PRESENTATION PRACTICAL TASK (A) MINI PROJECT-2.pptx
1. PRACTICAL TASK (A) MINI
NURHADI ALHAKIM BIN ISMAIL 01DEM19F1016
MOHAMAD HAFIZAN BIN ABU HASSAN 01DEM19F1021
MUHAMMAD NAIM B. MUHAMAD RUSLI 01DEM19F1019
• Open-loop controller, also called a non-feedback controller, the
control action from the controller is independent of the "process
output", which is the process variable that is being controlled. It
does not use feedback to determine if its output has achieved the
desired goal of the input command or process "set point". The
open-loop configuration does not monitor or measure the condition
of its output signal as there is no feedback
• Closed-loop systems are designed to automatically achieve and
maintain the desired output condition by comparing it with the actual
condition. It does this by generating an error signal which is the
difference between the output and the reference input.
3. INTRODUCTION AUTOMATIC STREET LAMP
• Automatic Street Light Control System is a simple yet powerful
concept,which uses transistor as a switch.by using this system
manual works are removed.
• by using this system energy consumption is also reduced.the
manual operation of the lighting system is completely eliminated.
• by using the LDR we can operate the light,this is when the light is
available then it will be in the off state and when it is dark rhen the
light will be in ON state,it means LDR is inversely proportional to
4. CLOSED LOOP FOR AUTOMATIC STREET LAMP
• Output light has relation with input LED and use their difference (error)
as means of control through feedback.
5. COMPONENT USES
➜ LDR (LIGHT DEPENDENT RESISTOR)
Light dependent resistors, LDRs, or photo resistors are electronic
components that are used to detect light & change the operation of a circuit
dependent upon the light levels.
The LDR symbol used in electronic circuits is based around the resistor
circuit symbol, but shows the light, in the form of arrows shining on it.
The working principle of LDR is that it gives less resistance in high light
intensity and high resistance in low light intensity, it gives high resistance in
dark or night and low resistance in day or light.
6. ➜ DIOD
Light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor light source that emits light when
current flows through it.
The LED symbol is the standard symbol for a diode with the addition of two small
arrows denoting emission (of light).
7. COMPONENT USED
➜ TRANSISTOR 2N2222A
The 2N2222 is a common NPN bipolar junction transistor (BJT) used for general
purpose low-power amplifying or switching applications. It is designed for low to
medium current, low power, medium voltage, and can operate at moderately high
8. COMPONENT USED
➜ RESISTOR 1k ohm
A resistor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical
resistance as a circuit element. In electronic circuits, resistors are used to reduce
current flow, adjust signal levels, to divide voltages, bias active elements, and
terminate transmission lines, among other uses.
➜ The nine-volt battery, or 9-volt battery, is a common size of battery that was
introduced for the early transistor radios. It has a rectangular prism shape with
rounded edges and a polarized snap connector at the top.
11. PROCESS OF MEASUREMENT
• We need to save or conserve energy because most of the energy
sources we depend on, like coal and natural gas can't be replaced.
Once we use them up , they are gone forever. Saving power is very
important, instead of using the power in unnecessary times it should be
switched off. In any city "STREET LIGHT" is one of the major power
consuming factors. Most of the time we see streetlights are on even
after sunrise thus wasting lot of energy. Over here we are avoiding the
problem by having an automatic system which turns on and off the
streetlights at given time or when ambient light falls below a specific
intensity. LDR is used to detect the ambient light. If the ambient light is
below a specific value the lights are turned on.
12. PROCESS CONTROL ELEMENTS
• The street lamp automatically switches ON when the light goes
below the requirement.
• It automatically switches OFF lights when the light fall on a
sensor called LDR (Light Dependent Resistor) which senses the
13. ADVANTAGE OF LDR IN CONTROL SYSTEM
• Reduce energy consumption because the manually operated
street lights are not switched off properly even the sunlight comes
and also not switched on earlier before sunset.
14. DISADVANTAGES OF LDR IN CONTROL SYSTEM
• Can be more complicated to align detector pairs (IR
transmitter and IR receiver)
• Prescribed system is sensitive to ambient light and require
• Photo resistors are only sensitive to light and no other force
can power it without risking damage. Also ,they are unable
to detect low light levels and may take a few seconds to
deliver a charge while their electrons build up momentum.
Using Infra Red (IR) sensor to replace the LDR
The IR sensors sensing an approaching vehicle and then switching
ON a block of street lights ahead of the vehicle. As the vehicle passes
by, the trailing lights switch OFF automatically.
A phototransistor is more sensitive than a photodiode. But it is slower
than a photodiode and it has also less response time than an LDR.
Considering several good properties of a phototransistor we can say
that it a phototransistor is a perfect replacement for an LDR.
• With the help of this project we can understand the mechanism of
AUTOMATIC STREET LIGHT On/Off
• As a conclusion,around 77%-81% of power consumption can be
reduced by using this system towards providing a solution for energy