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3. research process (part 1)

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Publicada em: Negócios, Tecnologia, Educação
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3. research process (part 1)

  1. 1. CHAPTER 3 The Research Process – Steps 1 to 3
  2. 2. 1. Observation 1. Observation Broad area of Broad area of research interest research interest identified identified The Research Process for Basic & Applied Research 3. Problem 3. Problem Definition Definition Research problem Research problem delineated delineated 2. Preliminary 2. Preliminary Data Gathering Data Gathering Interviewing Interviewing Literature survey Literature survey 4. 4. Theoretical Theoretical Framework Framework 5. 5. Generation Generation of of Hypothesis Hypothesis Variables Variables clearly clearly identified identified and and labelled labelled 6. 6. Scientific Scientific Research Research Design Design 7. Data Collection 7. Data Collection Analysis, and Analysis, and Interpretation Interpretation 8. Deduction 8. Deduction Hypotheses substantiated? Hypotheses substantiated? Research question answered? Research question answered? No No Yes Yes 9. Report 9. Report Writing Writing 2 10. Report 10. Report Presentation Presentation 11. 11. Managerial Managerial Decision Decision Making Making 12/16/13
  3. 3. Broad Problem Area 3  The specific issues that need to be research in a certain situation refers to ‘Broad Problem Area’. These issues might be:  Problems currently existing in an organization  Areas that a manager believes need to be improved in the organization  Some research questions that a basic researcher wants to answer empirically 12/16/13
  4. 4. Preliminary Data Collection 4 Prevailing knowledge on the topic Nature of data to be gathered Background information on the organization Information on structural factors & management philosophy Perceptions, attitudes & behavioral responses 12/16/13
  5. 5. Literature Review 5  Literature Review is the documentation of a comprehensive review of the published work.  Purpose is to ensure no important variable is ignored that has in the past been found repeatedly to have had an impact on the problem.  Helps integrate information gathered - gives a framework for the investigation.  integrate information from literature into the research design  develop theoretical framework  not reinventing the wheel  determine originality of study 12/16/13
  6. 6. Writing up the Literature Review 6 The write up needs to:   convince the reader that the researcher is knowledgeable about the problem area and has done the background work the theoretical framework will be built on work already done and will add to the foundation of the existing knowledge 12/16/13
  7. 7. Writing a literature review cont... 7 Get as many relevant articles as possible. Read all and highlight points of interest or importance. Note down key issues that are arising across the articles. Plan the writing up of the literature review around these key points. Begin writing by drawing on the points you found and discussing each authors’ work 12/16/13
  8. 8. Writing a literature review cont... 8 Keep a record of all citations and quotations - keep a running reference section. It is easy to forget where you read something. Keep reading while you are writing to add to the literature review. Take note of key references / citations made by authors you are reading. References must be current unless it is a seminal piece. Eg Doll (1988) on user satisfaction factors. 12/16/13
  9. 9. Writing a literature review cont... Supporting your case 9 To provide evidence either use quotations from a reliable source or follow statement with citation e.g. ‘Most organizations use SQL’ (Smith 1998, Lo 1992) When citing a book as evidence, include the page number even if you are not quoting from the book. See pg 52 Sekaran e.g. The failure of information systems is often caused by poor communication. (Bresko 1993, 41) 12/16/13
  10. 10. Reference Style 10 You are expected to use the Harvard style/ APA for referencing. Example • Journal Article • Jeanquart, S., & Peluchette, J. (1997). Diversity in the workforce and management models. Journal of Social Work Studies, 43 (3), 72-85. 12/16/13
  11. 11. Problem Definition 11 Define a problem as any situation where a gap exists between the actual and the desired ideal states Examples:   How has the new packaging affected the sales of the product? Has the new advertising message resulted in enhanced recall? 12/16/13
  12. 12. Ethics in the preliminary stages of investigation 12 It is necessary to inform all the employees about the research It is important to keep information related to employees confidential Every step should be transparent 12/16/13