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BIT PROJECT

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BIT PROJECT

  1. 1. 1 Unique Online Shopping and Auction Website ID: 000805763 Student: Myint Oo @ Amirul Hassan Due Date: 24/04/2014 Word Count for report – 11962 (Excluding appendix – 2497) Supervisor: MR FRANCIS MURPHY June 2014 A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the University of Greenwich’s [BSc (Hons) Business Information Technology] COMP 1181 – Project (Information Systems & Multimedia)
  2. 2. 2 Acknowledgement I would like to express my gratitude to KMD and UOG for providing me the possibility to complete this project. I have furthermore to thank to Daw Wa Wa who gave me the valuable guidance and suggestion on how to start the project. I would also like to give my sincere gratitude and thanks to my supervisor, Mr. Francis Murphy who kept offering me very precious advice, suggestions, encouragement and guidance from the start to the end of the project. I am deeply indebted to the general manager and some employees of Unique who helped me analyzing their business. Without them, completion of this project will not be possible. I also wish to extend my thanks to some people including my family who indirectly helped me complete this project.
  3. 3. 3 Abstract As web technologies are on the rise, websites are becoming a target to extend business for companies. Unique wants to introduce its business to online uses to extend a new way of selling the products and services. Before developing the website, it’s important to observe online market situation, online purchasing process, ethical and legal issues to prevent the unwanted risks and make the website more effective. Unique project is to develop a dynamic website which will be able to be run with different browsers such as Mozilla Firefox, Chrome, Opera, and Safari etc. Latest technology will be used to develop the website. The website will include upload products, sells products, deliver products, payment, online auction and bidding and produce reports. In order to manage the project development, DSDM will be applied. UML will be applied to help DSDM to manage the project more efficient. PHP will be used to create the website. The project report will contain 9 chapters which covers everything about the project from the start to deliver the project.
  4. 4. 4 Table of Content Acknowledgement ...................................................................................................................................2 Abstract....................................................................................................................................................3 Chapter 1 1.1 Introduction....................................................................................................................................10 1.1.1 Background Information ........................................................................................................10 1.1.2 Why UNIQUE needs an online store (Problem Areas)..........................................................11 1.1.3 Scope of the project ..........................................................................................................11-12 1.1.4 Aims and Objectives ..............................................................................................................12 1.1.5 Short overview of Chapter 1...................................................................................................12 Chapter 2 2.1 Literature Review 2.1.1 Introduction on literature review........................................................................................14 2.1.2 Influence of online marketing on customers 2.1.2.1 Online purchasing processes.........................................................................................15 2.1.2.2 Online market research ............................................................................................15-16 2.1.2.3 Customer satisfaction and loyalty in the online market processes................................16 2.1.3 Current Issues in the online marketing..............................................................................16 2.1.3.1 e-CRM building successful customer relationships online...........................................16 2.1.3.2 Privacy, Security and Ethical Issues .............................................................................17 2.1.4 Guidelines for user interface design to be used ............................................................17-18 2.1.5 User Groups..........................................................................................................................19 2.1.6 Methodology to be used........................................................................................................20 2.1.6.1 SSADM.........................................................................................................................20
  5. 5. 5 2.1.6.2 Advantages and disadvantages of SSADM .............................................................20-21 2.1.6.3 DSDM...........................................................................................................................21 2.1.6.4 Advantages and disadvantages of DSDM.....................................................................22 2.1.6.5 Comparison of DSDM and SSADM.............................................................................23 2.1.6.6 Why I select DSDM......................................................................................................24 2.1.6.7 UML..............................................................................................................................24 2.1.6.8 Advantages and disadvantages of UML .......................................................................25 2.1.7 Techniques to be used ..........................................................................................................25 2.1.7.1 Use case diagram ..........................................................................................................25 2.1.7.2 Class diagram................................................................................................................25 2.1.8 Technology to be used ..........................................................................................................26 2.1.8.1 ASP.NET ......................................................................................................................26 2.1.8.2 PHP...............................................................................................................................26 2.1.8.3 Comparison of ASP.NET and PHP...............................................................................27 2.1.8.4 Why I select PHP..........................................................................................................28 2.1.8.5 Database (Oracle/MySQL) ...........................................................................................28 2.1.8.6 Comparison of Oracle and MySQL ..............................................................................29 2.1.8.7 Why I select MySQL ....................................................................................................29 2.1.9 Short overview of Chapter 2................................................................................................30 Chapter 3 3.1 Feasibility Study 3.1.1 Introduction on the appropriateness of using DSDM in the project ......................................32 3.1.2 Six filters of DSDM...........................................................................................................32-33 3.1.3 Short overview of Chapter 3...................................................................................................33
  6. 6. 6 Chapter 4 4.1 Foundation 4.1.1 Introduction on how requirements captured...........................................................................35 4.1.2 Analysis on similar online shopping and auction websites 4.1.2.1 Evaluating the three selected websites with the selected guidelines........................35-40 4.1.3 Why checklist.........................................................................................................................40 4.1.4 Accessibility and Usability Checklist of three selected websites...........................................41 4.1.5 Evaluation of checklist ...........................................................................................................41 4.1.6 Interviewing with responsible employees working in Unique ...............................................42 4.1.7 Short overview of chapter 4 ...................................................................................................42 Chapter 5 5.1 Exploration 5.1.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................44 5.1.2 Low fidelity prototypes ..........................................................................................................44 5.1.3 Evaluation of low fidelity prototype.......................................................................................45 5.1.4 Functional and Non functional requirements ....................................................................45-47 5.1.5 Use Case diagram..............................................................................................................47-48 5.1.6 Class diagram .........................................................................................................................49 5.1.7 Short overview of chapter 5 ...................................................................................................49 Chapter 6 6.1 Engineering 6.1.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................51 6.1.2 How database will be created.................................................................................................51 6.1.4 Short overview of chapter 6 ...................................................................................................51
  7. 7. 7 Chapter 7 7.1 Deployment 7.1.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................53 7.1.2 Change/Add/New features......................................................................................................53 7.1.3 Time box.................................................................................................................................54 7.1.4 High fidelity prototypes..........................................................................................................55 7.1.5 Evaluating the developed website with guidelines and standards.....................................55-56 7.1.6 Evaluation of high fidelity prototypes....................................................................................56 7.1.7 Accessibility and usability checklist.......................................................................................57 7.1.8 Evaluation of checklist ...........................................................................................................57 7.1.9 Short overview of chapter 7 ...................................................................................................57 Chapter 8 8. 1 Testing and Evaluation 8.1.1 Test plan .................................................................................................................................59 8.1.2 Black box................................................................................................................................59 8.1.2.1 Explanation of criteria used for testing.........................................................................60 8.1.2.2 Unit and Integration testing......................................................................................60-61 8.1.3 Short overview of chapter 8 ...................................................................................................61 Chapter 9 9.1 Overall Conclusions.......................................................................................................................63 9.1.1 Achievements .........................................................................................................................63 9.1.2 Extent to which aims were met ..............................................................................................63 9.1.3 Critical Evaluation of Project.................................................................................................64 9.1.4 Future Development...............................................................................................................64
  8. 8. 8 9.1.5 What I learn from this project ................................................................................................65 Bibliography………………………………………………………………………………………66-67 Appendix I. Project proposal…………………………………………………………..…69-71 II. Project plan…………………………………………………………………...…72 III. Interviews………………………………………………………………….…73-75 IV. Prototypes………….……………………………………………………..….76-80 V. Use case descriptions……………………………………………………...…81-84 VI. Test cases…………………………………………………………………......85-90
  9. 9. 9 Chapter 1
  10. 10. 10 1.1 Introduction As Myanmar is a developing country, IT businesses are also increasing day by day. So, companies are competing with each other by offering better services to customers. Many companies are trying to extend their business through online as people who use the internet have significantly increased in recent years. UNIQUE is one of them that want to persuade the customers to buy the products via online as it’s a flexible way of shopping. 1.1.1 Background Information UNIQUE Mobile and Computer Sale & Service Company is one of the most popular IT companies in Myanmar. The company was set out in 2014 with a view to provide satisfactory sales services and other services such as second-hand products in Myanmar. It is the first company in Myanmar which started providing free lifetime services to all UNIQUE customers in Myanmar. Because of which it has already gain customer trust and huge reputation of offering satisfactory sales and services. UNIQUE’s motto is “Customer’s satisfaction is our first priority”. It’s a medium sized company which has three branches in Yangon. The Company is running manually with 40 staffs. Its main office is located at Pansondan Street (Upper Block) in Kyauktada Township, Myanmar. The company is well-decorated and all the products are well-placed with each brand name and category. Products menus are also available from which customers can choose the products easily by using them. Second-hand products are not displayed at the company. It makes sellers and buyers together for second-products services. It takes 10% commission on second-hand products. As mobile technology is increasing day by day, people from all level are willing to buy smart phones, tablets etc for their daily needs. So, UNIQUE is the only place where people’s intentions are because of its lifetime services and warm communication. UNIQUE wants to broaden its business through online to promote sales in nationwide. It will provide ease and comfort to not only its regular customers but also remote customers in rural places to buy products from online. So, it could gain broad customer base and improve sales rate by converting manual sales system into online sales system.
  11. 11. 11 1.1.2 Why UNIQUE needs an online store Presently, UNIQUE is running all its transactions manually. The records are kept using paper based system. So, it is hard to find the specific record in time and the more the records are, the more the places are needed. As it has three branches, each branch records the data in its own format and style. Because of keeping records in different format, data are not consistent and difficult to understand when monthly income and expense are calculated for all UNIQUE branches. With the current way of doing business, it is hard to know which products are best selling and which orders are best made, which customers buy most. It takes time to let customers know the new and latest products as it has to advertise them through newspaper or magazines. Customers don’t know which products are available and which are not at UNIQUE. The company is facing many difficulties to offer satisfactory second-hand products services because more employees have to be appointed to record the related information and fails to show the digital photos of the second-hand products etc. As its branches are located only in Yangon, the remote customers in nationwide don’t have a chance to buy the products. It can’t provide 24 hour services and sales owing to the highest overtime labor cost and other expenses. So, it fails to offer 24 hour services to customers. The above are the reasons why UNIQUE wants to have an online store. After developing the project, customers can shop in the comfort of their home without going to the Unique centers and can save time and compare prices to website to website. 1.1.3 Scope of the project The project will be a dynamic website which allows customers to buy the products, bid an auction through the internet using a web browser. There will be four key sections in the website. 1. Online sale 2. Payment 3. Online Auction 4. Different kind of reports on products Online Sale Customers can select various products with different sizes, color and prices based on categories. If they want to buy the products, they have to register first. The bought products must be added to the shopping cart and can be reviewed once again after they are bought from the cart.
  12. 12. 12 Payment In order to check out, they have to select a payment method such as cash on delivery. After the check out process is finished, a successful message is displayed attached to customers address and the types of products they have bought. Online Auction The website will let members to list their products up for auction. It doesn’t have the products in stock and doesn’t send the products. In order to upload products for auction, auctioneer must first register at the website. Likewise, bidders must also register with shipping address on the website to bid an auction. A bidder can’t bid twice at one time. The name of the bidders will always be shown as soon as they have bid at the bidding page. The last bidder will be shown with name and bid amount at the specified date. Auctioneers can also see how many products they have uploaded for auction monthly at their profile page. Different kind of reports on products The website can show different kind of reports such as daily reports, monthly reports and yearly reports. It also shows which products are best selling and best ordered. 1.1.4 Aim and Objective The main aim of the project is to develop a successful and effective website for UNIQUE so that requirement must be properly identified. In order to get user satisfaction, usability and accessibility issues should be considered first before developing the system. As a good system, it should be maintainable and extendable which means functions depending on the need of business can be inserted and repaired after development. 1.1.5 Short overview of Chapter 1 In this first chapter, firstly, a little introduction on how companies including UNIQUE in Myanmar are willing to extend their business via online is discussed. Secondly, the background information of UNIQUE is clearly discussed so that the current business operations and its market position can be learned and analyzed. Thirdly, it is discussed that the difficulties which UNIQUE is facing and why it needs an online store. Fourthly, scope of the project is discussed in separate sections with clear explanations of functions which will be included in the proposed website of UNIQUE. Eventually, aims are objectives are explained in order to develop a successful website.
  13. 13. 13 Chapter 2
  14. 14. 14 2.1 Literature Review 2.1.1 Introduction on literature review Before developing an online shopping and auction website for Unique, it’s important to make a review of online marketing on customers, deals with business perspectives and present issues and risks in online marketing and factors affecting adoption of online marketing. Only then, Unique can prevent unexpected risks and problems. What’s more the business will become more effective and can get return on invest within short period of time. The detail about online marketing is discussed in the following sections. In order to make a successful project, planning and analyzing the requirements is the most important. Without a plan, the project can’t meet its requirements and finish on time. Then methodology must be selected to manage the project more effectively within development period. Jason emphasizes that: "Adopting an incorrect methodology or having no project framework in place can very easily cause to have: Schedule slippages Miscommunication within the team Wasting of time on administrative tasks that have no purpose Reliance on technical wizardry to get projects done Project management burnout” So, the right methodology should be chosen. Otherwise, the whole project would be a complete waste of time. Finally, tools and techniques need to be chosen as they help the development process more smoother and selected methodology more efficient. Choosing guidelines for the user interface design is essential because only good interface can attract online customers and make them pleased to browse the website. The following will be discussed in detail of methodology, tools, techniques and guideline.
  15. 15. 15 2.1.2 Influence of online marketing on customers 2.1.2.1 Online purchasing processes It’s widely researched that many Myanmar online users browse the shopping websites but only fewer users become real buyers. So, Unique should try to think about it before converting into online store. In order to make its business more effective online, Unique should observe why online customers hesitate to buy, why they leave from add to cart process and stop the buying process in the middle. The following are my assumption on how to turn online users into buyers and Unique regular customers. Why online users are reluctant to buy may be for remote delivery cost, lack of specific and required buying information, difficulties after purchasing such as repayment and late delivery, security issues, different unexpected problems such as financial, psychological risks. Why online users leave the buying process is too technical such as unexpected delivery cost or complicated functions. Some online users would like to buy from online in standard, but various difficulties such as technical issues, inadequate systems make them confused. No matter how difficult the situation is, marketers shouldn’t lose hope for the future. Even though the understandings of customers concerning the shopping via the web are decreased, the environment can still provide high probability for the chosen customer segments. It’s found in the studies that online users who find relevant product information by using the web usually have strong purpose to buy online. In Myanmar, making payment online is not very popular and many people are afraid of making payment online in a thought that they won’t get their ordered products and there are no guarantees for it. They would like to make payment after they get the products. 2.1.2.2 Online market research As the technology is on the rise, Unique has many chances to carry out marketing research in a short span of time in order to know what the real needs of online customers through online survey form, feedback, online forum and many more. Only then Unique can gratify its online customer needs. Not only the Unique company but also the customers can benefit from these techniques that the business can provide up to minute information about products and get more information from customers and customers can tell what they require and ask for the specific information about
  16. 16. 16 products they would like to know. In this way, the Unique and its customers can have a strong relationship. 2.1.2.3 Customer satisfaction and loyalty in the online market processes As Unique Company would like to stay for long on the web field, it’s very important for it to invest in customer satisfaction from the online and make the site loyalty. Two ways to persuade loyalty into customers in an online context are paying attention on actual factors and personalizing efforts and increasing the social value of online experiences. The first way is e.g. making a user centered design and well-design online shopping website and provides secure functions are the main reasons of getting customer satisfaction but it’s impossible that every customer who has satisfaction for the online store doesn’t become loyal. The second way is e.g. building strong relationship with customers. It’s very crucial for the success of a business or company because these are the people where money comes from. According to some studies, custom-made websites and customer communities are very important for the customer relationship mainly for skilled online users. In addition, the company can build customer trust and boost the apparent value of online store which can convert their satisfaction into loyalty in the e-marketing environment, too. 2.1.3 Current Issues in the online marketing 2.1.3.1 e-CRM building successful customer relationships online The success of Unique website relies on having the right information about customers to let them know which products and services are available at what time etc. As Unique is going to provide online services, it needs to collect personal information of all its customers and non-customers so that they can know which kind of services should extend and let them know about the new products and up to minute information of their business individually which is the most essential requirement of CRM plan. In this way, Unique can easily build and maintain strong relationship with customers online. It can provide loads of advantages to Unique if it develops online CRM system such as making customer relationship strong, reducing the cost of customer services etc.
  17. 17. 17 2.1.3.2 Privacy, Security and Ethical issues As the internet is a free flow of communications, Ethical, privacy and security issues become the most important factors to consider. Recently, Myanmar government has taken a step to develop legal imposition and laws for IT but the risks and concerns of ethics, privacy and security are left as other most important factors which stop online users from shopping online. Privacy Issues - It’s a one of the biggest problems of online stores indicating unauthorized access, sending and receiving personal information etc. Marketers might use the power of technology for illegal purposes to develop the progress of market and response mechanisms. So, measuring useful use of data sources with the privacy rights of person has become a huge policy issues today. Many guidelines and principles are available to get customer’s trust which can keep them secure from security and privacy issues. There is a principle called FTC is in relation to warning customers beforehand in collecting information, offering them an opportunity to make a decision how the data should be used and many more. Security Issues – As Unique has to collect personal information of customers to inform them about its business, it has the sole responsibility to keep their personal information secure. Rival companies may attack the personal information to degrade the reputation of Unique. So, Unique should focus on security issues. Ethical Issues – DPA, Data Protection Act should be applied to process the personal information of customers as it has eight principles which cover how the information should be shared to third party organizations if required, how the permission should be asked from the customers to share their information, how information should be kept etc. Unique should adopt new protection technologies for the security of their customers even if it’s costly and hard to use because once customers know that their personal information are abused, they might lose trust and relationship with Unique. 2.1.4 Guideline for user interface to be used As the web technology is improving day by day, people from different places are using websites for different purposes with different devices. The websites should provide equal access to all people. Unique website should be realistic and understandable for almost all kind of customers. So, it must be built based on appropriate guidelines and standards. There are a lot of guidelines for websites to improve usability, accessibility, visibility, security and many more. W3C standards and Nielsen are two of them. W3C and Nielsen will be used to develop Unique website because W3C is mainly
  18. 18. 18 focused accessibility and Nielson for usability. The below are some standards and guidelines of W3C and Nielson which will help make Unique website better. These are the reasons why I selected these guidelines and standards. The following are some guidelines of Nielson 1. Provide emergency exit (for example, if users do an action by mistake, they should be provided access to the home page with one click such as home link) 2. Provide user control and standard (for example, the users shouldn’t be wonder for the same words “ Home” “ Home Page”) 3. Provide help and documentation 4. Ensuring that layout and content is well-structured and consistent. 5. Making sure that use of standard font and size There are many set of Nielson’s guidelines approximately 31 guidelines but only the above 5 guidelines will be applied to develop new interface design because they are mainly used by developers around the world. These are very fundamental for developing a website and they have mainly suggested the main necessities that a good website should have. W3C stands for World Wide Web Consortium. It tells the main part of what makes a good website. It says (The below are some standards of W3C which will be used for accessibility to develop Unique website) 1. The website provide clear navigation and sitemap 2. Ensuring that the whole site is not replying on colour 3. Making sure that it provide user control ( For example, play and stop buttons for the moving texts and graphics) There are many W3C standards and versions but only above 3 will be used because these three standards are very important for a good website. Without these, the website will be difficult to use. The other standards are also important but without them, the website will have not much accessibility problems. In my opinion, these two guidelines will be best suited to develop Unique website because they suggest the main necessities of the websites for example accessibility, usability, user freedom, consistent and standard. Without them the websites are incomplete. I don’t think other guideline will be very appropriate because they have a few set of guidelines.
  19. 19. 19 2.1.5 User Group There will be three types of users who will use Unique website. Depending on the type of users, their need of information will be different. The types of users are as follow Customer (Newly registered) It is assumed that customer users will be young and old people. Their need of information will be different from others. The information they will need are as follow - New products - Service - Delivery type - Promotion - Payment information - Contact information Members (Bidders) It’s assumed that bidder users will be all ages such as young and old. Their need of information will be different from customer and other users. The following information what they will need are - Item types - Minimum price - Owner information - Specified date - Winner information Members (Auctioneers) It’s assumed that auctioneer users will be all ages such as young and old. Their need of information will be different from bidder and other users. The information they may need are shown below - Commission - Bidders information - Auction type
  20. 20. 20 2.1.6 Methodology to be used As the methodology offers a standard and guidelines to make sure that project is conducted in a well-managed and reliable manner which not only increases the quality of the product and result but also finish it on time. So, a methodology will be applied for Unique project development. There are many methodologies for project management but I will pick two widely used methodologies called SSADM and DSDM for Unique project. First of all, it will be explained what SSADM and DSDM are. Secondly, it will be discussed the advantages and disadvantages of using these methodologies. Thirdly, comparison between them will be made. Fourthly, it will be explained why I selected one, DSDM for the two attached logical reasons. SSADM (Structured Systems Analysis and Design Method) It’s a widely used methodology which is generally used for government computing projects. This methodology is suitable for the large-scale projects. It offers users clear and simply understandable documentation including different diagrammatic representations of the system. SSADM divides project into modules, tasks, steps and stages. Data model is the primary model of SSADM. SSADM techniques are logical data modeling, data flow modeling and entity behavior modeling. SSADM has seven stages to cover the entire system analysis and design process. These seven stages are Feasibility, Investigation, Business system option, defining requirements, technical system option, logical design and physical design. Advantages of using SSADM SSADM helps to meet all user requirements and finish on time so that the project can be delivered on time to the customers. The three techniques of SSADM such as logical data modeling, data flow modeling, entity event modeling improve quality and flexibility of the project as it focus on the performance of data and information system viability. Unlike DSDM, developers have much freedom and liberty due to the lack of user involvement during the project development.
  21. 21. 21 Disadvantages of using SSADM As SSADM focus on the analysis and its documentation, the risk of over-analyzing can be caused which takes time and late delivery. Because of the different kind of description methods, consistent checks can’t be performed. The outline diagram for larger systems can’t be clear due to related data flows which must be contained. If every stage of SSADM thoroughly is followed, it can be time consuming and may cause delay between start and delivery (Which is normally for the first time users who see the working system). SSADM doesn’t allow iteration. Once an error occurred in the middle of the developing system, the development process must be started from the beginning. If development time takes longer, users will not be satisfied at the time of delivery. DSDM (Dynamic Systems Development Method) DSDM is an agile project framework focusing on delivering business solutions rapidly and efficiently rather than team activity. It comes from Rapid Application Development, RAD supported by its user involvement in an iterative development and incremental approach which responds positively to the need for change to develop a system. So, the system not only meets the requirements of business but also finishes on time and budget. It creates steps to make sure that the feasibility and business sense of a project before it’s started. Prototype is widely used to ensure all interested parties get the clear understanding of all aspects of the system. DSDM has become a well known framework as it can solve complex tasks and support iteration during the development process. It can be developed for both agile and traditional development processes. There are four techniques used in DSDM are Tim boxing, Moscow, Prototyping and workshop.
  22. 22. 22 The DSDM development process is shown in the following figure Figure – 1 Advantages of using DSDM As users and all parties related to the business involve in the project development, the system will meet all the business requirements. With the use of time boxing technique, project can be delivered within specified time. Data will be gathered by using workshop to develop the system so that the risk of building wrong system will become less. The gathered requirements will be prioritized with the help of MosCow techniques so that the system will not fail as key functions will be implemented first. Prototyping will be used to make users understand the complete aspects of the system so that users can provide feedback and ask for the urgent needs to improve their business. Disadvantages of using DSDM DSDM is only suitable for smaller projects. If the project is large, not all part of the project will be able to use DSDM. Business users don’t have technical knowledge or skills which can effect on developer’s time by explaining everything happening in the development process.
  23. 23. 23 Comparison between DSDM (Agile) and SSADM (Traditional) The following table is referenced from Volkan G¨ unal (2012) Agile Software Development Approaches and Their History. [Online]. Available at: https://sewiki.iai.uni-bonn.de/_media/teaching/labs/xp/2012b/seminar/1-agile.pdf (Accessed: 15 December 2013). Criteria DSDM (Agile) SSADM (Traditional) Approach Adaptive Predictive Iterative Yes No Project Size Small Large Emphasize People-oriented Process-oriented Team Size Small Large Need of resources Less More Based on the above table and my current knowledge of DSDM and SSADM, I could say that DSDM (Agile method) is more realistic and effective and exciting because of the team work and continuous communication with clear minds to develop projects. The following studies on the cost and benefits were collected by the data and analysis center and software development researchers in Israel. The following tables are referenced from Dr. David F. Rico, PMP, CSM (n.d.) WHAT IS THE ROI OF AGILE VS. TRADITIONAL METHODS? [Online]. Available at: http://davidfrico.com/rico08b.pdf (Accessed: 15 December 2013). Figure – 2
  24. 24. 24 By studying the above two tables on cost and benefits, it’s obvious that the use of DSDM in the project development (Agile method) can provide quick delivery and user satisfaction. So, DSDM should be used if the project is not big enough. Why I select DSDM for my project Why I have selected DSDM is that the scope of Unique project is not big and DSDM is suitable for smaller project. If anything is wrong within development process, they can be easily maintained unlike other methodologies. With the help of using DSDM, all business requirements will include in the Unique website and the project can be delivered on time. UML (Unified Modeling Language) UML is not a process but a modeling language itself with its notation and syntax which is used with other methodology to develop the project more effectively. It has 14 types of diagrams which are divided into two categories called structural and behavioral. The following diagrams can be categorized hierarchically. Figure – 3 According to Sinan Si Alhir (1998) “the capturing, communicating and leveraging of strategic, tactical and operational knowledge to facilitate increasing value by increasing quality, reducing costs and reducing time-to-market while managing risks and being proactive in regard to ever-increasing change and complexity.
  25. 25. 25 Advantages of using UML UML is the most efficient technique of visualizing the system design. It’s not dependent on other programming language. It’s not compulsory that all UML diagrams are used with the selected methodology for project development. The correct decision can be made before provided poorly written code. Almost all problems can be known before starting the development process. Disadvantages of using UML UML doesn’t have a standard file format and no specification of modeling of user interfaces. It’s large and complex including other different concepts and inaccurate semantics. It’s very difficult to synchronize code with model. Different models and diagrams of UML can make it complicated to keep them constant with each other and the code added by hand. 2.1.7 Techniques to be used Techniques are used to describe how to gather information, communicate and normally get things done effectively and efficiently. It also helps the selected methodology. There are 14 types of UML diagrams from which only 2 types of diagrams called use case diagram and class diagram will be used to analyze the system. The following are the reasons why they will be applied for project development. Use Case Diagram Out of all UML diagrams, use case is the most effective and powerful diagram to analyze user requirements. Use case offers clear visibility into the system. It shows the interaction of the system with its users and some connections between internal system operations, even though at a high level of abstraction. So, users can have a clear understanding of the proposed system. Use case diagram are widely used by many analysts around the world to represent and communicate a joint understanding of scope of the project. Class Diagram Using class diagram, overview of the proposed system can easily be known as it shows the objects and classes inside the system and the relationships between them. It can also be know that which methods are needed to add in the proposed system.
  26. 26. 26 2.1.8 Technology to be used As the growth of technology today, different technologies such as various programming languages and databases are available. In order to develop Unique website, it’s very important to choose the right technology for the success and effectiveness of the website development. Firstly, different types of programming languages such as ASP.Net, PHP will be discussed. Secondly, various sorts of databases such as Oracle, MySQL will be discussed. Thirdly, comparison of various programming languages and databases will be discussed. Finally, the selection of programming language and database including the reason why I choose them will be explained. Different types of Programming Language ASP.NET (Active Server Pages.NET) ASP. NET is a server side framework to develop websites. It is widely used by 20% of all the websites worldwide. It’s solely server side technology. Using ASP.Net, websites can be developed with a minimum of coding. It’s compatible with different platform such as Microsoft Visual Basic, C#, Jscript.Net etc. It makes deployment easy. It offers complete support for CSS, XML and many other web standards. It also supports object oriented programming. Developers can classify their own set of controls because of its use of flexibility. So, it can be said that ASP.NET is an effective and lucrative platform to build the websites. PHP (Personal Home Page) PHP is the most well-known scripting language for enhancing web pages. It’s open source and has thousands of programming functions to facilitate any tasks. It can be used on almost all platforms such as Windows, Mac OS X, RISC OS, Linux and many others. It also supports for nearly all web servers used today such as Apache, IIS etc. It’s also very suitable with MySQL database which will be used to develop Unique website.
  27. 27. 27 Comparison of ASP.NET and PHP The following comparison table is taken from http://www.codeproject.com/Articles/102854/PHP-and-ASP-NET-A-Feature-List [Accessed on 21 December 2013]. The original table contains 30 criteria but I selected 7 criteria from them which I believe to be true. It’s just waste of time to make a complete list. So, I took the key criteria only. Criteria ASP.NET PHP Price ASP.NET - .NET Framework is free. So ASP.NET also free Web Server – IIS – Not Free. OS cost applicable OS – Windows Server – Not Free PHP – Free Web Server – Free OS – Linux is free, Windows is costly Cross Platform Yes Yes Mode of source Closed Source Open Source Developer Help Community Community Languages C# VB.NET Jscript, etc. PHP Security IIS must be improved from the past and now a days it is one of the secure web servers Major web servers are secure Performance Faster Faster for small programs and slower for medium-to-big programs
  28. 28. 28 Why I select PHP Due to time limit and specified time to develop the website, it’s easier to learn and quicker to create a website with PHP compared to ASP.NET. It is open source and works on almost all operating systems. Many resources and references are available on the internet where I can have help for Unique project development because PHP has large communities worldwide. Unlike ASP.NET, Error handling can be performed greatly and easily and error descriptions and messages are cleared explained. PHP can be run on free web servers such as Linux and Apache while ASP needs paid IIS on windows to be run. Database Without database, there’s no website. So, I need a good database to create the website. There are many databases available such as Oracle, MySQL and many more. I will pick up the right one which is suitable with the selected programming language after making some comparison with other databases. First of all, different types of databases will be discussed. Secondly, comparisons between them will be made. Finally, choosing the right database from them with reasonable reasons will be explained. Oracle Oracle is a broadly used database which has the higher feature set. It runs on variety of hardware and well-known platforms such as Unix, Linux, Mac OS and Windows. It not only offers best performance, tight security for data in databases and good administration but also saves storage cost, server cost and unnecessary service for high-availability. It also includes a different critical function which works efficiently with large amount of data. MySQL MySQL is a very well-known and powerful open source database and data storage system. It provides huge consistency and ease of use. It can be used for free and comes with free documentation. Information and data can be retrieved quickly and easily and used by multiple website users at the same time. Developers or programmers worldwide share their code which relates to communicating with MySQL database. It’s a best choice for PHP, the selected programming language to develop Unique website because it facilitates to connect to and manage MySQL database.
  29. 29. 29 Comparison of Oracle and MySQL The following table is taken https://www.udemy.com/blog/oracle-vs-mysql-vs-sql-server/ [Accessed on 21 December 2013]. Criteria or Features Oracle MySQL Security Security features included Security features included Price High Cheap Language support C, C#, C++, Java, Ruby, and Objective C C, C#, C++, D, Java, Ruby, and Objective C Interface GUI, SQL SQL Platform Windows, Linux, Solaris, HP-UX, OS X, z/OS, AIX Windows, Linux, OS X, FreeBSD, Solaris Licensing Proprietary Ope n source By seeing the above table, it’s obvious that MySQL has many good points compared to Oracle. So, I will use MySQL database as it’s highly compatible with PHP. Why I select MySQL database MySQL is so easy enough to build and interact with it with just a few simple SQL statements. It contains data security layers that prevent intruders from accessing the sensitive data. So, developers don’t have to worry about data security. It is allowed for free and provides all features which are needed by many web developers and programmers. Developers can handle large amount of data with MySQL database and extend theoretical limit of 8TB of data. It runs on multiple operating systems. These are the key reasons why I select it for Unique website development.
  30. 30. 30 2.1.9 Short overview of chapter 2 First of all, literature review on the effectiveness of online marketing on Unique online business and the risk of online marketing and many more are clearly discussed including the real business examples of Unique. Deep analysis on different methodologies, techniques and database are discussed. Then comparisons of various methodologies, techniques and databases including clear explanation and tables are shown. Finally, based on my current knowledge and information and data, it’s described how the right methodology, technique and database are chosen to develop Unique website with the strong reasons.
  31. 31. 31 Chapter 3
  32. 32. 32 3.1 Feasibility Study 3.1.1 Introduction on the appropriateness of using DSDM in the project The Unique project is specified to finish within six months. So, DSDM is the most appropriate to manage project development as time boxing must be specified before starting the project which helps project finish on time. It’s not suitable for large and complex projects. It can be checked that if DSDM is the right methodology for Unique project based on the following six suitability filters of DSDM. The below six filters are referenced from Stapleton (1997). 3.1.2 Six filters of DSDM "Will the functionality be visible at the user interface?" Yes. All the functions which will contain are not complex and be the same as other similar online shopping and auction websites. So that user interface will be visible with simple and clear functions. "Can all classes of end users be identified clearly?" Yes. Some employees working at Unique and its customers will involve in the project development. But out of them, only a specific effective group should be clearly identified in order to work with developers to make the project meet all business requirements. "Is the website computationally complex?" No. As Unique website is an online commercial website, it won’t include complex features and functions. "Is the website potentially large? If it is, can it be split into smaller functional components?" Yes. As two sub systems called online shopping and auction are going to be developed for Unique, the system will be larger and have several functions and features which will be split into sub functions which facilitate the development and delivery processes.
  33. 33. 33 "Is the project really time constrained?" Yes. As UOG provides me six months to develop the project, it must be finished within the specified time. So, it is time constrained. "Are the requirements flexible and only specified at a high level?" Yes. High level requirements are specified by the company because the website may become useless if a high level requirement is left. Low level requirements can be made changes depending on the needs of the business. 3.1.3 Short overview of chapter 3 It’s clearly described that whether DSDM is appropriate to develop Unique project or not which is done by using six filters of Stapleton (1997) including the reasonable reasons and examples. After doing the above way, it has come out that DSDM is the right methodology to manage Unique project. Analysis for the development of Unique project will be discussed in the following chapter in details.
  34. 34. 34 Chapter 4
  35. 35. 35 4.1 Foundation 4.1.1 Introduction on how requirements captured As DSDM is chosen for Unique project, the four DSDM techniques and some other requirement gathering methods such as interview will be used to capture the user requirements to develop the system. First of all, research on three most popular similar websites will be made to get the idea and way of building the website for Unique with good necessities. Then evaluation of similar websites with selected guidelines and standards will be performed in order to improve usability and accessibility issues for the proposed website. A checklist will be used to get user preferences of the three existing websites. Only then user’s need of the proposed system will easily be known and known. With the help of DSDM techniques and other techniques, Workshop and interview will be used for collecting required information from the end users and Unique employees to process requirement specification. 4.1.2 Analysis on similar online shopping and auction websites The first website (Online shopping website) https://www.zawgyimart.com/ [Accessed on 1 January 2014] Figure – 4
  36. 36. 36 4.1.2.1 Evaluation of these three website with selected guidelines and standards The above website is going to be evaluated with Nielson guideline first then W3C standards. Without usability and accessibility issues, a website can’t be fast and ease of use. So, it’s very important to consider for usability and accessibility issues before building a website. As I explained at the section of guideline to be used, Nielson will be used for usability as it’s one of the key aspects for building good websites. Then W3standards will be used for accessibility as it’s the main mechanism for websites. Similarly, the second and third websites will be done the same. Provide help documentation (Nielson Guideline) The website contains help documentation which is written in both simple English and Myanmar so that users can’t have difficulties to use. Help documentation is categorized into different sections so that users can easily find the specific help they need while using it. Having Emergency Exit (Nielson Guideline) When using the websites, users may reach at the unknown pages with wrong click and they want to go back to home page. If there’s no link to go home page, they tend to leave the website and go somewhere else. Nielson suggest that “There should be a clearly marked “emergency exit” to leave the unwanted page without having to go through an extended dialogue.” The website provides emergency exit by putting its logo at every page which is linked to the home page. So, with just one click on its logo, users can go to the homepage again. Layout and Content (Nielson Guideline) The layout of content of the website is well-structured. Because of its limited content, the website can attract and stay users to use it. But needing to scroll down to see the products can make users disappointed because many users don’t like to do it. Use of Font and Size (Nielson Guideline) Different types of fonts with different sizes used at different pages of the website can annoy users to their sight. Especially it’s not suitable for elderly people. Provide navigation and sitemap (W3C Standards) The navigation bar is well-placed and no blank links on it which makes user annoyed. The search box on the navigation makes it more attractive and users find their specific products easily. The website has sitemap which is categorized into three different types; products sitemaps to find specific products, category sitemap to search the products using each category, to find the products with brand name e.g. Apple, Samsung etc. So, users can get everything from one place, sitemap.
  37. 37. 37 Provide user control (W3C Standards) There’s no moving objects used at the website. The website provides full user control when viewing the products with zoon tool at the Buy it now page. Replying on Color (W3C Guideline) The website is not dependent on color. The white background with black fonts is used for all pages which is suitable for all users with different ages such as young, old, user with disabilities. The second website (Online shopping website) http://www.yangononlinestore.com/ [Accessed on 9 January 2014] Figure – 5
  38. 38. 38 Provide help documentation (Nielson Guideline) Even if the help link is put at the footer of the website, there’s no help information in it. It not only can make users annoyed and disappointed but also decrease the trust of the website. Having Emergency Exit (Nielson Guideline) The website offers emergency exit by putting home link at every page. So users can go to home page by clicking on it. Layout and Content (Nielson Guideline) The layout of the content is not very well-structured. The way things are arranged on the home page is not consistent and can’t get user attention. Rather than putting some important information at the top, they are put at the bottom of the website. Use of Font and Size (Nielson Guideline) A well-recommended web font called Time New Roman is used throughout the website. Same font size is used for all pages. So, the website can provide full accessibility to all users. Provide navigation and sitemap (W3C Standards) Unlike other websites, users may be lost and confused as soon as they see the home page because there’s no navigation bar at the home page but sub navigation. Sitemap is not included as well. Provide user control (W3C Standards) The website doesn’t provide user control e. g there’s no pause button for the moving pictures of products at home page. This will be a biggest issue for users with disabilities. Replying on Color (W3C Guideline) Like the first website, the white background is used throughout the whole website. The font color used is also appropriate for all users. So, it can be said that it’s not replying on color.
  39. 39. 39 The third website (Online Auction Website) https://www.jeetle.in/ [Accessed on 12 January 2014] Figure – 6 Provide help documentation (Nielson Guideline) Help documentation as well as some important tip to win the products are clearly written attached required images under separate headlines so that users can have easy understanding and will be able to bid and post for auctions. Having Emergency Exit (Nielson Guideline) The logo put at the left side of the banner at every page of the website is linked to the home page as an emergency exit. So, wherever the users are, they can easily go back to home page with just one click on the logo. Layout and Content (Nielson Guideline) Even if the layouts of contents are well-placed, there are many moving texts and images used for products which make users dissatisfied. Some users don’t like to see much information at the home page. These types of users can leave this website because of too much information.
  40. 40. 40 Use of Font and Size (Nielson Guideline) There’s no standard way using fonts at this website. Various types of fonts are used with different color and size which is completely against for users with disabilities. Provide navigation and sitemap (W3C Standards) Like other popular websites, key navigation bar is well-positioned under the logo which doesn’t contain many navigation tabs. Each navigation tab has many sub navigations which can help users find their specific needs of things at website. Provide user control (W3C Standards) The website provides full user control for the moving texts and images of products by just putting cursor on them. So, there will be no issues for user with visual impairment. Replying on Color (W3C Guideline) Like the above two website, the website uses white background as a whole. The use of font color and background color are very suitable. So, it doesn’t rely on color. 4.1.3 Why checklist Based on the selected guidelines and standards, the following checklist is drawn which will be used to check the selected websites. The main reason to draw the following checklist is to investigate the existing issues of the website and fix and improve them in the proposed website.
  41. 41. 41 4.1.4 Accessibility and Usability Checklist of the three websites Remark: These ratings are given by end users. Criteria Rating Accessibility Website-1 Website-2 Website-3 Readable font size 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 Color suitable for user with disabilities 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 Loading speed 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 Reasonable scrolling 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 Text and images replying on color 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 Usability Website-1 Website-2 Website-3 Emergency exit works 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 Navigation links work 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 Correct link 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 Clear headings and links 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 Well-structured layout and content 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 Correct contact information 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 Sitemap contains key links 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 4.1.5 Evaluation of checklist According to their ratings, these three websites are not poor. But each website has some different accessibility and usability issues for example, website 1 has some font and scrolling issues but not usability issues and website 2 navigation and link issues but not accessibility issues and website 3 has color, scrolling and sitemap issues. As a result, it can be said that websites are good but not perfect. Based on the above issues found in the existing websites, guidelines and standards, Unique website will be developed.
  42. 42. 42 4.1.6 Interviewing with Unique responsible employees As described in the introduction, interview method will be used to gather required information to build the website for Unique. So, each responsible employee will be interviewed. The following interview table will include employee’s name, date, time and place. Employee Name Date Time Place U Kyaw Win (General Manager) 13 January 2014 9 am to 10 am Unique (Head office) U Myo Thura (Sale Director) 13 January 2014 1 pm to 2 pm Unique (Sale center) U Khin Maung (Senior Cashier) 14 January 2014 2 pm to 3 pm Unique (Sale center) Daw Myo Myo (Delivery Manager) 15 January 2014 9 am to 10 am Unique (Head office) The detail information of interview can be seen in the Appendix (From page 71 to 73) 4.1.7 Short overview of chapter 4 In this chapter, analysis on three websites is made by evaluating them with selected guidelines and standards. Then accessibility and usability issues are checked by drawing a checklist which is rated by my friends. After that evaluation of checklist is discussed. Finally, required information for project development is gathered by using interview method.
  43. 43. 43 Chapter 5
  44. 44. 44 5.1 Exploration 5.1.1 Introduction At first, prototyping technique will be applied to make end users see how the proposed website will look like. Another technique called MosCow will be used to prioritize the requirements by differentiating functional and non-functional requirements for the proposed website. Finally, time boxing technique will be used to specify time for the development and delivery of the system on time. 5.1.2 Low level prototype for the Unique website As DSDM is chosen to manage the Unique project, prototyping technique will be used to show the end users how the Unique website will look like. The following prototype is drawn based on the selected guidelines and standards. Figure – 7 Link to home page Sub navigation Main navigation Items display Quick links Social links Search box
  45. 45. 45 5.1.3 Evaluation of low level prototype In order to make users stay for long to use the website, it should provide easy access and have an attractive interface design. As it’s created based on guidelines and standards, there will not be much accessibility and usability issues for users. A study shows that more than five navigation buttons on the main navigation bar can make users confused. So, the navigation bar contains only 5 buttons. There are 6 sub-navigations at the left side. The logo text is linked to the home page as an emergency exit. It is set at all pages of the website so that users can easily go to home page with just one click on the logo text when they have lost while using the website. The logo is appropriate in size. A search box is put at the middle of the banner where it can be seen easily and users can find the specific product information with prices, brand name and product name. All the items are categorized into each brand name such as Apple, Samsung etc. It not only provides comfort but also ease to shop. All the items are clearly displayed with their prices and detail specification so that users can easily know more about the products. All products details are written in simple English. The layout is consistent. The same layout and interface will used on every page not to make users annoyed to their sights using it. There will be a lot of improvements in high level prototypes. 5.1.4 Functional and Non-Functional Requirements for Unique website development Functional Requirements Must Have No Online Shopping Online Auction 1 Register customer Create auction 2 Register items Place bid 3 Order products Show winner 4 Deliver products 5 Make payment (Cash on delivery) Should Have No Online Shopping Online Auction 1 Record delivery information Record delivery information 2 Record payment information Show the finished auction item and available auction item
  46. 46. 46 Could Have No Online Shopping Online Auction 1 Display the best selling products 2 View purchase history 3 Produce daily, monthly and yearly report and stock report Would Have No Online Shopping Online Auction 1 Cancellation of delivery Cancellation of bidding 2 Destroyed items Receive customer feedback 3 Inform users on the arrival of new products 4 Receive pre-order information 5 Receive customer feedback 6 Make payment with credit card Non-Functional requirements Performance Requirements  The database shall be able to accommodate a minimum of 10,000 records of customers.  The website shall be able to be accessed by many users at a time.  Using the latest web technology, loading speed shall be made faster Safety Requirements  Because of increasing various virus and malware on the internet and system breakdown, the database can be crashed because of that. As a result, the database should be backed up. Design Requirements  As web technology is on the rise, web developers are attracting users to use the websites by various designs. Before building Unique website, eye-catching color and attractive design should be considered.
  47. 47. 47 Security Requirements Some of the factors that are identified to defend the software from unexpected risk or malicious access, use, change, devastation, or disclosure are presented below. Keep specific log or history data sets  Allocating definite functions to different modules  Restricting communications between some parts of the program  Checking data integrity and reliability for important variables 5.1.5 Use Case Diagram (Online Shopping) Use Case Diagram (Shopping) Member (Primary Actor) Admin (Primary Actor) Register member Register Item Order Products Deliver Products Make Payment
  48. 48. 48 Use Case Diagram (Online Auction) Use Case Diagram (Auction) Member <<Bidder>> Website Create an auction Place bid Show winner Member <<Auctioneer>>
  49. 49. 49 5.1.6 Class Diagram BiddingID AuctionID UserID Price BiddingTime Bidding AuctionID MemberID AuctionItemID AuctionDate OriginalPrice FinalPrice IncrementPrice Status Auction MemberID MemberName PhoneNo Address PostelCode RegistrationDate Member AuctionID AuctionItemID ItemName CategoryName ItemPrice ItemPic ItemDescription View Status AuctionItem OrderID UserID OrderDate CardNo TotalAmount Order OrderID ItemID Quantity Price Amount OrderDetail ItemID ItemName ItemDescription ItemPrice ItemPic ItemStatus CategoryName ViewCount Item * 1 * 1 * 1 * 1 * * 1 1 1 * DeliveryID ID DeliveryType DeliveryDate DeliveryTime ReceiveType Delivery 1 * * PaymentID ID PaymentType PaymentDate PaymentTime TotalAmount ReceiveType Payment 1 * 5.1.7 Short overview of chapter 5 Prototyping technique is applied for showing end users how the proposed website will be and MosCow technique for functional and non-functional requirements. Use case and class diagrams are drawn to describe the complete aspects of the proposed website.
  50. 50. 50 Chapter 6
  51. 51. 51 6.1 Engineering 6.1.1 Introduction The chapter will be about designing the database, creating a prototype for Unique website based on the selected websites, guidelines and standards. 6.1.2 How database will be created Without database, there is nothing a website can do. So, before creating a website, it should be thought well how to create a database for it. As discussed above, Unique website will be developed by using MySQL database where its data will be stored and retrieved. This database will be build based on the class diagram shown at the above chapter. The classes in the class diagram will become tables. Similarly, attributes contain in each class will become the fields in particular tables. Each table will have a primary key and it must be unique and not null. Primary key of the table will become foreign key in another table for one to many relationships. This is how the database for Unique website will be created. 6.1.3 Short overview of Chapter 6 It’s discussed how the database will be created for Unique website by using the class diagram shown above.
  52. 52. 52 Chapter 7
  53. 53. 53 7.1 Deployment 7.1.1 Introduction First of all, it will be discussed what features will be changed, added and be new in the Unique website in comparison with the low level prototype and existing websites. The Unique website will be built by following the guideline and standards. Timeboxing technique will be used to finish the project deliver the system on time. High level prototype will be shown to evaluate with chosen guidelines and standards to check how guidelines and standards are followed. Then an accessibility and usability checklist will be used to get user ratings on how they like Unique website. Only then user preferences on this website will be known. 7.1.2 Change/Add/New features It can’t be denied that user requirements are always changing. So, it’s very difficult to develop a website with all user requirements within time constraint. As I have been provided six months to develop Unique website, the best way to do is to use MosCow technique to prioritize the requirements which can help meet all key requirements of business and deliver the project on time. Many features and functions changed if compared to low level prototypes and existing websites. All these will be discussed in the evaluation section. The new website is totally different which may not have accessibility and usability issues as it’s built based on W3C standards which focus on accessibility and Nielson guideline for usability.
  54. 54. 54 7.1.3 Time box table The following is the time box on how Unique website is built No. of time box Date Processes Products 1 7 Feb to 11 Feb 2014 Using the above class diagram, database has been designed and developed Built database 2 12 Feb to 15 Feb Created all registration pages for online shopping Shopping Registration pages 3 16 Feb to 19 Feb Created all registration pages for online auction Auction registration pages 4 20 Feb 23 Feb Created all Sign in/Sign out pages for both online shopping and auction Shopping and Auction sign in/sign out pages 5 24 Feb to 3 March Created all customer accessed pages such as category pages, product detail pages, check out pages, search pages, display message pages for online shopping Shopping customer pages 6 4 March to 8 March Created all admin pages such as item registration pages, member display pages, report pages for online shopping Shopping admin pages 7 9 March to 12 March Created all customer accessed pages such as, auction item detail, display auction winner, auction item bidding etc for online auction Auction customer pages 8 13 March to 16 March Created all admin pages such as auction item etc for online auction Auction admin pages 9 17 March to 19 March Designed the whole website Completed website
  55. 55. 55 7.1.4 High fidelity prototypes Figure – 8 See more prototypes at Appendix (Page…..) 7.1.5 Evaluation of the high fidelity prototype with selected guidelines and standards Provide help documentation (Nielson Guideline) The website offers help information to help users shop, bid, auction in an easy way. It’s written in simple English so that every user will understand. Link to home page Search box Key navigation Sub navigation Admin pages Content Social links Sitemap and Help
  56. 56. 56 Having Emergency Exit (Nielson Guideline) Unique logo text is linked to the home page as an emergency exit. Layout and Content (Nielson Guideline) All the contents of the website are consistent and well-structured to make users attract and visit the website to buy products. Use of Font and Size (Nielson Guideline) Arial font is used throughout the website not to make users annoy to their sights. So, it’s suitable for people with disabilities. Provide navigation and sitemap (W3C Standards) This website provides clear navigation such as no blank links and contains sitemap to help users use the website in a faster way. Provide user control (W3C Standards) No moving texts and images used in the website. So, no user control is needed for such things. Replying on Color (W3C Guideline) No such color is used which is not appropriate for people with disabilities and elderly people. The grey color is used for whole background. Black color is used for the background of banner, side navigation and banner. White color is used for fonts on them. So, these two colors don’t rely on each other. 7.1.6 Evaluation of high fidelity prototypes The website includes 7 navigation menus at the main navigation bar which doesn’t contain any blank links. The realistic navigation bar shows the last users clicked with various color to let users know their recent action. The Unique logo text is linked to the home page as an emergency exit to help users while they lose using the website. The side navigation can help users to find the products with categories in an easy way. Help and sitemap are provided to use the website in a faster way. Simple English is used for help documentation. The search box is put at the top of the logo text to let users find the specific information about products. All the contents are well-structured and same layout and interface design are used for all pages. No moving images and texts are used which increase loading time. Famous social links are put at the right side of the footer to visit its pages on social websites.
  57. 57. 57 7.1.7 Accessibility and usability checklist The following checklist will be used by a user group to give their ratings on this website how suitable and easy for them to use it. 7.1.8 Evaluation of the checklist According to their ratings, many of the accessibility issues are ok but it seems that they are holding a little dislike about color. It’s also obvious that they have many preferences on the website apart from some usability issues such as clear headings and sitemap. However, it’s sure that they are satisfied using it. 7.1.9 Short overview of chapter 7 This chapter discussed on how Unique website is built based on three DSDM techniques called MosCow, Timeboxing and prototyping and selected guidelines and standards. User preferences on this website is discussed and taken by using a checklist and evaluation of checklist is briefly discussed as well. No Criteria Rating Accessibility Unique Website 1 Readable font size 1 2 3 4 5 2 Color suitability 1 2 3 4 5 3 Loading speed 1 2 3 4 5 4 Reasonable scrolling 1 2 3 4 5 5 Text and images replying on color 1 2 3 4 5 Usability Unique Website 1 Emergency exit works 1 2 3 4 5 2 Navigation links work 1 2 3 4 5 3 Correct link 1 2 3 4 5 4 Clear headings and links 1 2 3 4 5 5 Well-structured layout and content 1 2 3 4 5 6 Correct contact information 1 2 3 4 5 7 Sitemap contains key links 1 2 3 4 5
  58. 58. 58 Chapter 8
  59. 59. 59 8.1 Testing and Evaluation 8.1.1 Test Plan Unique website contains two parts called online shopping and online auction. Each part contains many forms. But out of them, the main forms or pages will be checked because of similarity and time constraint. Testing plan for Online Shopping No Feature or page to be tested Start Date End Date 1Customer Registration Form 3/20/2014 3/20/2014 2Item Registration Form 3/20/2014 3/20/2014 3Search Box 3/21/2014 3/21/2014 Product Detail page 3/21/2014 3/22/2014 Check out page 3/23/2014 3/23/2014 Testing plan for Online Auction NFeature or page to be tested Start Date End Date 1Create auction form 3/24/2014 3/24/2014 2Auction Item page 3/25/2014 3/25/2014 3Auction Item Bidding 3/26/2014 3/26/2014 8.1.2 Black box Black testing is also called as behavioral testing. It can be functional or non-functional, but regularly functional. It focuses on data input and output. It helps finding incorrect or missing functions, interface errors, errors in data structures, performance errors.
  60. 60. 60 Explanation of criteria used for testing Data – Information that needs to be entered at the form by the user Procedure – Processing with the information as typed at the form Expected Result – Describing or assuming what error will be displayed when the information is processed Actual Result – Displaying the precise error message and suggesting for correction Unit testing (Online Shopping) As an example, one test case will be shown in the following. The remaining test cases can be seen in the appendix from page 82 to 86. Test Case 1 Purpose To test customer side data validation for customer registration form Data Member Name – Myint Oo Mobile Phone – 09458888880 Address – No.125, MTNT, Yangon Postal Code – 11220 User Name – myintooygn Create Password – 1234 Confirm Password – 1234 Email – myintoo.com Procedure Type all data shown above Expected Result Incorrect email format (myintoo.com) rather than myintoo@gmail.com Actual Result Display error message to re-enter a correct email address
  61. 61. 61 Figure 9: Customer Validation 8.1.3 Short overview of chapter 8 Firstly, test plans of how the testing processes were carried out are clearly shown with start date and end date. Secondly, black box testing and criteria used for testing are briefly discussed. Finally, an example of test case is shown with screen shots.
  62. 62. 62 Chapter 9
  63. 63. 63 9.1 Overall Conclusions In this chapter, it will be discussed on how the project has been finished and what has been achieved on the completion of the project. It will also be discussed on how the problems and difficulties were overcome to finish the project. It will be explained why some of the functions are not included in the website which will later be developed in the future. Finally, by doing this project, what knowledge I get will be discussed. 9.1.1 Achievements The key purpose of the project has been met. All the important requirements of Unique have been successfully developed. All the end users provide positive feedback on the high fidelity prototype so that it can be said that the website is successful. Even if some end users commented that online auction doesn’t include enough functions, it could convince them to try in the future. Based on guidelines and standards and the feedback and comments provided by end users on the low fidelity prototypes, improvements have been made to high fidelity prototype to help them to better imagine the shopping and auctioning on them. Some more design issues were fixed by drawing a checklist by getting users ratings, suggestions, comments and preferences on prototypes. The development process has been finished with less difficulty as the right methodology was applied. The project has also been delivered on time. 9.1.2 Extent to which aims were met Aims were met to some extent. End user’s comment, feedback and suggestion could improve the website. The disappointing thing is that the online shopping part doesn’t allow users to make payment with credit card but cash on delivery. Another disappointing thing is that when looking specification of the products, only little specification is written and up to date information is not found. The disappointing factor about online auction part is that owner information is not fully provided. Another disappointing factor is that uploading wrong action at the website can’t be controlled.
  64. 64. 64 9.1.3 Critical Evaluation of Project Interviewing with Unique responsible employees to gather information to develop the website took longer than necessary which wasted a lot of time. Because of low internet connection speed in Myanmar, it took much time to search information from the internet which leads to further delays on further project activities. End users took time to provide feedback and comments on high fidelity prototype because of less technical skills and knowledge which reduces some features as the time box is fixed. That’s why development process started late. Due to lack of experiences in developing website, the management of the project was not planned well which took much time than necessary to complete the project, but could delivered the project on time. 9.1.4 Future Development I have left some feature and requirements in developing Unique website which are not very important as the time box is specified and I have not enough skills and knowledge. As shown in MosCow prioritization table, only Must Have, Should and Could Have have been developed. Would Have are left to develop in the future. In the future, I will try my best to develop this project again with all the features and functions which popular online shopping and auction websites must have. First of all, I will consider online payment with various credit cards then other remaining functions and features. I will also re-design the website based on different guidelines as the current interface design is a little poor. As mobile technology is on the rise, people are using mobile widely. So, I will develop a mobile application for Unique from which users can make shopping and bid for auction from their mobile phones.
  65. 65. 65 9.1.5 What I learn from this project This is my second experience of developing the project. I also developed a project in level 5 NCC Education called “Online Examination System” but the scope the project was quite small. I got a little experience from that project which helped me to complete this BIT project. There are plenty of things I could learn from this project. By doing this project, I come to know more about methodology, tools and techniques and online business. What’s more, my understanding and knowledge of ecommerce has become strong. I also come to know that how to plan and manage time to develop a project. Interviewing with end users really made me improve my communication skills related to business field. Creating prototypes based on the guidelines and standards broaden my knowledge of the use of guidelines in developing websites. Before developing this website, I was a little bit nervous to write codes for it. Then I tried some books and searched coding from various websites to complete the project which really improved my programming skills. This experience is unforgettable experience in my life.
  66. 66. 66 Bibliography Books Paul Bocij, et al. (2006). Business Information Systems (3rd ed.). (A. Greasley, Ed.) London: CPI - Bath Press, UK. David Avison, et al. (2003). Information Systems Development (3rd ed.). (C. Graham, Ed.) New York: McGraw-Hill Education. (2006) REVIEW OF LITERATURE. [Online]. Available at: http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/7929/7/07_chapter%202.pdf (Accessed: 12 December 2013). JONGEUN KIM (1996) UNDERSTANDING CONSUMERS’ ONLINE SHOPPING AND PURCHASING BEHAVIORS . [Online]. Available at: http://digital.library.okstate.edu/etd/umi- okstate-1049.pdf (Accessed: 15 December 2013). ROBERT ZEITHAMMER (2006) Forward-Looking Bidding in Online Auctions. [Online]. Available at: http://www.anderson.ucla.edu/faculty/robert.zeithammer/forward_looking_biddingJMR.pdf (Accessed: 19 December 2013). John Wiley (1997) The Elements of User Interface Design . [Online]. Available at: http://www.theomandel.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/Mandel-GoldenRules.pdf (Accessed: 27 December 2013). Websites Marc Clifton, J. Dunlap. 2003. What Is DSDM?. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.codeproject.com/Articles/5097/What-Is-DSDM. [Accessed 13 December 14]. Select Business Solutions. 2014. What Is DSDM?. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.selectbs.com/process-maturity/what-is-dsdm. [Accessed 14 December 13]. Angela Bradley. 2013. What is PHP Used For?. [ONLINE] Available at: http://php.about.com/od/phpbasics/qt/what_is_php_used_for.htm. [Accessed 19 December 13]. Angela Bradley. 2013. Why Use PHP?. [ONLINE] Available at: http://php.about.com/od/phpbasics/p/php_reasons.htm. [Accessed 19 December 13]. NinethSense. 2010. PHP and ASP.NET. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.codeproject.com/Articles/102854/PHP-and-ASP-NET-A-Feature-List. [Accessed 20 December 13].
  67. 67. 67 Malin De Silva. 2011. Why Choose ASP.NET Over PHP?. [ONLINE] Available at: http://technorati.com/technology/it/article/why-choose-aspnet-over-php/. [Accessed 21 December 13]. Scott Workman. 2013. Why Use ASP.NET for Website and Web App Development. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.bitwisesolutions.com/about-bitwise/resources/blog/february-2013/why-use- asp-net-for-website-and-web-app-developmen/. [Accessed 23 December 13]. Giteshtrivedi. 2011. Why Oracle Database is best choice. [ONLINE] Available at: http://giteshtrivedi.hubpages.com/hub/Why-Oracle-Database-Administration-is-Primary- Requirement. [Accessed 23 December 13]. Novell. 2014. Benefits of MySQL. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.howtomysql.net/mysql- advantages.html. [Accessed 27 December 13]. Brian Stevens. 2011. What is a MySQL Database?. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.host- shopper.com/what-is-a-mysql-database.html. [Accessed 27 December 13]. Develop PHP. 2014. What is a MySQL Database? And why would I use it? . [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.developphp.com/view_lesson.php?v=243. [Accessed 27 December 13].
  68. 68. 68 Appendix
  69. 69. 69 I. Project Proposal Project Title – Unique Online Shopping and Auction Website Student Name – Myint Oo @ Amirul Hassan Background Information UNIQUE Mobile and Computer Sale & Service Shop is one of the most popular shops in Myanmar. The shop was set out in 2014 with a view to provide satisfactory sales and services in Myanmar. It is the first shop in Myanmar which started providing free lifetime services to all UNIQUE customers in Myanmar. So, it already has gain customer trust and huge reputation of offering satisfactory sales and services. UNIQUE’s motto is “Customer’s satisfaction is our first priority”. It’s a medium sized shop which has three branches in Yangon. The shop is running manually with 40 staffs. Its main office is located at Pansondan Street (Upper Block) in Kyauktada Township, Myanmar. The shop is well-decorated and all the products are well-placed with each brand name and category. Products menus are also available from which customers can choose the products easily by using them. As mobile technology is increasing day by day, people from all level are willing to buy smart phones, tablets etc for their daily needs. So, UNIQUE is the only place where people’s intentions are because of its lifetime services and warm communication. UNIQUE wants to broaden its business to promote sales in nationwide. It will provide ease and comfort to not only its regular customers but also remote customers in rural places to buy products from online. So, it could get more customers and improve sales rate by converting manual sales system into online sales system.
  70. 70. 70 Overview (Scope of the project) This project is online shopping and auction website which will be developed with a view to improve sale and provide fast and satisfactory services to the online users and customers. The project will be a dynamic website which allows customers to buy goods or services from a seller through the internet using a web browser. Customers will be able to select various products with different sizes, color and prices based on categories. If they want to buy the products, they have to register first. The selected products must be added to the shopping cart and can be reviewed once again after they are bought from the cart. In order to check out, they have to select a payment type such as cash on delivery. In order to make sure the contact information, the website will show their contact information to deliver the products. The website will have different reports such as daily reports, monthly and yearly reports and delivery reports. It also shows which products are best selling. It handles adding new customers, products, updating and deleting for the same as well. The website will let people to list their products up for auction. It doesn’t have the products in stock and doesn’t send the products. Only the individual person who owns the product and sells via the website is responsible for everything about the sale. In order to sell the auction products, auctioneer must first register at the website. Likewise, bidders must also register with shipping address on the websites to bid on auction. Auctioneer needs to take a digital photo of the product and describe the price of it to attract bidders. The website will make both auctioneer and bidders together for trading at the same time and location. The major features of this project are high accuracy, design flexibility and easy availability. By using this website, users will be able to order the goods, visit the site, bid on auction products. What’s more, users can shop in the comfort of their home without going to the sale center and can save time and compare prices to website to website. Database, Methodology and Programming Language to be used The project will be developed with My SQL Server and PHP. DSDM (Dynamic System Development Method) will be applied to analysis the requirements for this project. These are some reasons why I am going to use DSDM to develop my project - Early implementation to business problems - Outcomes of development are visible - Risk of developing the wrong system is reduced - Basic functionality is delivered quickly, with more functionality being delivered at regular intervals - System is delivered on time and on budget
  71. 71. 71 Aim and Objective The aim of the project is to improve the sales and services for online buyers. The project is able to control the different information of customers, products and controlling customers and updating of website. The general aim of the software is to let the customers to shop virtually via the internet and permit the customers to buy their desired goods from the website. It will be hosted on the web and the administrator controls the database. The administrator approves and discards requests for new shops and maintains lists of categories. The input of the data into the website is able to be done via different screens designed for different levels of customers. Once the allowed employees insert the related data into the website, numerous reports could be generated according to the security. Initial References 1. Paul Bocij. et al. (2006), “Business Information System: Technology, Development & Management For e-business (3rd Edition)”, Pearson Education Limited. 2. Ralph M. Stair, George W. Reynolds : Principles of Information System, A Managerial Approach, Ninth Edition, Course Technology, Boston, 2010 3. Ralph M. Stair, George W. Reynolds: Principles of Information Systems, A Managerial Approach, Course Technology, Boston, 2010. Ninth Edition ISBN-13:978–0-324–66528–4 ISBN-10:0–324–66528–8
  72. 72. 72 II. Project plan No Name of steps Start Date Duration (Days) End Date 1 Project start 12/10/2013 4 12/14/2013 2 Literature Review 12/15/2013 12 12/27/2013 3 Feasibility 12/28/2013 2 12/30/2013 4 Foundation 12/31/2013 15 1/15/2015 5 Exploration 1/16/2014 10 1/26/2014 6 Engineering 1/27/2014 10 2/6/2014 7 Deployment 2/7/2014 40 3/19/2014 8 Testing 3/20/2014 5 3/25/2014 9 Project report 3/26/2014 25 4/20/2014 Figure – 10 Gantt Chart 12/8/2013 12/28/2013 1/17/2014 2/6/2014 2/26/2014 3/18/2014 4/7/2014 Project start Literature Review Feasibility Foundation Exploration Engineering Deployment Testing Project report
  73. 73. 73 III. Interviews Sheet – 1 Date 13 January 2014 Duration 1 Hour Employee Name U Kyaw Win, General Manager Section Overall Website Objectives - Knowing Background information of Unique - Abstracting High level requirements for Unique website - Discussing the payment type such as cash on delivery or with credit card - Discussing the auction and bidding types - Discussing the security features and standard features Results - Background information are provided in detail - High level requirements are confirmed - Detail information are given on payment type - Auction and bidding types are confirmed - Security features and standard features which will be included in the Unique website are fixed.
  74. 74. 74 Sheet – 2 Date 13 January 2014 Duration 1 Hour Employee U Myo Thura, Sale Director Section Sale part for the website Objective - Analysing and knowing how the products are sold - Knowing how the product information are provided to the customers for the arrival of new products - Discussing what personal information are required from the customers for sale process - Discussing how the second-hand products are sold and how the owners are contacted when buyers appear - Discuss on types of reports needed Results - Information is given on how products are sold - Clearly discussed on proving information on new products - Getting types of information needed for sale process - Information given on how the sale of second-hand products are performed - Types of reports such as daily, monthly and yearly reports are confirmed
  75. 75. 75 Sheet – 3 Date 14 January 2014 Duration 1 Hour Employee U Khin Maung, Senior Cashier Section Payment part for the website Objective - Knowing how the payment process is carried out after selling the products - Discussing how the payment is received for remote order (e.g. order made by rural by phone) Results - Get the information of the payment process - Get the information of payment received for remote order Sheet – 4 Date 15 January 2014 Duration 1 Hour Employee Daw Myo Myo, Delivery Manager Section Delivery part for the website Objective - Knowing what information is needed to make delivery - Discussing how the delivery is made Results - Information required from the customers and how they are used for delivery is clearly discussed - Information is given with two different types of delivery, city delivery and remote delivery including its rules and regulations
  76. 76. 76 IV. Prototypes Figure – 11 Sign up page Figure – 12 Sign in page
  77. 77. 77 Figure – 13 Product display page Figure – 14 Check out page
  78. 78. 78 Figure – 15 Reports page Figure – 16 Auction items display page
  79. 79. 79 Figure – 17 Profile page Figure – 18 Show winner and owner page
  80. 80. 80 Figure – 19 Member display page
  81. 81. 81 V. Use Case descriptions Online Shopping (Primary Scenarios) Use Case Name: Register Member Actor: Customer Pre condition: Customer must access to Unique website Flow of events: Use case starts when customer calls sign up form by clicking sign up button at the navigation bar 1. Customer enters personal information in the related fields such as member name, address etc 2. Then, customer submits the information Post condition: Information will be saved and a successful message will be shown. Use Case Name: Register Items Actor: Admin Pre condition: Admin must login into the website with admin privilege Flow of events: Use case starts when admin clicks item registration link 1. Admin enters product information in the related fields such item name, item description etc 2. Admin selects category type such as Apple, Samsung 3. Admin submits product information Post condition: Information will be saved and the products will be displayed at the related category page
  82. 82. 82 Use Case Name: Order Products Actor: Member Pre condition: Member must login into the website with his or her valid account Flow of events: Use case starts when member calls product display page 1. Member searches the products at the product display page or with using search box 2. Member selects the products 3. Member enters quantity 4. Member selects payment types 5. Member checks out to confirm order Post condition: Order information will be saved and the product information and delivery address will be shown. Use Case Name: Deliver products Actor: Admin Pre condition: Admin must login into the website with admin privilege Flow of events: Use case starts when daily order list is checked 1. If orders exist, Admin selects the existing orders from the daily order list 2. Admin clicks on print button to pass to the delivery staffs Post condition: Delivery lists will be produced.
  83. 83. 83 Use Case Name: Make payment Actor: Member Pre condition: Member has already ordered products Flow of events: Use case starts when member receives the ordered products 1. Member checks the products whether these are their ordered products or not 2. If these are correct, customer make payment called cash on delivery 3. Member signs to confirm receiving order Post condition: Receiving information will be saved and mark as finished delivery or order Online Auction (Primary Scenarios) Use Case Name: Create auction Actor: Member (Auctioneer) Pre condition: Member must login into the system Flow of events: Use case starts when member calls create auction form 1. Member enters product information in relevant fields for auction 2. By entering a correct date format in last date field, member submits auction information Post condition: auction information will be saved and show the auction at the auction page
  84. 84. 84 Use Case Name: Place bid Actor: Member (Bidder) Pre condition: Member must login into the system Flow of events: Use case starts when member clicks auction button at the navigation bar 1. Member searches the products to know which products are available and finished 2. Member selects their desired products from available products 3. Member places valid bidding amount at item bidding form 4. Member confirms bidding by clicking the bid button Post condition: Bidder name, price and time will be shown beside the item bidding form Use Case Name: Show winner Actor: Unique Website Pre condition: Bidding prices and last date for auction has already been inserted Flow of events: Use case starts when system checks the last date and the last bidding price 1. If found, system searches the product information of the last date 2. System searches the information of the last bidder 3. System searches the information of the owner 4. Then, system displays all the information together Post condition: Owner, item, winner information will be shown.
  85. 85. 85 VI. Test cases Test Case 2 Purpose To test admin side data validation for item registration form Data Item Name – Myint Oo Item Description – A7 Chipset, 32GB Item Price – 700 Insert Picture – Not selected file Item Status – Brand New Category Name – Apple Procedure Enter all data shown above Expected Result No selected images from the computer Actual Result Show error message to select a file Figure 20: Admin Validation

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