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BY
MRS.NAGAMANI.T, MSc (N)
 The National Nutrition Policy adopted by the
Government of India in 1993 under the aegis
of the Department of Women and ...
 The implementation strategy involves
 setting up Inter Sectoral Coordination mechanism
at Centre, State and District le...
 To reduce the incidence of severe (8.7 per cent) and
moderate (43.8 per cent) malnutrition by half by the
year 2000 A.D....
NNP
Direct Strategies
( Short term Goals)
Indirect Strategies
(Long Term Goals)
It aims to address this problem by utilising
direct (short term) and indirect (long term)
interventions.
Direct interventi...
◦ Expanding the safety net for children – proper
implementation of universal immunization, oral
rehydration and ICDS servi...
◦ Nutrition of adolescent girls to enable them
to attain safe motherhood: The policy has
expanded the ICDS services for th...
2. Food fortification: Fortification of essential
food items with appropriate nutrients is
essential to avoid deficiency d...
4. Combating micro nutrient deficiency in
vulnerable group: Control of micronutrient
deficiencies among the vulnerable gro...
Indirect policy interventions – long
term:
1. Food Security: In order to ensure aggregate food
security per capita availab...
 PRESENT SCENARIO: Net per capita
availability of food grains has decline to
159.2 kgsin 2002-03 from 170 kgs in 1998-
99...
3. Improving the purchasing power: One of the main
causes of under nutrition is low purchasing power of
the poor. So to in...
5. Agriculture and rural development: two-thirds
of India’s people depend on rural employment
for their living. While the ...
6. Informal Sector Jobs: While the services
sector has been offering promising job
opportunities for skilled workers, some...
7. Prevention of Food Adulteration:
Government responsibility is to assure that food
will not cause harm to the consumer w...
8. Nutrition education: World Bank reports that
Indonesia spent only 15% of its national budget
on nutrition education and...
Recommendations
• Focus on 3-6 yr age group children rather
than since birth in ICDS because mal
nutritional ready sets in...
• Form a nutrition council of India like MCI for
quality management of training.
• 5 states and 50% villages contribute to...
9. Land reforms: Implementing land reform
measures so that the vulnerability of the
landless and the landed poor can be re...
10. Health and Family welfare:
Women's poor reproductive health in India is
affected by a variety of socio cultural and
bi...
11. Nutritional surveillance: Nutritional
surveillance is necessary to understand the
nutritional status of the people. Th...
12. Research: Research into various nutritional
aspects should be developed to identify
various deficiency disorders, plan...
14. Communication: The dept. of National Food
and Nutrition should take measures to
communicate the public regarding the n...
16. Equal remuneration for women: The govt.
of India should take measures to empower
women by providing equal remuneration...
18. Improving the status of women: Women
should be empowered by providing basic
education, equal preference for the women
...
20. Monitoring of nutrition programmes: The
govt. of India through the Nutritional
Monitoring Bureau supervises and evalua...
 Nutrition monitoring is the measurement of
the changes in the nutritional status of a
population or a specific group of ...
 The bureau is currently in operation in the
States of Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka,
Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Mahara...
Objectives
 To collect, on a continuous basis, on
representative segments of population in
each of the states data on die...
In fulfillment of its objectives, the Bureau
undertook the following activities, in the past:
 Rural Surveys Regular Diet...
Evaluation of Nutrition Intervention programs
 Applied Nutrition programme in the States of
Kerala, Uttar Pradesh, Mahara...
 World Food Programme assisted
supplementary Nutrition Programme in Bihar
Gujarat, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh,
Maharashtra, O...
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National nutritional Policy

This presentation is about the National Nutritional Policy and NNMB in India

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National nutritional Policy

  1. 1. BY MRS.NAGAMANI.T, MSc (N)
  2. 2.  The National Nutrition Policy adopted by the Government of India in 1993 under the aegis of the Department of Women and Child Development  The strategy of NNP was a multi-sectoral strategy for eradicating malnutrition and achieving optimum nutrition for all.
  3. 3.  The implementation strategy involves  setting up Inter Sectoral Coordination mechanism at Centre, State and District levels,  Advocacy and sensitisation of policy makers and programme managers,  intensifying micronutrient malnutrition control activities,  reaching nutrition information to people,  establishing nutrition monitoring and mapping at State, District and Community level, and  developing district-wise disaggregated data on nutrition.
  4. 4.  To reduce the incidence of severe (8.7 per cent) and moderate (43.8 per cent) malnutrition by half by the year 2000 A.D.  All adolescent girls from poor families to be covered through the ICDS by 2000 A.D. in all CD blocks of the country and 50% of urban slums  To increase per capita availability of 215Kg, for that , to achieve production targets of 230 MT by 2000  At least 100 days of employment created for each rural landless family, employment opportunities in urban slum dwellers and urban poor  Distribution of iodized salt to cover all endemic areas  Nutritional blindness to be completely eradicated by 2000 A.D.  To expand the Nutrition intervention net through ICDS so as to cover all vulnerable children in the age group 0 to 6 years.
  5. 5. NNP Direct Strategies ( Short term Goals) Indirect Strategies (Long Term Goals)
  6. 6. It aims to address this problem by utilising direct (short term) and indirect (long term) interventions. Direct interventions – short term: 1. Ensuring proper nutrition of target groups (Vulnerable groups): The National Nutritional Policy has paid special attention towards the vulnerable groups and implemented many nutritional programmes to improve the health status of these target groups like children, adolescents, pregnant and nursing mothers etc.
  7. 7. ◦ Expanding the safety net for children – proper implementation of universal immunization, oral rehydration and ICDS services have been expanded to cover all vulnerable children in the age group 0 to 6 years. Presently ICDS covers around 15.3 million children from rural and urban slums. ICDS aims at covering the remaining 15.46 nutritionally at risk children by extending ICDS blocks of the country. ◦ Growth monitoring in 0-3 year age group: Growth monitoring aims at identification of malnourished children and provision of nutritional management for the children especially 0-3 years of age group. This includes Provision of adequate nutrition for the children, health education of mothers, empowerment of the mother to manage nutritional needs of her children effectively.
  8. 8. ◦ Nutrition of adolescent girls to enable them to attain safe motherhood: The policy has expanded the ICDS services for the adolescent girls to improve their nutritional status, to prepare them for safe motherhood by providing basic education about nutrition, fertility, Iron supplementation etc. ◦ Nutrition of pregnant women to decrease incidence of low birth weight: Under the policy the government has taken measures to improve the nutritional status of the pregnant mothers right from 1st trimester, supplementation of iron and folic acid, frequent health checkups etc.
  9. 9. 2. Food fortification: Fortification of essential food items with appropriate nutrients is essential to avoid deficiency disorders like iodine deficiency, iron deficiency etc. Example, common Salt with iodine or iron. 3. Provision of low cost nutritious food: Majority of the Indian population belongs to low socio economic status and they cannot afford for the expensive food products. So there is a need to provide low cost and nutritious food products for the people to maintain and improve the health of the individual, family and the community by developing indigenous systems and with locally available foods.
  10. 10. 4. Combating micro nutrient deficiency in vulnerable group: Control of micronutrient deficiencies among the vulnerable groups especially Vitamin A, Iron, Iodine, Folic acid among the pregnant, nursing mothers and children through various nutritional prophylaxis programmes is essential. Example Vitamin A prophylaxis programme, The nutritional anaemia prophylaxis programme etc.
  11. 11. Indirect policy interventions – long term: 1. Food Security: In order to ensure aggregate food security per capita availability of 215 kg/person/year of food grains needs to be attained. This requires production of 250 million tones of food grains per year by 2000 AD. 2. Improving the dietary pattern: The dietary pattern of the people should be improved by promoting the production and increasing the per capita availability of nutritionally rich foods. Provision of nutritionally rich foods at affordable cost. Production of pulses, oilseeds and other food crops will be increased. The production of protective food crops, such as vegetables, fruits, milk, meat, fish and poultry shall be augmented. Preference shall be given to green leafy vegetables and fruits such as guava, papaya and amla with the help of latest and improved techniques.
  12. 12.  PRESENT SCENARIO: Net per capita availability of food grains has decline to 159.2 kgsin 2002-03 from 170 kgs in 1998- 99. Recommendation  Strengthening agricultural policies:  Insufficient food production, inadequate food handling, processing, storage, distribution or marketing should be tackled.  Reduce post-harvest losses  Stabilization of food supplies
  13. 13. 3. Improving the purchasing power: One of the main causes of under nutrition is low purchasing power of the poor. So to increase their purchasing power, Government should generate jobs for them.  Poverty alleviation programme like Integrated Rural Development Programme and employment generation schemes like Jewahar Rozgar yojana , Nehru Rozgar Yojana and DWCRA are to be reoriented and restructured.  It is necessary to improve the purchasing power of the landless and the rural and urban poor by implementing employment generation programmes. 4. Small and medium enterprises (SME): Small and medium enterprises are essential for dynamic economic growth and job creation. Improving access to finance for this sector will be key factor for growth.
  14. 14. 5. Agriculture and rural development: two-thirds of India’s people depend on rural employment for their living. While the agriculture sector grew at only about 2.5 percent a year for a number of years, recent growth has touched 4.7 percent a year, facilitated by good monsoons, greater production of high-value crops, an increase in the minimum support prices for grains, and the rise in global prices for agricultural products. Rural livelihoods projects support the empowerment of the rural poor and the development of their livelihoods. Encouraging policies that promote competition in agricultural marketing will also ensure farmers receive better prices.
  15. 15. 6. Informal Sector Jobs: While the services sector has been offering promising job opportunities for skilled workers, some 90 percent of India’s labor force remains trapped in low-productivity jobs in the informal sector. India’s labor regulations - among the most restrictive and complex in the world - have constrained the growth of the formal manufacturing sector, where these laws have their widest application. Better-designed labor regulations can attract more labor-intensive investment and create jobs for India’s unemployed millions and those trapped in poor quality jobs.
  16. 16. 7. Prevention of Food Adulteration: Government responsibility is to assure that food will not cause harm to the consumer when it is prepared and/or eaten according to its intended use. Under the provision of the PFA Act, the Government of India has promulgated PFA rules which specifies the following details  Qualification, duties and functions of food analysts, food inspectors and central food laboratory.  Procedure for drawing test samples and sending them to the analyst and laboratory.  Specification for the identity and purity of food.  Tolerance for contaminants, preservatives, emulsifiers and other additives.  Present scenario demands gearing up the enforcement
  17. 17. 8. Nutrition education: World Bank reports that Indonesia spent only 15% of its national budget on nutrition education and they reduced the prevalence of under-nutrition by 40%. Hence it is a very cost effective method in the Indian context also. The education strategies to make nutrition the central talking point are:  Social marketing  Communication for behavior change  Advocacy. The services of nutrition specialists and local community leaders should be used to counsel about improving the dietary practices, sanitation and hygiene, encourage breast feeding, birth spacing, deworming of children, gender sensitivity promoting use of fortified foods, mineral and vitamin supplements.
  18. 18. Recommendations • Focus on 3-6 yr age group children rather than since birth in ICDS because mal nutritional ready sets in by then. • Focus on mild to moderate malnutrition and not just on severe malnutrition. • Establish regional, zonal centers' with nutritionists/ scientists and use the expertise of bio-technologists and genetic engineers. • Empower Panchayati raj institutions and form village level nutrition committees for micro planning and formulating short term goals. • A compulsory course on nutrition literacy at the UGC level.
  19. 19. • Form a nutrition council of India like MCI for quality management of training. • 5 states and 50% villages contribute to more than 80% of malnutrition cases. Special focus on these hunger hot spots and tribal areas. Obtaining information using civil registration system for audit. Vigorous awareness campaigns and setting up community grain banks accordingly. • Over-nutrition, obesity and lifestyle related diseases are emerging as a threatening menace with rapid urbanization. The target population should be sensitized about this cause of concern.
  20. 20. 9. Land reforms: Implementing land reform measures so that the vulnerability of the landless and the landed poor can be reduced. The major objectives of land reforms have been: • Reordering of agrarian relations in order to achieve a democratic social structure • Elimination of exploitation in land relations and enlarging the land base of the rural poor • Increasing agricultural productivity and infusing an element of equality in local institutions.
  21. 21. 10. Health and Family welfare: Women's poor reproductive health in India is affected by a variety of socio cultural and biological factors. Thus, efforts to improve women's education, raise enrollment and attendance rates of girls in school and reduce the drop-out rate on the one hand and enhance women's income autonomy on the other are fundamental, in the long run, for improvements in women's and family health.
  22. 22. 11. Nutritional surveillance: Nutritional surveillance is necessary to understand the nutritional status of the people. The policy should be strengthened to conduct nutritional surveillance of children, adolescent girls, pregnant and lactating mothers. The nutritional surveillance should include the following: A. Anthropometry is relevant to programme management for three reasons: i) to identify target groups, ii) in monitoring progress, and ii) in assessing overall programme effects. B. Indicators used must relate to the objectives of the programme.
  23. 23. 12. Research: Research into various nutritional aspects should be developed to identify various deficiency disorders, planning and implementing the nutritional supplementation programmes, develop extensive methods of food production, fortification of foods, production of nutritious food for low cost etc. 13. Minimum wage administration: To improve the purchasing power of the poor minimum wage legislation should be administered. Example at least 60 days leave for pregnant women by the employer in the last trimester.
  24. 24. 14. Communication: The dept. of National Food and Nutrition should take measures to communicate the public regarding the nutritional deficiency disorders, its prevention, and information regarding the nutritional programmes through effective methods of information, education and communication. All the outreach health care centers should be provided with adequate facilities for this purpose. 15. Community participation: For the effectiveness of the services provided for the public the government should create awareness among the public so as to gain their participation. Encourage the public to avail the nutritional health care services and for their maximum utilization.
  25. 25. 16. Equal remuneration for women: The govt. of India should take measures to empower women by providing equal remuneration with that of men. So that she can fulfill the nutritional needs of the family. 17. Improvement of literacy, especially for women: Women should be provided with basic education, since literate women will make the entire family as literates and she will fulfill the nutritional requirements of the family, so that nutritional status of the community can be maintained.
  26. 26. 18. Improving the status of women: Women should be empowered by providing basic education, equal preference for the women that of males, employment services, enhancing the health care services for the women etc. 19. Basic health and nutrition Knowledge: To improve the purchasing power as well as the consumption of nutritional rich foods health education should be provided to the public especially women regarding the importance of nutrition for maintenance of health, various nutritional deficiency disorders, its prevention, preservation and storage of nutrients while cooking etc.
  27. 27. 20. Monitoring of nutrition programmes: The govt. of India through the Nutritional Monitoring Bureau supervises and evaluates the effective functioning of nutritional programmes and recommends the necessary actions required to improve and maintain the health of all age groups.
  28. 28.  Nutrition monitoring is the measurement of the changes in the nutritional status of a population or a specific group of individuals over time- WHO, 1984  The National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau was established under the aegis of Indian Council of Medical Research in the year 1972, with the Central Reference Laboratory at the National Institute of Nutrition (NIN), Hyderabad.
  29. 29.  The bureau is currently in operation in the States of Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal.  The Bureau carries out surveys under the guidance of a Steering Committee and has been generating dynamic database on diet and nutritional status of the communities regularly, since 1975.
  30. 30. Objectives  To collect, on a continuous basis, on representative segments of population in each of the states data on dietary pattern and nutritional status, adopting standardized and uniform procedures and techniques, and  To periodically evaluate the ongoing National Nutrition Programmes to identify their strengths and weaknesses, and to recommend appropriate corrective measures.
  31. 31. In fulfillment of its objectives, the Bureau undertook the following activities, in the past:  Rural Surveys Regular Diet and Nutritional assessment surveys were carried out in the rural areas on a continuous basis.  Time Trends Considering the surveys carried out during 1975-79 as baseline, first repeat survey was carried out during 1988-89 and the second repeat survey was carried out during 1996-97, by covering the same villages surveyed at baseline.
  32. 32. Evaluation of Nutrition Intervention programs  Applied Nutrition programme in the States of Kerala, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Himachal Pradesh, and Manipur (1977-78).  Vitamin A prophylaxis programme in the States of Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Orissa, Rajasthan, and West Bengal (1977-78).  Supplementary Nutrition Programme in Urban Karnataka (1980-81)
  33. 33.  World Food Programme assisted supplementary Nutrition Programme in Bihar Gujarat, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal (1981-82)  Integrated Child Development Services - Status Appraisal in the States of Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and Orissa (1992)  Impact Evaluation of mid-day meal programme in the States of Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Orissa, Karnataka and Kerala (1991-92).

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