1. What is a brand, and how does the
2. What is brand equity?
3. How is brand equity build?
4. How is brand equity measured?
5. How is brand equity msnsged?
6. What is brand architechture?
7. What is customer equity?
3. A brand as “a name, term, sign, symbol, or design or a combination
of them, intended to identify the goods or services of one seller or
group sellers and to differentiate them from those of
How does branding work?
4. Brands identify the maker of a product and
allow consumers to assign responsibility for its
performance to that maker or distributor.
The Role of Brands
Brand Signals CUSTOMER
5. The Scope of Brands
Branding is the process of endowing products and
services with the power of a brand. It’s all about
creating differences between products.
6. Endowed to product and services with consumers
Defining Branding Equity
Think, feel, and act with respect to the brand
based brand equity
11. Brand Dynamics employs a set of simple scores that summarize a brand’s equity
and are relatable directly to real world financial and business outcomes.
Brand Dynamics Models
12. Brand Resonance Model
The brand resonance model also views brand building as an ascending series
of steps, from bottom to top:
17. Designing Holistic Marketing Activities
personal observation and use
word of mouth
interactions with company
A brand contact is any information-bearing
experience, whether positive or negative, a customer
or prospect has with the brand, its product category,
or its market.
18. Integrated marketing
Integrated marketing is about mixing and
matching marketing activities to maximize their
individual and collective effects.
Advertising Sales Promotion
Personal Selling Public Relation (PR)
Word of MouthEvent
21. Internal Branding
» Internal branding consists of activities and processes that help inform and
inspire employees about brands. Holistic marketers must go even further and
train and encourage distributors and dealers to serve their customers well.
Poorly trained dealers or other intermediaries can ruin the best efforts to build
a strong brand image.
Brand bonding occurs when customers experience the company as delivering
on its brand promise. All the customers’ contacts with company employees and
communications must be positive.
The brand promise will not be delivered
unless everyone in the company lives the
24. Measuring Brand Equity
» Due to brand equity to perform a useful strategic function and guide
marketing decisions, marketers need to fully understand the sources of
brand equity and how they affect outcomes of interest and how these
sources and outcomes change, if at all, over time. Brand audits are
important for the former; brand tracking for the latter.
Brand Audit Brand Tracking Studies
27. Managing Brand Equity
Marketers can reinforce brand equity
by consistently conveying the brand’s
meaning in terms of
»what products it represents, what
core benefits it supplies, and what
needs it satisfies;
»how the brand makes products
superior and which strong, favorable,
and unique brand associations should
exist in consumers’ minds.
Any new development in the
marketing environment can affect a
Nevertheless, a number of brands have
managed to make impressive
comebacks in recent years.
28. Devising a Branding Strategy
When a firm uses an established
brand to introduce a new
product, the product is called a
develop new brand elements
for the new product
apply some of its existing
use a combination of new
and existing brand elements
Deciding how to brand new products is
especially critical. A firm has three main
31. Brand Portfolios
Multiple Brands Reasons
1. Increasing shelf presence and retailer
dependence in the store
2. Attracting consumers seeking variety
who may otherwise have switched to
3. Increasing internal competition within
4. Yielding economies of scale in
advertising, sales, merchandising, and
Brand portfolio is the set
of all brands and brand
lines a particular firm
offers for sale in a
particular category or
37. Customer Equity
The brand equity and customer equity perspectives certainly share
many common themes. Both emphasize the importance of
customer loyalty and the notion that we create value by having as
many customers as possible pay as high a price as possible.
The aim of customer relationship management (CRM) is to
produce high customer equity. Although we can calculate it in
different ways, one definition is “the sum of lifetime values of all
Customer Lifetime ValueAdd-on Spending