Mais conteúdo relacionado



  1. ECTOPIC PREGNANCY Tayebeh gharibi
  2. Ectopic Pregnancy Occurs when the conceptus implants either outside the uterus (Fallopian tube, ovary or abdominal cavity) or in an abnormal position within the uterus (cornua cervix).
  3. Epidemiology & Risk Factors: • Between 95% and 98% occur in the fallopian tube. • More than 50% of tubal pregnancies are situated in the ampulla . • Approximately 20% occur in the isthmus. • Around 12% are fimbrial. • Approximately 10% are interstitial.
  4. Understanding The Pathophysiology
  5. • In theory, any mechanical or functional factors that prevent or interfere with the passage of the fertilized egg to the uterine cavity may be aetiological factors for an ectopic pregnancy. • 50% operated for ectopic pregnancy have evidence of chronic pelvic inflammatory disease.
  6. mechnical • Anatosalpingitisy • Pelvic surgery • Iud • Tumor • Preferal adheision • endos
  7. functional • Hormonal(minipill,iud,ocp) • Smoking • endometriosis
  8. Clinical Features
  9. Vaginal bleeding - (usually old blood in small amounts) and chronic pelvic pain (iliac fossa, sometimes bilateral) are the most commonly reported symptoms.
  10. General Examination • Shoulder pain which may occur secondary to blood irritating the diaphragm and vascular instability characterized by low blood pressure, fainting, dizziness and rapid heart rate may be noted. • Symptoms are present in about 59% of patients and most typical patients whose ectopic pregnancy has ruptured (intra- abdominal bleeding).
  11. Gynaecological Examination • Speculum or bimanual examination must be performed in an environment where facilities for resuscitation are available, as this examination may provoke the rupture of the tube.
  12. Laparoscopy & Uterine Curettage • The mere absence of placental villi in the curretage does not completely exclude a diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy because an ectopic pregnancy in a tube, cornu or the cervix may partially abort.
  13. Human chorionic gonadotrophin and transvaginal ultrasound • One of the most important parameters is the discriminatory hCG level above which the gestational sac of an intrauterine pregnancy should be detectable by ultrasonography (usually 1000iu/L). • An empty ectopic sac or a hetero genous adnexal mass is a more common ultrasound feature.
  14. • The presence of fluid in the pouch of Douglas is a non-specific sign of ectopic pregnancy. • 10-20% ectopic pregnancies, a pseudogestational sac is seen as a small, centrally located endometrial fluid collection surrounded by a single echogenic rim. • Laparoscopy should be considered in women with hCG above the discriminatory level and absence of an
  15. Management
  16. • Treating ectopic pregnancy has always been surgical (salpingectomy or salpingotomy), either by laparotomy or laparoscopy. • Non-surgical (medical) therapeutic approaches have been introduced, such as puncture and aspiration of the ectopic sac, local injections of prostaglandins, potassium chloride, hyperosmolar glucose or methotrexate.