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Design Futures through Design Fiction
Professor Paul Coulton

Chair of Speculative and Game Design, Lancaster University, ...
Research Practice
R r
Research into Design Research through Design Research for Design
Process Artifact
New Knowledge
rese...
The What If?
Bel Geddes

Futurama 1939
Vapour Fiction
Vapourware
Vaporware is a term
commonly used to describe
software and hardware
that’s is announced, and
sometimes marketed...
Radical Design
Continuous Monument

Superstudio
Radical Design
Archigram
Future
Present Future
Time
Probable Plausible Possible
Josepth Voros
Impossible - based on current scientific
knowledge
Possible
Present Future
Time
Probable - likely to happen
Plausible - could happen
Possible - might happen
Future
Critical Design
Present Future
Time
Probable Plausible Possible
Preferable
Preferable to who?
PREFERABLE SHOULD BE A QUESTION WE
ASK OURSELVES NOT SIMPLY THE AIM
Speculative Design
Auger
use fiction
no commercial
constraints
prototype driven
Speculative Design
use fiction
no commercial
constraints
prototype driven irreverant
Auger Coulton
Design Fiction
“deliberate use of diegetic prototypes to
suspend disbelief about change... It
means you’re thinking very s...
Design Fiction
“deliberate use of diegetic prototypes
to suspend disbelief about change...
It means you’re thinking very s...
Diegesis
mimesis and diegesis describe ways of
presenting a story. In mimesis, the story is
acted out. In diegesis, the st...
Diegetic Prototypes
“have a major rhetorical
advantage even over true
prototypes: in the fictional
world – what film scholar...
Present
adapted from James Auger
Present
Future
Domestication
Emerging
Technology
Speculative Futures
Design Fictions
Vapo...
Present
Present
History, Reality,
and Fiction
Past
Future
Gonzatto, R. F., van Amstel, F. M., Merkle,
L. E., & Hartmann, T...
Past
“We look at the present through a rear-view mirror.
We march backwards into the future”
Marshall Mcluhan
Multiple Realities
Present
Future
Time
Plausible
Possible
Past
Plausible
Possible
Point of Focus
Design Fiction
“So a design fiction is
(1) something that creates a fictional world, (2) has something
being prototyped with...
Near Future Domestication
World Building
In response to the recent European Directive the UK government sanctioned the use of drones by commercial p...
World Building
World Building
Voigt-Kampff
A MACHINE FROM THE FUTURE
World Building
World Building
World Building
World Building
Suspend Disbelief
allowing players to consider alternate presents and plausible futures
Games as Speculative Design
Critical Games
thus far the focus of the critical
games created has primarily
been either: critiques of current
events or ...
Critical Games
Phone Story - Mollie Industria giant joystick - Mary Flanagan
Persuading through Games
Persuasive Technology
Procedural Rhetoric(Gamification) VS Persuasive Games
liminal liminoid
Persuasive Technology
B.J Fogg
Captology - reduce a problem so
that it can be addressed through
the promotion of minor beh...
Persuasive Technology
High
Ability
Low
Ability
High
Motivation
Low
Motivation
Target
Behaviour
D
esired
Trajectory
ofU
ser...
Rhetoric
Pathos
(empathy)
Ethos
(credibility)
Logos
(logic)
CONTEXT
Aristottle
Logos - would utilise facts,
statistics, an...
Rhetoric of Design
Rhetor Audience
Speech
Intent
Expectations
Rhetoric
Graphic Designer Audience
Image
Intent
Expectations
Visual Rhetoric
Rhetoric of Design
Designer Users
Product
Intent
Expectations
Design as Rhetoric
Rhetoric of Design
Richard Buchanan
Game
Game Designer Player
Rules
Interaction
Game Design as Rhetoric
Rhetoric of Design
the basic representational mode of
...
Interactive System
Interaction Designer User
System
Logic
Interaction
Interactive Systems as Rhetoric
Rhetoric of Design
C...
Developing In-Game Rhetoric
Mudlark
Climate Change
Weather
Flow
Storage
Scale
Charles and Ray Eames
Powers of 10
COLD SUN
Games as Speculative Design Should:
Enable a Plurality of Futures
Be Plausible
Enable both Mimesis and Diegesis
Be Iterati...
Questions
Banksy
Design Futures through Design Fiction
Design Futures through Design Fiction
Design Futures through Design Fiction
Design Futures through Design Fiction
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Design Futures through Design Fiction

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Design Futures through Design Fiction

  1. 1. Design Futures through Design Fiction Professor Paul Coulton Chair of Speculative and Game Design, Lancaster University, UK @ProfTriviality
  2. 2. Research Practice R r Research into Design Research through Design Research for Design Process Artifact New Knowledge research questions emerge from context and criteria
  3. 3. The What If?
  4. 4. Bel Geddes Futurama 1939
  5. 5. Vapour Fiction
  6. 6. Vapourware Vaporware is a term commonly used to describe software and hardware that’s is announced, and sometimes marketed, but never actually produced ATARII 2700
  7. 7. Radical Design Continuous Monument Superstudio
  8. 8. Radical Design Archigram
  9. 9. Future Present Future Time Probable Plausible Possible Josepth Voros Impossible - based on current scientific knowledge
  10. 10. Possible Present Future Time Probable - likely to happen Plausible - could happen Possible - might happen Future
  11. 11. Critical Design Present Future Time Probable Plausible Possible Preferable
  12. 12. Preferable to who?
  13. 13. PREFERABLE SHOULD BE A QUESTION WE ASK OURSELVES NOT SIMPLY THE AIM
  14. 14. Speculative Design Auger use fiction no commercial constraints prototype driven
  15. 15. Speculative Design use fiction no commercial constraints prototype driven irreverant Auger Coulton
  16. 16. Design Fiction “deliberate use of diegetic prototypes to suspend disbelief about change... It means you’re thinking very seriously about potential objects and services and try to get people to concentrate on those – rather than entire worlds or geopolitical strategies. It’s not a kind of fiction. It’s a kind of design. It tells worlds rather than stories” Bruce Sterling
  17. 17. Design Fiction “deliberate use of diegetic prototypes to suspend disbelief about change... It means you’re thinking very seriously about potential objects and services and try to get people to concentrate on those – rather than entire worlds or geopolitical strategies. It’s not a kind of fiction. It’s a kind of design. It tells worlds rather than stories” Bruce Sterling
  18. 18. Diegesis mimesis and diegesis describe ways of presenting a story. In mimesis, the story is acted out. In diegesis, the story is narrated. Mimesis is show. Diegesis is tell.
  19. 19. Diegetic Prototypes “have a major rhetorical advantage even over true prototypes: in the fictional world – what film scholars refer to as diegesis – as these technologies exist as real objects that function properly and that people can actually use.” Kirby 2009
  20. 20. Present adapted from James Auger Present Future Domestication Emerging Technology Speculative Futures Design Fictions Vapour Fiction Past Speculative Futures Design Fictions Vapourware Alternate Presents or Lost Futures
  21. 21. Present Present History, Reality, and Fiction Past Future Gonzatto, R. F., van Amstel, F. M., Merkle, L. E., & Hartmann, T. (2013). The ideology of the future in design fictions. Digital creativity, 24(1), 36-45.
  22. 22. Past “We look at the present through a rear-view mirror. We march backwards into the future” Marshall Mcluhan
  23. 23. Multiple Realities Present Future Time Plausible Possible Past Plausible Possible Point of Focus
  24. 24. Design Fiction “So a design fiction is (1) something that creates a fictional world, (2) has something being prototyped within that fictional world, (3) does so in order to create a discursive space.” “Although this definition appears straightforward, complexity arrives when we consider what something may be” Lindley and Coulton
  25. 25. Near Future Domestication
  26. 26. World Building In response to the recent European Directive the UK government sanctioned the use of drones by commercial providers subject to pilots holding an approved Drone Pilot Proficiency Certificate (DPPC). As the government anticipated the main use has been in providing services to local authorities that aid in the enforcement of local by-laws. Whilst many commercial providers have followed the traditional path of employing dedicated enforcement officers to pilot the drones, in this paper we present on-going research that 'gamifies' the enforcment activities to allow members of the local community to act as enforcement officers. In particular we have worked with retired members of the police and armed services as drone pilots in relation to the enforcement of by-laws relating to parking offences and dog fouling in a small UK city. The initial results indicate that not only does this age group find the game-like activity enjoyable they feel that they are providing an important service to their community.
  27. 27. World Building
  28. 28. World Building
  29. 29. Voigt-Kampff A MACHINE FROM THE FUTURE
  30. 30. World Building
  31. 31. World Building
  32. 32. World Building
  33. 33. World Building
  34. 34. Suspend Disbelief
  35. 35. allowing players to consider alternate presents and plausible futures Games as Speculative Design
  36. 36. Critical Games thus far the focus of the critical games created has primarily been either: critiques of current events or practices; or critiques of games themselves
  37. 37. Critical Games Phone Story - Mollie Industria giant joystick - Mary Flanagan
  38. 38. Persuading through Games Persuasive Technology Procedural Rhetoric(Gamification) VS Persuasive Games liminal liminoid
  39. 39. Persuasive Technology B.J Fogg Captology - reduce a problem so that it can be addressed through the promotion of minor behavioural change for easily understood and uncontroversial goals.
  40. 40. Persuasive Technology High Ability Low Ability High Motivation Low Motivation Target Behaviour D esired Trajectory ofU sers FACILITATOR SPARK SIGNAL SIGNAL The Facilitator is a trigger that also makes the desired behaviour easier to perform. The Signal is a trigger that identifies an appropriate time to perform a particular behaviour for those already motivated to perform that behaviour. The Spark is a trigger that provides the initial inspiration to change behaviour. B.J Fogg
  41. 41. Rhetoric Pathos (empathy) Ethos (credibility) Logos (logic) CONTEXT Aristottle Logos - would utilise facts, statistics, analogies, and logical reasoning. Ethos - would draw upon credibility, reliability, trustworthiness and fairness. Pathos - would appeal to our emotions and draw upon feelings of fairness, love, pity, or even greed, lust, or revenge.
  42. 42. Rhetoric of Design Rhetor Audience Speech Intent Expectations Rhetoric
  43. 43. Graphic Designer Audience Image Intent Expectations Visual Rhetoric Rhetoric of Design
  44. 44. Designer Users Product Intent Expectations Design as Rhetoric Rhetoric of Design Richard Buchanan
  45. 45. Game Game Designer Player Rules Interaction Game Design as Rhetoric Rhetoric of Design the basic representational mode of videogames is “procedurality”, enacted through rule- based representations and interactions and, when used to reveal processes or concepts of another system, present the player with a procedural rhetoric Ian Bogost
  46. 46. Interactive System Interaction Designer User System Logic Interaction Interactive Systems as Rhetoric Rhetoric of Design Coulton
  47. 47. Developing In-Game Rhetoric Mudlark
  48. 48. Climate Change
  49. 49. Weather
  50. 50. Flow
  51. 51. Storage
  52. 52. Scale Charles and Ray Eames Powers of 10
  53. 53. COLD SUN
  54. 54. Games as Speculative Design Should: Enable a Plurality of Futures Be Plausible Enable both Mimesis and Diegesis Be Iterative Not Resort to Reductionism Perpetual Beta
  55. 55. Questions Banksy

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