2. Basis for
Meaning The retention of
powers and authority
with respect to
planning and decisions,
with the top
management, is known
The dissemination of
and accountability to the
levels, is known as
Involves Systematic and
Systematic dispersal of
Vertical Open and Free
3. Decision making Slow Comparatively faster
Advantage Proper coordination
Sharing of burden and
Lies with the top
Multiple persons have
the power of decision
Inadequate control over
over the organization
5. -Putting people to jobs.
It is the managerial function of filling and
keeping filled the various positions in the
6. It involves :
Training and Development
7. "The managerial function of staffing
involves manning the organizational
structure through proper and effective
selection, appraisal and development
of personnel to fill the roles designed
into the structure"
Koontz and O'Donnell
8. FeatureS OF STAFFING
Staffing is an important managerial function
Staffing is a pervasive activity. Staffing is required at all
levels of management as well as in all departments of the
Staffing is a continuous activity. Staffing is a continuous
activity because it continues throughout the life of an
9. Related to human beings. The staffing function is the
efficient management of human resources, that is,
recruitment, selection, placement, training and
development, providing remuneration, etc.
Placement. Staffing helps in placing right men at the
Part of HRM. Staffing is a part of Human Resource
Mgt and a function of HR Department.
13. Features of directing
Directing Initiates Action
It is a continuous process
Directing takes place at every level
Directing flows From Top to Bottom
14. IMPORTANCE OF DIRECTING
Directing helps to initiate action by people in the organization
towards attainment of desired objectives.
Integrates employee's efficiency
Directing helps the managers to integrates individual and group
goals with organizational objectives.
Guides employees to realize their potential
Through directing a good leader can always identify the
potential of his employees and motivate them to extract work up to
their full potential.
15. Facilitates introduction of changes
Generally, people have a tendency to resist changes in the
organization. But effective directing helps to reduce such
resistance and develop cooperation in introducing the change
in the organization.
Ensures stability and balance
Generally, when the employees working at different levels,
They develop different attitudes and the balance between
their attitudes is made by directing
16. PRINCIPLES OF DIRECTING
Maximum individual contribution
Directing must help individuals to contribute his maximum potential
for achievement of organizational objectives.[example: motivation
through monetary and non-monetary incentives]
Harmony of objectives
when individual and organizational objectives are conflicting,
directing provide harmony of objectives by convincing that employee
rewards and work efficiency are complementary to each other.
Unity of command
A person in the organization should receive instructions from only
17. Appropriateness of direction technique
for some people, money can act as powerful motivator while
for others promotion may act as effective motivator
Effective managerial communication across all the levels in
the organization makes direction effective. This will provide free
flow of idea, information and suggestion
Use of informal organization
use of informal groups for better conducting of organization.
To influence the subordinates positively without any
dissatisfaction on their part.
The performance of subordinates to ensure that the work is
being performed as expected manner
19. Concept & Definition
Co-ordination as a function of management refers to
the process of integrating the activities of different
units of an organization to achieve the organizational
According to Koontz O Donnel “ co-ordination is the
essence of management for the achievement of
harmony of individual efforts toward the
accomplishment of group goals.
20. PRINCIPLES OF EFFECTIVE
Co-ordination is a continuous and dynamic process. It emphasizes
unity of efforts to achieve the desired objectives. Mary Parker
Follet gave the following principles.
Principles of direct contact
Direct contact among the responsible persons through
Members should be involved in the stage of goal setting
itself. So that they will co-operate with implementation of plan.
21. Reciprocal relationship
If A work with B. each influences the other and both are
influenced by all people in the entire organization.
Principle of Continuity
co-ordination is a continuous and never ending process.
Principle of self co-ordination
According to this principle when a particular department
affects other function or department, it is in turn affected by
other department or function. If the production department
cuts down the production voluntarily to suit the fall in sales
capacity of marketing department, it is a case of self co-
22. TECHNIQUES OF COORDINATION
Managers use a variety of techniques for achieving coordination. The
main techniques for effective coordination are as follows:
The plan, policies, and comprehensive programs prefer
coordination of activities and individuals. Standard procedures and
rules create uniformity in repetitive operations.
Well defined goals
The goals of the organization should be clear and well defined.
Each individual in the organization should understand the overall
objectives of organization
Sound organization structure
The authority and responsibility for each and every position and
employees should be clearly defined.
23. Effective communication
The ideas, opinions should be interchanged freely..
A good managerial leader uses the motivational tools to coordinate
the employees with effective communication system
Supervisors coordinate the subordinates and their activities. Top
level management cannot coordinate all employees
Formation of committees
Better and free interchange of ideas, feelings and opinions.
Encourage someone to do something.(example: for overtime work)
24. Difference between co-ordination and co-
Co-ordination is a deliberate and conscious effort to bring together the
activities of various individuals to achieve objectives. Co-operation
refers to the collective efforts of people who associate voluntarily to
achieve specified objectives.
Co-operation is a voluntary association. Co-ordination is the
conscious and deliberate association.
Co-operation originates out of informal relations while co-ordination
is accomplished through formal and informal relations.
Co-operation is a necessary but not a sufficient condition of co-
Co-operation facilitates co-ordination but by itself cannot guarantee