, African and Latin collectivistic culture use high-context messages when they communicate most of the time; use low-context messages in some relationships (e.g. close friendships)
  62.  Research on cultural differences in communication supports Gudykunst and Ting-Toomey’s (1988) argument that low-and high-context communication are a function of individual-collectivism.
  63. Cross-cultural Values  Freedom  Independence  Self-reliance  Equality  Individualism  Competition  Efficiency  Time  Directness  Openness  Belonging  Group harmony  Collectiveness  Age/seniority  Group consciousness  Cooperation  Quality  Patience  Indirectness  Go-between Americans Japanese Elashmawi & Harris 1993
  64. Conversational maxims  Grice (1975) isolates 4 assumptions regarding coordinated social interaction that are characteristics of low-context communication 1. Individuals should not give others more of less information than necessary (quantity maxim) 2. People should state only that which they believe to be true with sufficient evidence (quality maxim) 3. Individuals’ contributions should be pertinent to the context of conversations (relevancy maxim) 4. People should avoid obscure expressions, ambiguity, excessive verbosity and disorganization (manner maxim)
  65. The Role of Communication in Maintaining Relationships
  66. Characteristics of communication  We communicate for a variety of reasons  Communication may have intentional and unintentional effects  Communication is reciprocal  Communication involves at least two people who influence each other’s actions  Communication involves the use of symbols  Communication need not be successful to have occurred
  67. Communication and relationships  Communication is one of most important factors for a well functioning relationship  If there is no communication there is no relationship  Communication is especially important in therapeutic relationships
  68. Communication Factors Influencing the Quality of a Relationship  Attribution Self disclosure  Individual and cultural differences in communication
  69. Self Disclosure  Social penetration theory (Altman & Taylor, 1973): Relationships are formed by a gradual process of self-disclosure; the sharing of personal facts, inner thoughts and feelings  Collins & Miller (1994): A meta analysis showed that people who disclose intimate information about themselves are more liked than people who don’t
  70. Self-disclosure  Associated with direct communication styles that predominate in individualistic cultures rather than with the indirect communication styles that predominate a collectivistic culture  Intuitively, it appears that individualists would engage more rather than collectivists
  71. Individual Differences  Tannen (1990): In observational studies, she found gender differences in how men and women have conversations. Men interrupt more, women use more language tags, women prefer emotional support whereas men tend to have a problem solving approach to problems  Reis (1986): Women self disclose more than men. Women also disclose more to other women than men to other men.
  72. Social Penetration  Process of developing deeper intimacy with another person through mutual self-disclosure and other forms of vulnerability.
  73. Social Penetration Theory..  Developed by Irwin Altman and Dalmas Taylor (1973)  Theory attempts to understand the levels of self-disclosure that result in the development of interpersonal relationships (Altman and Taylor, 1973)  Self-disclosure: What you chose to reveal about yourself for others to examine and evaluate. (Olson, A. 2012)  Principles of self-disclosure: ◦ Risk ◦ Trust ◦ Reciprocity ◦ Movement from impersonal to intimate information (Pennington, N 2015)  Factors associated with increased depth of relationships: ◦ Time spent together ◦ Commitment/satisfaction with relationship ◦ Environment ◦ Perceived costs and rewards of disclosure (Altman and Taylor, 1973)
  74. 5 assumptions of Social Penetration Theory 1. Person A is aware they are building a relationship with Person B and vice versa 2. Physical proximity is required to develop and maintain interpersonal relationship 3. There are specific disclosures that correlate with each stage of relational closeness 4. Skipping ahead/going out of order of stages can stunt or end the relationship 5. The social penetration process is gradual (Pennington, N. 2015)
  75. Onion Metaphor for Social Penetration Theory  Breadth: Amount of differing topics disclosed  Depth: The extent to which each individual topic is disclosed (Altman and Taylor, 1973)  Four layers of disclosure ◦ 1st: Surface ◦ 2nd: Peripheral ◦ 3rd: Intermediate ◦ 4th: Central (Pennington, N 2015)  Each internal level intensifies in depth and breadth as individuals share more information and spend more time with each other. (Altman and Taylor, penetrationtheory
  76. Facebook and the Four Stages of Self- Disclosure
  77.  Orientation Stage: ◦ Surface layer: appearance, gender, age  On Facebook: Assume that once you befriend someone on Facebook you have accomplished this stage  Exploratory Stage: ◦ Peripheral Layer: asking questions to learn each other’s basic interests, where they are from etc.  On Facebook: Scanning Facebook profile to learn this information ◦ Intermediate Layer: discussing how you feel about things  On Facebook: Chatting on Facebook to learn this information  Affective Exchange Stage: ◦ Entering the Central Layer: discussing personal information, small amount of breadth and depth  On Facebook: Can occur through in depth conversation chatting online or deciding to meet in person  Stable-Exchange Stage: ◦ Reaching the core of Central Layer: full depth and breadth of each other’s personal information achieved  On Facebook: In most cases individuals who have reached this level will have met in person, excluding situations in which the relationship remains exclusively online (can be the case for long distance friendships or in the case of one of the parties masking their true identity) (Pennington, N. 2015)
  78. Amanda M. Olsen’s Study on Facebook and The Social Penetration Theory  In her study of The Social Penetration Theory in regards to Facebook and increasing self-esteem, Olsen tests her hypothesized relationships between those who use Facebook to build relationships through self- disclosure and their related levels of positive self-esteem.  81% of participants reported that they felt good or very good when they self- disclosed through Facebook (Olsen, A. M. 2013)
  79. Amanda M. Olsen’s Study on Facebook and The Social Penetration Theory  Comforted by the Internet ◦ Individuals were able to eliminate in person self- consciousness when self- disclosing information on Facebook. ◦ “Online conversations allow time for an individual to think clearly about a response before replying.” ◦ Online interactions through Facebook are usually done at home, allowing users to feel more comfortable and conversation to be more convenient. (Olsen, A. M. 2013)
  80. Amanda M. Olsen’s Study on Facebook and The Social Penetration Theory  Self Esteem ◦ According to the study, there is a positive correlation between self-esteem and self- disclosure on social media. ◦ Those with low self esteem are more likely to self-disclose on Facebook because it is potentially less likely for them to be rejected. ◦ “Facebook induced self-affirmation produces an array of related psychological benefits, such as being more open- minded, secure, willing to take responsibility for failure in a task, and less likely to blame others.” ◦ Facebook users are more likely to share the positive highlights of their lives, causing their online presence to appear more exciting than the reality they live in.
  81. In conclusion  The Social Penetration Theory illustrates the types and levels of self-disclosure that must occur in order to establish relational closeness.  Facebook causes difficulty when attempting to properly apply this theory to relationships because personal information is so readily available to see online.  In some cases, this causes individuals to make quick decisions about others and decide against truly getting to know them.  Self-disclosures on Facebook are closely related to levels of high self-esteem and some people feel more comfortable revealing self-disclosures through Facebook rather than in person.
  82. References  Olsen, A. M. (2013). Facebook and social penetration theory (Order No. 1537056). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (1356735207). Retrieved from w/1356735207?accountid=4485  Pennington, N. (2015). Building and maintaining relationships in the digital age: Using social penetration theory to explore communication through social networking sites (Order No. 3706935). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (1695847200). Retrieved from  Taylor, D., & Altman, I. (1975). Self-Disclosure as a Function of Reward-Cost Outcomes. Sociometry, 38(1), 18-31. doi:10.2307/2786231
  83. Individualism-Collectivism and Uncertainty  Individualistic culture: seek out person-based information to reduce uncertainty about strangers  Collectivistic culture: seek out group-based information to reduce uncertainty (Gudykunst and Nishida, 1986)  The focus on person-based information leads members of individualistic cultures to search for personal similarities when communicating with outgroup members more than do members of collectivistic culture  The focus on group-based information leads members of collectivistic cultures to search for group similarities when communicating with outgroup members more than do members of individualistic cultures
  84.  Members of collectivistic cultures emphasize the importance of context in explaining other’s behavior more than members of individualistic cultures (Kashima, Siegel and Tanaka in 1992).  The emphasis on context in collectivistic cultures affects other aspects of their communication as well; adapting and accommodating to the context in which they are communicating is an important part of the high-context communication patterns used in collectivistic cultures (Hall, 1976)
  85. Individualism-Collectivism and Communication Rules  Rules for intergroup communication differ across cultures  Noesjirwan (1978): found the rule for behavior with respect to the ingroup in Indonesia is that members of the ingroup should adapt to the group, so that the group can present a united font  Australia: the rule is that members of the ingroup are expected to act as individuals even if it means going against the ingroup  Argyle et al (1986) found the rules regarding ingroups (maintaining harmony) are endorsed more highly in collectivistic cultures like Japan and Hongkong than in individualistic cultures like Britain and Italy.
  86.  Mann et al (1994) examined respect rules for interaction with father, mother, teacher, best friend, adult neighbor, and same age neighbor used by Japanese and Australian children.  Australian children endorsed rules for greeting targets respectfully, did what the target told them and stuck up for the target more than did Japanese children. The Japanese children differentiated their endorsement of rules with respect to parents and teachers compared with friends and neighbors  Japanese rules are person-and situation-specific and that lapses of politeness are tolerated in the family because of the strong ingroup bond.
  87. Individualism-Collectivism and Face-Negotiation  Face involves the projected image of one’s self in a relational situation  Conceptualized as the interaction between the degree of threats or considerations a member offers to another party, and the degree of claim for a sense of self-respect by the other party in a given situation
  88. Ting-Toomey (1988):  Developed theoretical propositions to account for the relationship between individualism-collectivism and face- management  :members of individualistic cultures emphasize self-face maintenance more than do members of collectivistic cultures  Members of collectivistic cultures emphasize mutual-face and other-face maintenance more than do members of individualistic cultures
  89. Face across cultures  Koreans are influenced by others’ powers and the relational distance more than NAs are.  NAs use anti-social, self-presentation and self-attribution face-maintenance strategies more than Japanese do, whereas Japanese use indirect face- maintenance strategies more than NAs.
  90.  Cupach and Imahori (1993): NAs are more likely to use humor and aggression to deal with social predicaments than Japanese are, while Japanese are more likely than NAs to use apologies and remediation.  : NAs use humor to maintain face in embarrassing situations more than Japanese.  : Japanese use remediation to manage face more than NAs do
  91.  Holtgraves (1992): relative power two people have and the relationship between them influences the amount of politeness behavior across cultures.  US emphasize the distance between themselves and others less than Koreans do  NAs assume a closer distance than Koreans do when they interact and use a less politeness behavior than Koreans expect  Koreans may interpret the lack of politeness as a claim to greater power in the relationship
  92. Scollon (1981)  European Americans are less polite than Athabascan Indians when members of the two groups interact.  EA politeness behavior is guided by how close they think they are to the other person  : use less politeness than Athabascan Indians expect (interpret the lack of politeness as being due to the European Americans thinking they are culturally superior)
  93. Individualism-Collectivism and Romantic Relationships  Dion and Dion (1988): suggest that individualism-collectivism is the major dimension of cultural variability that influences similarities and differences in romantic relationships across cultures.  In the individualistic cultures like US the idea of being dependent upon someone else either is viewed negatively or receives a neutral response; not the case in collectivistic cultures.
  94. Doi (1973)  Relates the Japanese concept of amae (tendency to depend upon another person and/or presume upon that person’s benevolence to love.  Amae generally speaking is an inseparable concomitant of love  Hsu (1981) makes a similar observation about love in Chinese culture
  95. Dion and Dion (1988) isolate several problems that arise in individualistic cultures regarding love relationships: 1. One can lose one’s self and the feeling of personal autonomy in a love relationship, feeling used and exploited as a result. 2. Satisfying the autonomous needs of two separate individuals in a love relationship (becomes the balancing act) 3. The spirit of NA individualism makes it difficult for either partner in a relationship to justify sacrificing or giving to the other more than one is receiving. 4. NAs confront a fundamental conflict trying to reconcile personal freedom and individuality with obligations and role requirements of marital partner and parent
  96.  Romantic love is less likely to be considered an important reason for marriage in collectivistic cultures than in individualistic cultures  Romantic love is considered the main reason for marriage in individualistic cultures, whereas having a family tends to be the most important reason for marriage in collectivistic cultures (acceptance of the potential mate by the family is important)  Psychological intimacy is more important to marital satisfaction in individualistic cultures than in collectivistic cultures
  97.  Individualism-collectivism influences the stereotyping of members of the opposite sex based on physical attractiveness  Collectivism leads individuals to stereotype members of the opposite sex on group-related attributes (position in a social network and family memberships) rather than individual attributes such as physical attractiveness  Chinese in Canada
  98. Sprecher et al (1994)  NAs emphasize romantic love, passionate love and love based on friendship more than do Japanese and Russians  NAs rated physical appearance, similarity, family and friend approval, personality, affection and mystery as more important than did Russians and Japanese
  99. Gao (1993)  Individualism-collectivism influences love, intimacy and communication in romantic relationships.  EA partners in romantic relationships reported more passion than did partners in romantic relationships in China;  partners in Chinese romantic relationships reported more intellectual intimacy and uncertainty reduction than did partners in EA relationships
  100. Gao and Gudykunst (1995)  Greater high-context attributional confidence (reducing uncertainty indirectly) in Chinese romantic relationships than in EA romantic relationships  Perceived attitude similarity is higher among EA than Chinese
  101. Hofstede's cultural dimensions The lack of precision, and the lack of a universally applicable framework for classifying cultural patterns, has been addressed by a number of researchers. The most famous and most often cited work in this area is the research by the Dutch organizational anthropologist Hofstede. Hofstede derived his culture dimensions from examining work-related values in employees of IBM during the 1970s. In his original work he divides culture into four dimensions at culture-level:  1)power distance,  2)individualism /collectivism,  3)masculinity/femininity and  4)uncertainty avoidance.
  102. Hofstede’s Dimensions of Culture Power Distance (Large or Small) ◦ The extent to which less powerful members of institutions accept that power is distributed unequally  Large (Mexico, South Korea, India)  blindly obey order of superiors  hierarchical organizational structure  Small (U.S., Denmark, Canada)  decentralized decision making  flat organizational structures
  103. Uncertainty Avoidance (High or Low) ◦ The extent to which people feel threatened by ambiguous situations  High( Germany, Japan, Spain) high need for security strong beliefs in experts  Low (Denmark, UK) willing to accept risks less structuring of activities
  104. Individualism (vs. Collectivism) – The tendency of people to look after themselves and their immediate family only  strong work ethic  promotions based on merit • U.S., Canada, Australia Collectivism – The tendency of people to belong to groups and to look after each other in exchange for loyalty  weaker work ethic  promotions based on seniority • China, South American cultures
  105. Masculinity (Vs. Femininity) – the dominant values in society are success, money and things  emphasis on earning and recognition  high stress workplace • Japan Femininity – the dominant values in society are caring for others and the quality of life  employment security  employee freedom • Scandinavian cultures
  106. Individualism Vs. Collectivism Individualism: refers to people regarding themselves as individuals –U.S., UK, and Sweden Collectivism: refers to people regarding themselves as part of a group – Japan and France
  107. The Power Distance Dimension
  108. Power Distance  Shows the difference between people in a society.  Difference in authority, power, influence.  It also determines how formal and informal people in a culture are and how they interact.
  109. Power Distance in Comparison  Small Power Distance  All people should be independent.  Superiors consider subordinates to be “people like me”.  Superiors are accessible.  All should have equal rights.  Large Power Distance  A few people should be independent; most should be dependent.  Superiors consider subordinates to be a different kind of people.  Superiors are inaccessible.  Power-holders are entitled to privileges.
  110. The Individualism/Collectivism Dimension
  111.  Individualism  People are interested in their own achievement.  Make decisions for themselves.  Value is placed on “I”  Collectivism  People are group oriented and are interested in group achievement.  The prefer to make decisions involving others.  Value is placed on “We”
  112. Individualistic/Collectivistic in Comparison  Collectivist  In society, people are born into extended families or clans who protect them in exchange for loyalty.  Private life is invaded by organizations and clans to which one belongs.  Belief is placed in group decisions.  Individualist  In society, everybody is supposed to take care of himself/herself.  Everybody has a right to a private life.  Belief is placed in individual decisions.
  113. Individualistic versus Collectivistic  Individualistic-Oriented Cultures:  United States  Canada  Australia  Great Britain  Germany  Italy  France  Sweden  Collectivistic-Oriented Cultures:  China  Japan  Columbia  Venezuela  Indonesia  Pakistan  Costa Rica  Peru
  114. The Femininity/Masculinity Dimension
  115. Masculinity-Femininity Cultural Dimension  Is addressed as a societal, not an individual's, characteristic and "refers to the distribution of values between the genders”.
  116. Definitions  Masculinity  A culture in which the dominant values in society are achievement, heroism, assertiveness, money and material rewards for success.  Femininity  A culture in which the dominant values in society are cooperation, modesty, caring for the weak and quality of life.
  117. Femininity/Masculinity in Comparison  Femininity  Sex roles in society are more fluid.  There should be equality between the sexes.  Quality of life is important.  You work in order to live.  People and environment are important.  Masculinity  Sex roles in society are clearly differentiated.  Men should dominate in society.  Performance is what counts.  You live in order to work.  Money and material things are important.
  118. The Uncertainty Avoidance Dimension
  119.  The extent to which people feel threatened by ambiguous situations, tolerate uncertainty and have created beliefs and institutions that try to avoid these.
  120. Uncertainty Avoidance in Comparison  Weak Uncertainty The uncertainty inherent in life is more easily accepted and each day is taken as it comes.  Time is free.  There is more willingness to take risks in life.  There should be as few rules as possible.  Strong Uncertainty The uncertainty inherent in life is felt as a continuous threat that must be fought.  Time is money.  There is great concern with security in life.  There is a need for written rules and regulations.
  121. Elementary Structures of Social Interaction
  122. Fiske (1991)  Integrate diverse bodies of research into a coherent theory of social relations  Structures of Social Life: The Four Elementary Forms of Human Relations  Four elementary structures to guide their action and to make sense of and respond to the social action of other people: communal sharing, equality matching, market pricing  The four structures of social interaction are similar to the social scripts that people use to guide their behavior  Cut across all social domains; shared psychological models people use to coordinate their actions with others
  123. Fiske’s Typology  Go beyond the realm of traditional consistency and balance theories to incorporate the complex network of relationships beyond the dyadic level  Incorporate culture as a key dimension in determining the expression of the four elementary models  Incorporate economic, ethnographic, psychological, sociological and anthropological evidence as well as classified social theory in support of his theory
  124. Communal sharing  Characterized by people who perceive themselves in terms of the group to which they belong  Sharing according to group membership regardless of individual contributions  Individuals in interpersonal relationships that are organized based on communal sharing see themselves in terms of WE and I  Decision making: individual adheres to the wisdom of the group
  125.  Jury system in US 12 individuals are brought together to discuss, deliberate and to reach a decision regarding the issue at hand  Japanese practice of consensus – unanimous agreement stands as the foundation for decision-making practices; individuals place value on decisions made by the group  Persuasion: desire to be similar to others;
  126. similarity compliance occurs in two situations  People try to be similar to avoid the embarrassment of standing out  As perceived similarity increases, the more likely it becomes that influence will occur  The former is clearly illustrated by a traditional Japanese saying: The nail that sticks out will be promptly hammered down.
  127.  Construal of self within the communal sharing structure is predominately shaped by group membership whether in an ethnic group, age, group, family, sports team or religious affiliation, not only experiencing a sense of belonging with a particular group,, but also being recognized as a member of the group by outsiders, plays a part in developing an individual’s sense of self  Communal sharing is established by the groups that one associated oneself with  Use of labels to describe one’s ethnicity  Roosens (1989) described ethnic identity- a fitting representation of how identity operates within the communal sharing structure
  128.  A Mexican students is upset if people mislabel her a Hispanic or Latina which means she is from Spain, calling her Latina would mean she is from Central America, labelling her Mexican acknowledges her Spanish as well as Indian ancestry.  It is not only necessary to be accepted as part of a group, it is also important for outsiders to acknowledge group membership
  129. Communal sharing operates on the basis that  All the members of some group or category are the same and that the group transcends its individual members.
  130. Authority ranking  Involves hierarchy  People perceive each other as different in terms of status  High-ranking people control more resources (power, money, time) than lower-ranking people and have more choices
  131.  The power that superiors hold in authority ranking is not a domination by force or by threat of punishment; it is perceived by the subordinates as a legitimate power that comes from the superior position of the other.  mamá, variation of Colombian term madre: indicates respect owed to authority figures who are nurturing and affectionate
  132. Existence of Authority Ranking  One of the two independent relational concerns that make up the identity individuals report in narrating their lives (McAdams, 1988)  Power and prestige within small decision making groups are determined by status differences among members (Berger, Cohen and Zelditch, 1972)  Psychological persuasive tool in influencing others (Cialdini, 1988)  Filial piety toward parents and services to superiors will be balanced by matching loyalty from one’s own childhood and subordinates (Lebra, 1969): authority ranking and equality matching,; strong obligation to reciprocate is easily changed to authority ranking when the
  133. Equality Matching  A model of social relations in which people are separate, but equal;  This relationship is characterized by a desire for balance  Set apart from communal sharing because members assume that benefits are given with the expectation of receiving a benefit in return (Clark and Mills, 1979)  The receipt of a benefit incurs a debt or obligation to return a comparable benefit  Manifested in turn taking, reciprocity of same or like items, eye-for-an-eye revenge, or equal distribution  It may also take in the form of equal reciprocity in which the actual items exchanged may be different but the categories are perceived as the same or very similar; it is irrelevant to who gets or gives
  134.  Individuals may send birthday cards to people who remembered their birthdays  In relationships characterized by equality matching, a person may think of himself as one of a set of equals who reciprocate fairly, share and contribute equally, a partner on a par with his fellows (I will scratch your back if you will scratch mine)  Individuals perceive themselves as separate from peers, but also as equal to them; social identity revolves around staying even and keeping up with their reference group  Decision making follows a one-person, one-vote format; each vote carries equal weight; turn taking is implemented in decision making (e.g. on one occasion the husband may decide which movie the couple will see, and on the next occasion the wife will decide.
  135. Cialdini (1988)  In US, reciprocity is an important and often used tool  One way reciprocity is used is with the free gifts or samples provided at the grocery store; the free gift serves two purposes: to introduce the consumer to a new product, and to activate feelings of obligation (people who are given free gift may feel obliged to return the favor and reciprocate by buying the product)
  136.  Lebre (1969): Japanese try to reciprocate similar gifts in the same exact circumstance in which the gift was given; culture determines how turn taking is initiated and what is perceived as an appropriate delay before reciprocating  Lerner (1974) demonstrates that children distribute rewards equally. In US, children are generally taught that they should take turns, and should reciprocate gifts and slumber parties; children first begin to externalize equality matching at approximately 4 years of age
  137. Market Pricing  Entails exchange of unlike items or services that are traded in proportion to the market value or to the contribution made  Structure is based on a market system in which people evaluate commodities in ratio terms which includes a cost-benefit analysis  Relationships are entered into as a contract  Relationships are characterized by the idea that civil society in general and the state in particular is the product of a voluntary contract between autonomous individuals who bind themselves to a circumscribed compact to further their individual self-interest  One theory in speech communication similar to the notion is social exchange theory
  138. Social exchange model of a relationship  individuals buy the best type of relationship they can get  Fitzpatrick (1991): individuals look for a relationship that is the most rewarding, the least costly, and the best value relative to other relationships  Decision making within the market pricing structure is influenced by the principle of supple and demand : Billboard’s Top 20 selection is determined by the sale of a particular album. The song with the highest sales during a particular time period is ranked as number one. : a computer software firm may base decisions regarding production of its software line, as well as additional accessories, on the demand for the
  139. Market pricing structure  The attempt to influence individuals, as well as groups, is governed by cost and reward enticements  Turn on the television and tune in to a late night infomercial and you will be bombarded with such claims: if you act now, not only will you receive this valuable item, but we will throw in a free gift too, or act now, while supplies last (Bettinghaus and Cody, 1994)  : marketers actually plan shortage of certain desirable products so that customers will pay for the hard-to-find objects. At Christmas, some dolls, video games, race car sets, and many other products are frequently advertised, but a shortage of the items means that more parents are looking for the products than there are products available
  140. Fiske (1991)  Within the market pricing structure the self is governed by economic rules  People’s occupational, personal financial success, and independent contracts shape their self-concept  People are motivated by achievement, as this is a defining characteristic identity; achievement consists of the need to try to do everything well, to be stimulated to excel by the presence of others, to enjoy competition (Murray, 1938)
  141. Example to clarify the differences of the four models Families can use one or all of the four structures to organize the process of preparing dinner. In the mode of communal sharing, cooking dinner is a family effort. Every member of the family contributes whatever he does to prepare the dinner. Alternatively, within the authority ranking structure, dinner preparation is based on traditional roles in the household. In this case, the mother, who is in charge of the kitchen delegates responsibilities to her children. When equality matching is operating, the responsibility for dinner preparation is distributed equally. For example, people may take turns doing the dishes, or each member of the family may have one specific duty at each meal time. Market pricing is similar to eating out. The family pays someone else to prepare the dinner for them
  142. Dimensions of cultural variability The structures can be associated with the different
  143. Power distance  Differences in views and practices of skills, wealth, status, and power that differentiate clusters of cultures  Power distance is defined as "the extent to which the less powerful members of institutions and organizations within a country expect and accept that power is distributed unequally".  The power distance concept is clearly more far- reaching than the work place alone; often reflected in the hierarchical organization of companies, the respect that is expected to be shown by the student towards her or his teacher, the political forms of decentralization and centralization, by the belief in society that inequalities among people should be minimized, or that they are expected and desired.  In high power distance countries, India, Mexico, Brazil, employees accept that the boss must be obeyed.  In low power distance countries, US, Australia, Denmark, boss gain the trust of employees.
  144. Individualism/Collectivism  Attitudes, beliefs and behaviors that differentiate clusters of cultures (Triandis, 1988)  Hofstede defines this dimension as: "individualism pertains to societies in which the ties between individuals are loose: everyone is expected to look after himself or herself and his or her immediate family. Collectivism as its opposite pertains to societies in which people from birth onwards are integrated into strong, cohesive in-groups, which throughout people's lifetime continue to protect them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty.“  Collectivism is when people see themselves primarily as members of groups.  The US has an individualistic culture, Japan has a collectivist culture.
  145. Masculinity/femininity  Expression of emotions, roles of men and women, and the dominant values of a society Masculinity/femininity is an equally powerful, yet often understated, dimension. Hofstede defines this dimension as follows:  "masculinity pertains to societies in which social gender roles are clearly distinct (i.e., men are supposed to be assertive, tough, and focused on material success whereas women are supposed to be more modest, tender, and concerned with the quality of life);  femininity pertains to societies in which social gender roles overlap (i.e., both men and women are supposed be modest, tender, and concerned with the quality of life)." (Hofstede, 1994)  High masculinity: Japan, Mexico, Italy  High femininity: Norway, Finland, Sweden
  146. Uncertainty Avoidance  Degree of tolerance for ambiguity that is expressed by members of a culture  Uncertainty avoidance is the final dimension present in Hofstede's original work. Hofstede defines uncertainty avoidance as "the extent to which the members of a culture feel threatened by uncertain or unknown situations." (Hofstede, 1994, p. 113) High uncertainy avoidance cultures have strict laws, are highly formal and intolerant.  High: Japan, Argentina, Italy, Israel  Low: US, Great Britain, Sweden, Denmark.  This dimension is fairly easily grasped, and can often be seen reflected in business negotiations.
  147. Value Differences and Similarities Across Cultures  Differences ◦ U.S. managers value tactful acquisition of influence ◦ Japanese managers value deference to superiors ◦ Korean managers value forcefulness and aggressiveness ◦ Indian managers value nonaggressive pursuit of objectives ◦ Australian managers value low-key approach with high concern for others  Similarities ◦ Strong relationship between managerial success and personal values ◦ Value patterns predict managerial success ◦ Successful managers favor pragmatic, achievement- oriented values while less successful managers prefer static and passive values
  148.  Communal sharing structures are predominantly collectivistic in that the structure emphasizes the importance of the ingroup and of shared group goals.  Feminine in that the relationships in the structure value interdependence and guarding the relationship  Market pricing structure is predominantly individualistic in that the emphasis is placed on individual achievement.  Masculine in nature because money, achievement, and independence are valued  Relationships prescribe rules and formal settings, which is standard of high uncertainty avoidance cultures.
  149.  Equality matching is more accepting of differences and ambiguity, therefore the culture is characterized by a low power distance culture, because everyone is considered equal though separate  Predominantly individualistic in that individual status is emphasized: the self is considered separate,  Authority ranking structure is a high power distance culture because of the emphasis on status and the separation of superiors and subordinates. Triandis (1990)notes that collectivistic cultures tend to see a big difference between those with power and those without, and that the emphasis on hierarchy is a characteristic of collectivism. Hofstede (1980) found that power distance and collectivism were highly correlated.  Authority ranking is therefore characterized as a collectivistic culture
  150. Burgoon and Hale’s Relational Topoi  Delineated aspects that are significant and distinct to interpersonal relationships  6 overriding categories derived from the investigation: control, intimacy, composure, formality, task-social orientation and equality  The dimensions may be viewed simultaneously as primary themes for relational discourse and as the dimensions along which partners interpret and define their interpersonal relationship
  151.  Control consists of the dominance- submission dimension, and the distribution of power and influence in relationships  Intimacy is made up of 5 dimensions: affection-hostility, inclusion-exclusion, intensity of involvement, trust, and depth-similarity  Composure has to do with an individual’s self- control, degree of comfort, and relaxation.  Formality is the degree of personalism, reserve, and decorum being exhibited  Task-social factor includes the degree to which tasks influence the relationship  Equality is related to
  152. Authority ranking  Motivated by power (Fiske, 1991)  The motivation of power and influence of a hierarchy create a theme based on the complementary relationship of dominance-submission. The dominant individuals control the upper levels of the hierarchy, whereas the subordinates posses lower levels of the hierarchy  Power is evident in both roles  : dominant individual may possess power based on personal status, whereas the subordinate may control power by using passive-aggressive strategies to get a superior to comply.  In case of authority ranking, individuals with low status respect the status of those who dominate them, high-ranking individuals control many people
  153.  Intimacy level can be high based on the complementarity of the relationship  Each partner attempts to meet the needs of the other based on each one’s dominant or submissive role  Relationships that are complementary are more intimate than those that are not (Berg and Clark, 1986) :traditional marital type which is based on complementary roles in which the husband is dominant and the wife is submissive This couple type reports a higher degree of sharing and intimacy than any of the other types Fitzpatrick (1990) has isolated
  154.  A component of intimacy is apparent in the attempt of subordinates to emulate the behaviors of their superiors.  Similarity is often based on hero-worship; this is based on idealistic loyal admiration … people orient their behavior to others … and modify their behavior accordingly  Description of task relationships in authority ranking: superiors direct and control the work of subordinates while often doing less of the arduous or menial labor.  Superiors control product of subordinates’ labor  The role of the task relationships is controlled by the dominant members of the structure  Manifested in high power distance cultures where higher status individuals closely supervise subordinates and subordinates fear disagreeing with the superior (Hofstede,
  155.  Authority ranking is characterized by formal roles for interaction that are dictated by the status of the individuals in a relationship.  Dominant member controls the formality and the submissive member follows the dominant’s example : the child’s level of formality is dependent on how the parents expect the child to behave  The degree of composure of individuals in the authority ranking structure is determined by the comfort they find in their role in the society  Authority ranking individuals are comfortable with the status differences and accept them as natural, so the degree of composure is high  Subordinates believe that their subordination is legitimate
  156.  Equality is distributed according to status  Whereas equality coexists on the same levels of status, in authority ranking the higher the status, the ore privileges individuals have. The higher an individual’s rank the more opportunity, choice or items she is provided with  Individuals at the lower end of the hierarchy are provided with what is left over or not of equal quality.  Only people who have the same status and authority would consider themselves as equals.
  157. Equality Matching  According to the model there is an equal distribution of power and control  The relationships are characterized by mutual respect  Characterized by intimacy of a reciprocal nature : self-disclosure would be moderated by the level of intimacy in a relationship, but the amounts of self- disclosure provided would be equal  Task social element is moderated in the number of ways under equality matching- individuals may take turns doing a specific job, do different jobs that require equal effort, or align themselves by completing the same task  Levels of composure is at the highest when individuals believe that their roles are distributed equally : husband and wife share household duties that are different If both were satisfied that they were completing equal amounts of work, they would display a high degree of comfortableness and be relaxed
  158.  Contributions match each other’s donations equally  If they did not feel that contributions to the relationships were equally matched, the amount of composure would decrease  According to the model, everyone is equal-there is giving of identical shares in the distribution of goods regardless of needs  Work is distributed equally and individuals are viewed as equal, although they may be different  The primary motivation of the equality matching structure is equality
  159. Communal sharing  Power is centered within the group, the group collectively has control  Intimacy is the main motivation  Relationship is characterized by more listening, more self- disclosure, more references to us and we and by displaying more concern for family and friends.  primary concern is the protection of intimate relationships  A component of intimacy is the main social influence in the communal sharing structure  Relationships are based on conformity and unanimity : people are more likely to choose partners from the same race, social class, intelligence level, religion and so on (Kerckhoff, 1974)
  160. Market Pricing  Control is negotiated using a cost-benefit rationale  The market decides, governed by supply and demand for expected utilities  Market is the dominant force that controls the power  Intimacy levels are determined in part by the cost/benefits of the relationship  Individuals are willing to stay in their relationship as long as the rewards outweigh the costs  Tasks are performed for a wage equal to the effort  Individualistic nature is apparent by the delegation of tasks  In a group project, responsibilities are delegated into individual subtasks  Relationships are not based on maintaining harmony, but function through rivalry  Task-social dimension is essential because individual’s roles are defined by their economic status, achievement, and/or profession