1. The Importance of Nutrition
Nutrition is the study of the nutrients in food and how
they nourish the body.
Nutrients are components of food that are needed for the
body to function.
Restaurant and foodservice professionals need to
understand the nutritional needs of their customers.
When restaurant and foodservice professionals
understand how to combine nutrition science and culinary
arts, they are able to provide food that is both delicious
People need certain nutrients on a regular basis to maintain health and
2. Nutrients: Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates are the body’s main-energy source. They
help the body use protein and fat efficiently.
Simple carbohydrates contain one or two sugars. They are
digested and absorbed quickly and provide a short burst of
Glucose is a very important simple sugar. It is the primary
source of energy.
Hormones are special chemical messengers made by bodies
that regulate different body functions.
Complex carbohydrates contain long chains that include
many glucose molecules.
Fiber is found only in plant food, along with starch and sugar.
It is the part of the plant that cannot be digested by people.
3. Nutrients: Lipids
Lipids is another word for fat. Lipids are a group of
molecules that include fats, oils, waxes, steroids, and
Fat is an essential nutrient with many functions.
Fats are solid at room temperature and often come from animals.
Oils are liquid at room temperature.
Essential fatty acids are required for good nutrition.
Oxidation is a chemical process that causes unsaturated fats to
Cholesterol is a white, waxy substance that helps the body
carry out its many processes.
Trans fatty acids are the result of taking a liquid fat and making
4. Nutrients: Proteins
Proteins are another class of nutrients that supply
energy to the body. They are needed to build new cells
and repair injured ones.
Amino acids are chemical compounds that have special
functions in the body:
Complete proteins are called complete because they contain all
the essential amino acids in the right amount.
Incomplete proteins lack one or more of the essential amino
Complementary proteins are two or more incomplete protein
sources that together provide adequate amounts of all the
essential amino acids.
5. Nutrients: Vitamins
Without the right amounts of vitamins and minerals, people may
become deficient and develop deficiency-related diseases.
Vitamins are chemical compounds found in food. They’re
needed for regulating metabolic processes, such as digestion,
and the absorption of nutrients.
Minerals are classified as major or trace, according to how much
is needed in the diet.
Some examples of major minerals are calcium, phosphorus,
potassium, sodium, and magnesium.
Even though some minerals are needed in very tiny amounts,
getting the right amount is important to good health.
Vitamins and minerals help in growth, reproduction, and the operation
and maintenance of the body.
6. Nutrients: Water
Water is an essential nutrient. It is essential to all forms of life.
About 55 to 65 percent of the human body is water by weight.
Cells, tissues, and organs need water to function.
Water has many important roles:
Helping with the digestion, absorption, and transportation of
Helping with the elimination of wastes through the kidneys, colon,
Distributing heat throughout the body and allowing heat to be
released through the skin by evaporation (sweating).
Lubricating joints and cushioning body tissues.
The human body can live a long time without many other
nutrients, but only a few days without water.
7. The Digestive System
Digestion is the process of breaking down food into its
simplest parts so that it can be absorbed:
Digestion begins in the mouth.
The teeth grind food into smaller pieces and mix it with saliva.
After you swallow food, the stomach breaks it down with the aid
of enzymes and acids, turning it into a fluid called chyme.
The chyme moves to the small intestine, where the majority of
digestion and absorption of nutrients occurs.
As the digestive system sends the nutrients to parts of the body
to be used, the wastes of digestion are sent to the large
The large intestine absorbs water and stores feces for
elimination through the colon and anus.
8. Food Additives
Many additives occur naturally or are extracted from food. Others are
synthetic but chemically identical to natural substances.
All food additives are carefully regulated by the Food and Drug
Additives help keep food wholesome and appealing during transport to
Without additives, many food items would be less attractive, less flavorful,
less nutritious, more likely to spoil, and more costly.
A food additive is a chemical substance or combination of substances present
in food as a result of processing, production, or packaging.
Food additives are chemical substances added to foods to improve flavour, texture,
colour, appearance and consistency, or as preservatives during manufacturing or
processing. Herbs, spices, hops, salt, yeast, water, air and protein hydrolysates are
excluded from this definition. Vitamin C, or ascorbic acid, (300) is extracted from fruit,
and lecithin (322) from egg yolks. Aspartame, Benzoate, Monosodium glutamate
Nitrates, Sulphite, Tartrazine
9. A Healthy Diet
Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are recommended daily nutrient
and energy intake amounts for healthy people of a particular age
range and gender.
Recommended Dietary Allowances are daily nutrient standards
established by the U.S. government.
Adequate intakes are similar to RDAs. They also identify daily
intake levels for healthy people.
A vegetarian is a person who consumes no meat, fish, or poultry
Lacto-vegetarians consume vegetarian items plus dairy products
Lacto-ovo-vegetarians consume vegetarian items plus dairy products and
A vegan follows the strictest diet of all and will consume no dairy, eggs,
meat, poultry, fish, or anything containing an animal product or byproduct.
10. A Healthy Diet (cont.)
The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 offers science-based
advice about food choices to promote health and reduce risk for
major chronic diseases:
Malnutrition is a condition that occurs when a body does not get enough
A person who is overweight or obese has a weight that is greater than
what is generally considered healthy.
Osteoporosis is a condition in which the bones gradually lose their
minerals and become weak and fragile.
Iron-deficiency anemia is a lack of iron in a person’s blood.
Cardiovascular diseases affect the heart and blood vessels.
Diabetes mellitus is a condition in which the body cannot regulate blood
To reduce the risk of cancer, eat a diet rich in fruits and vegetables, limit red
meat, and exercise.
11. Reducing Excessive Fats
Saturated fats (butter, lard, tropical oils) and trans fats
(margarine, shortening) can be reduced by using less
and replacing them with alternative products.
Using high-quality lean meat is a good strategy for
replacing the large amounts of fat found in prime cuts.
For food items that can’t be changed, limit the frequency
with which they are eaten or decrease the portion size
that is served.
When making substitutions, remember the purpose for
the substitution and the role that fat plays in the food
item. Not all fats can be reduced, removed, or replaced.
Nutrition is the study of nutrients in food and how they nourish
The six basic nutrients found in food are carbohydrates,
proteins, lipids, vitamins, minerals, and water.
Food additives improve flavor, color, and texture; retain
nutritional value; prevent spoilage; and extend shelf life.
Digestion breaks down food into its simplest parts.
A healthy diet emphasizes fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and
fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products. It includes lean meats,
poultry, fish, beans, eggs, and nuts. It is low in saturated fats,
trans fats, cholesterol, salt, and added sugars.
Malnutrition is the condition that occurs when your body does
not get enough nutrients.
Compounds composed of single or multiple
Main source of energy for fueling body
Body can store CHO as glycogen for later use
60-65% of calories should come from CHO
Need 100-130 grams/day for protein sparing
Provide 4 calories/gram
These include monosaccharides and
Recommend limiting specific CHO in diet
Foods that fall into this category
These include 2 types of polysaccharides
Starches and Fiber
Recommend that majority of CHO in diet
come from complex CHO
Foods that fall into this category include
Beans (black, kidney, refried)
Fruit, especially fresh fruit
Fruits (fresh or frozen over canned)
• Whole wheat bread, pasta and cereals, brown rice, etc.
Importance of Dietary Fiber
Promotes feeling of fullness after eating
Beneficial for weight loss/maintenance
Helps prevent Diverticulosis*
Reduces blood cholesterol levels
Reduces heart disease and stroke
Slows digestion and absorption of CHO
Improves body’s handling of insulin and glucose
May reduce risk of colon cancer
Diverticulosis is the condition of having multiple pouches
(diverticula) in the colon that are not inflamed. These are outpockets
of the colonic mucosa and submucosa through weaknesses of
muscle layers in the colon wall. They typically cause no symptoms.
Special Reasons to Pay Extra Attention
Diabetes (Type I and Type II)
This is high Sugar levels
Fasting level > 140mg/dL
There are 2 types of diabetics
Type I: insulin dependent; pancreas is not
producing insulin; typically in child/young adults
Type II: non-insulin dependent; pancreas is
producing insulin but cells aren’t responding;
typically in overweight adults
Diet and exercise are the best, natural ways
to control blood sugar levels
This is low sugar/ glucose level
Fasting level < 70mg/dL
Diet is the best way to treat this condition
Athletes or individuals that exercise regularly need to
make sure their diet is rich in CHO for several
Helps recovery from a hard workout or event
Replenishes glycogen stores after they have been depleted
CHO can be a smart and healthy choice for
weight control when eaten properly
Watch portion size
Choose the right kind of CHO
CHO are not fattening per say; HOWEVER
If one eats too many CHO in the diet, the body will
convert the glucose to fat and will store it in
Compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen,
and nitrogen arranged in strands of amino acids
15-20% of calories should come from protein
Protein in foods provide 4 calories/gram
Types of Proteins in Body
Roles of Proteins in Body
Supports growth and maintenance
Builds enzymes, hormones, antibodies
Maintains fluid and electrolyte balance
Maintains acid-base balance
Meat, Poultry, Fish
Cheese, Cottage cheese
Soy products such as Tofu
Special Reasons to Pay Extra Attention
to Protein Intake
Important due to growing
Need more protein than sedentary individuals to
help rebuild muscle and tissue
Renal (kidney) Disease
Individuals that suffer from renal insufficiency have
specific protein needs
Decrease protein in diet
Increase protein in diet
Lipids that are solid at room temperature
Main source of energy storage
20-30% of calories should come from fat
Fat provides 9 calories/gram
Types of Lipids
Storage form of fatty acid
Usefulness of Fats
Storage of energy
Protection from the environment
Absorption of fat soluble vitamins
Provides flavors and texture to foods
Different Types of Fats
Essential Fatty Acids
Trans Fatty Acid
These fats are the “bad” fats
These are the fats that raise cholesterol in the blood
and lead to heart disease
Sources of saturated fats
Trans Fatty Acids
Trans Fatty Acids
These are the “newer” discovery of bad fats
Have unusual shapes that can arise when
polyunsaturated oils are hydrogenated
Sources of trans fat
Margarines and shortenings
Salad dressings and mayonnaise
Biscuits, cookies, crackers
Special Reasons to Pay Extra Attention
to Fat Intake
Removal of Gallbladder
Number 1 killer in USA
A high fat diet causes arteries to clog and build up
< 200 mg/dL
LDL Cholesterol: “Bad”
< 100 mg/dL
HDL Cholesterol “Healthy”
> 60 mg/dL
< 150 mg/dL
Stationary blood clot that closes off a blood vessel
A blood clot that breaks loose
• This leads to a heart attack or stroke depending
on where the breakage occurs
High fat diets lead to increase risk of weight gain
Remember that fat has the most calories per gram out of the 3
Obesity increases the risk of