2. Bed making is one of the
important nursing techniques to prepare
various types of beds for patients or clients to
ensure comfort and useful position for a
3. To provide rest and sleep.
To provide physical and psychological comfort and
security to the patient.
To give the unit a neat appearance.
To establish an effective nurse patients relationship.
To provide active and passive exercise to the patient.
To promote freshness and cleanliness.
To develop skill in the posture/body alignment of the
nurse in bed-making.
To observe, identify, and prevent patient complications.
To accommodate the patient’s needs.
To reduce patient’s exertion by bed-making.
To eliminate irritants to the skin from the patient’s body.
To dispose of soiled and dirty linen properly.
Another purpose of bed-making is to save time, effort,
and material properly.
4. 1. Closed bed:- It is an empty bed in which top
covers are so arrange that all linen beneath
the spread is fully protected from the dust
and dirt while waiting for the patient. A bed
which remains empty until the admission of
2. Open bed:-The term open bed is used to
designate the hospital bed when it is about to
be occupied by a patient. It is made either for
a new patient or ambulatory patient. The bed
is made as usual a one cover of the bed is
folded back to let the basin in.
5. 3.Admission bed:-The bed is made same way
as in an open bed. The patient get into the
bed after a thorough bath and changing into
the hospital dress, if it is the custom in the
4. Occupied bed:- This is to make a bed with
the patient in ( this is made for a patient who
cannot get out of bed. The preparation and
the aftercare of the patient will be same as
5. Postoperative bed:- It is one which is
prepared for a patient who is recovering from
the effects of anesthesia following a surgical
6. 6.Fracture bed:- It is one which is used for a
patient with fracture of Leg or extremities to
provide firm support by the use of firm
mattress that fracture board or bed board.
7.Amputation bed:- It is the bed used to keep
the stump in good position and to be able to
watch the stump for hemorrhage and apply
tourniquet instantly. For this bed an extra set
of top linen top sheet, blanket and
counterpane. Pillow with waterproof cover.
Bed cradle. Hot water bags to keep bed
8. Mattress cover
Rubber sheet/ mackintosh,
Mattress( to change only if soiled)
Bed side chair/ stool
Disposable gloves ( if Linen is soiled)
Wash cloth 2 and antiseptic cleanser
Water in a basin
Kidney tray with paper bag
Mask if needed
9. Introduce yourself to the patient and verify the client
Explain the procedure to the patient
Wash your hands thoroughly, wear gloves if needed
Bring clean linen and other equipment to patient’s
Do not use another patient’s linen.
Provide privacy to the patient
Help the patient to move out of the bed and make
him/her to sit on chair comfortably.
Move any furniture away from the bed to provide ample
Make sure the bed is Locked.
Lower the head of the bed ( if not in horizontal
position) to make the mattress level and ensure tight-
fitting, wrinkle- free linens, and then raise the bed to a
comfortable working height to prevent back strain.
10. Raise the bed to a comfortable working height
Strip the bed. When stripping the bed, watch for
the patient's eye glasses, dentures, or other
belongings that may have fallen among the
Remove the pillowcase and place it in the laundry
bag or use the pillowcase, hooked over the back
of a chair, as a laundry bag. Set the pillow aside
Lift the mattress edge slightly and work around
the bed, un tucking the linens.
Fold reusable linen, fold the top hem of the
spread down to the bottom hem. Then pick up
the hemmed corners, fold the spread into
quarters, and hang it over the back of the chair.
Do the same for the other reusable sheets.
11. Remove the soiled bottom linens, and place them
in the laundry bag
If the mattress has slid downward, push it to the
head of the bed; adjusting it after bed making
loosens the linens.
Clean the mattress:
o Stand in right side of the bed.
o Start wet wiping/ damp wiping from top to centre
from far to near straight movements and then
from centre to bottom in right side mattress.
o Gather the dust and debris to the bottom and
collect into kidney tray.
o Giving dry wiping by repeating the same steps.
o Move to left side of the bed and repeat the
12. Clean bed side locker. Wipe with wet and dry cloth.
o Place the bottom sheet with its center fold in the
middle of the mattress.
o Open it length wise with the centre fold along the bed
o For a fitted sheet, secure the top and bottom corner
over the mattress corner on the side of the bed
nearest you. For a flat sheet, align the end of the
sheet with the foot of the mattress, and miter the top
corner to keep the sheet firmly tucked under the
o To miter the corner, first tuck the top end of the
sheet evenly under the mattress at the head end of
the sheet at its side edge of the sheet a bout 30 -37
cm from the mattress corner and hold it at a right
angle to the mattress. Tuck in the bottom edge of the
sheet hanging the mattress. Finally, drop the top
edge and tuck it under the mattress.
Place the rubber sheet and then draw sheet (if
needed) about 38 cm (12-15 inches) from the
top of the bed, with its center fold in the middle
of the bed. Then tuck in the entire edge of the
draw sheet on the side of the bed nearest you.
Place the draw sheet on the mackintosh keeping it
about 25cm from the top of the mattress, spread
and tuck as same procedure.
Note; While tucking the linen under the mattress,
pull the sheets with both hands and the palms,
14. Top sheet:
Place the top sheet with the wrong side out and
with its corner fold in the middle of the bed and
its wide hem even with the top of the bed. Allow
enough sheet at the top of the bed to form a cuff
over the spread ( 20-30cm) from the top of the
Make a 7.6 cm to pleat, or vertical tuck, in the top
linens to allow room for the patient's feet and to
prevent pressure that can cause discomfort, skin
breakdown, and foot drop.
Tuck the top sheet and spread under the foot of
the mattress. Then miter the bottom corners.
Move to the opposite side of the bed and repeat
o Place the blanket over the top sheet 15-20
cm below from the top of the mattress.
o Spread it downwards
o Cover the top sheet with blanket in the below
1 foot from the top of the mattress and
spread down wards
o Fold the cuff approximately 1 foot in the neck
o Tuck all these together under the bottom of
mattress. Miter the corner.
o Tuck the reminder along the side.
16. Counter pane or bed spread ( optional)
o If bed spread is used, place it over the
blanket with the outer side out.
o Cuff the bedspread under the blanket and
then bring the top sheet over the spread as
o Make sure that the cuff reaches upto the chin
of the patient.
o Slip the pillow in to a clean case, tucking its
corners well into the case to ensure a smooth fit.
Then place the pillow with its seam toward the
top of the bed to prevent it from rubbing against
the patient's neck, causing irritation, and its open
edge facing away from the door to give the bed a
o Lower the bed and lock its wheels to ensure
o Return furniture to its proper place, and place the
call button within the patients easy reach. Carry
soiled linens from the room is outstretched arms
to avoid contaminating your uniform.
o After disposing of the linens, remove gloves if
used and wash your hands thoroughly to prevent
the spread of microorganisms.
18. Return the bed, the chair and bed side table
to their proper place.
Replace all equipments in proper place.
Discard linen appropriately
Remove gloves and wash hands thoroughly.
Help the patient to lie down on the bed
19. Dr.S.Anuradha. “A text book of Fundamentals of
Nursing for BSc Nursing students”. Vijayawada:
Vijayam Publications. 2022. Page No: 10.41-10.46.
D. Elakkuvana Bhaskara “Raj. Ä text book of Nursing
Foundation”. Bangalore: Emmess Publishers. 2021.
Harkreader, H,: Fundamentals of Nursing- Caring and
Clinical Judgment,8 th edition, W.B. Saunders
Sr.Nancy. “Stephanie’s Principles and practice of
Nursing”. Vol-I. Indore: N.R.Publishing house.