1. Literature review – What and why
2. Searching and finding print and online sources
3. Evaluating sources for relevance and reliability
4. Reading critically
5. Analyzing and synthesizing findings
6. Writing and presenting literature review
7. Citing sources in text and reference list / bibliography
8. Avoiding plagiarism
Literature review - DefinitionLiterature review - Definition
A body of text that aims to review the critical points of
current knowledge on a particular topic
A comprehensive survey of publications in a specific
field of study or related to a particular line of research
Non-quantitative summary of existing published
literature made by experts who select and weigh
findings available from the literature
A summary and interpretation of research findings
reported in the literature
A process and documentation of the current relevant
research literature regarding a particular topic or
subject of interest.
Purposes of literature reviewPurposes of literature review
Define and limit problem
◦ Develop familiarity with topic
◦ Limit research to a subtopic within larger body of
Place study in historical perspective
◦ Analysis of way in which study relates to existing
Avoid unintentional and unnecessary replication
◦ Awareness of prior studies so as to avoid unneeded
◦ Replication is reasonable if it is needed to verify prior
results, investigate results that failed to be significant,
or relate problem to a specific site.
Purposes of literature reviewPurposes of literature review
Select promising methods and measures
◦ Knowledge of and insight into specific research designs
for investigating a problem
◦ Awareness of specific instruments, sampling procedures,
and data analyses
Relate findings to previous knowledge and
suggest future research needs
◦ Relating prior research to what is known places current
study in perspective
◦ This knowledge allows researcher to focus problem on
what is not known
Develop research hypotheses
◦ Suggestions for specific research hypotheses
Meta-analysis •Quantitatively combines the results of studies that
are the result of a systematic literature review.
•Capable of performing a statistical analysis of the
pooled results of relevant studies.
Literature review designs
Narrative review •Selective review of the literature that broadly covers
a specific topic.
•Does not follow strict systematic methods to locate
and synthesize articles.
Systematic review •Utilizes exacting search strategies to make certain
that the maximum extent of relevant research has
•Original articles are methodologically appraised and
When we need to do aWhen we need to do a
literature reviewliterature review
At the beginning of the research project
◦ Chapter 2, 1 & 3
Constantly update during the research
When writing the discussion and
What is literatureWhat is literature
Interviews and other
Finding information sourcesFinding information sources
◦ University libraries
◦ Special libraries and government departments
◦ Inter-library loan
◦ Personal libraries of experts
◦ Your friends
Phrase SearchingPhrase Searching
It narrows your search down by searching
for an exact phrase or sentence. It is
particularly useful when searching for a
title or a quotation. Usually quotation
marks are used to connect the words
“Towards a healthier Scotland”
Truncation / WildcardTruncation / Wildcard
These search techniques retrieve information on
similar words by replacing part of the word with a
symbol usually a * or ?. However, different
databases use different symbols, so check what
In truncation the end of the word is replaced.
◦ For example physiother* will retrieve physiotherapy,
physiotherapeutic, physiotherapist and so on.
In wildcard searching, letters from inside the
word are replaced.
◦ For example wom*n will retrieve the terms woman and
Focusing / Limiting a SearchFocusing / Limiting a Search
There are many ways to focus your search and all
search tools offer different ways of doing this.
Some of the ways of limiting your search are as
Type of material e.g. you could just need to
find case studies
Subject DirectoriesSubject Directories
Also called Information Gateways and Virtual Libraries
Librarians’ Internet Index
The WWW Virtual Library
Specialized Subject Directories
◦ Abi Logic
◦ Solid Crawler
◦ Academic Info
◦ SOSIG - Social Science Information Gateway
Electronic Theses andElectronic Theses and
Dissertations - ETDsDissertations - ETDs
Networked Digital Library of Theses and
◦ Catalog of theses and doctoral dissertations contributed
by some 176 universities and 27 institutions worldwide
British Library EThOS
◦ 250,000+ theses of British universities
◦ Many are free
Proquest Dissertations & Theses Database
◦ World’s most comprehensive collection of dissertations
and theses with over 2.7 million titles
HEC – Online ResourcesHEC – Online Resources
National Digital Library
◦ Over 30 databases with over 23,000 journals
◦ Accessible by 250 institutions in Pakistan
◦ 50,000 e-books
◦ Links to open access resources
Pakistan Research Repository
◦ Full text of over 1800 Pakistani doctoral theses
Library web OPACsLibrary web OPACs
◦ Worldwide index of library catalogs
◦ 1.4 billion items from 10,000+ libraries
Library of Congress
The British Library
National Library of Pakistan
Evaluating information sources forEvaluating information sources for
relevance – Bookrelevance – Book
Skim its index for your key words, then skim the
pages on which those words occur.
Skim the first and last paragraphs in chapters
that use a lot of your key words.
Skim introduction, summary chapters, and so on.
Skim the last chapter, especially the first and last
two or three pages.
If the source is a collection of articles, skim the
Check the bibliography for titles relevant to your
Evaluating information sources forEvaluating information sources for
relevance – Articlerelevance – Article
Read the abstract.
Skim the introduction and conclusion, or if
they are not marked by headings, skim
the first six or seven paragraphs and the
last four or five.
Skim for section headings, and read the
first and last paragraphs of those sections.
Check the bibliography for titles relevant
to your topic.
Evaluating information sources forEvaluating information sources for
relevance – Onlinerelevance – Online
If it looks like a printed article, follow the
steps for a journal article.
Skim sections labeled “introduction,”
“overview,” “summary,” or the like. If
there are none, look for a link labeled “About
the Site” or something similar.
If the site has a link labeled “Site Map” or
“Index,” check it for your key words and
skim the referenced pages.
If the site has a “search” resource, type in
your key words.
Use colour post-its to markUse colour post-its to mark
◦Red - high relevance
◦Blue – medium relevance
◦Yellow – low relevance
Is the source objective?
Could the writer or the
organization’s affiliation put a
different spin on the information
What is the purpose of the
When was the work published?
When was the work last updated?
How old are the sources or items
in the bibliography?
How current is the topic?
If a Web page, do the links work?
What does/doesn’t the work
Is it an in-depth study (many
pages) or superficial (one page)?
Are sources and statistics cited?
If a site, does it offer unique
info not found in any other
What is “critical reading?”What is “critical reading?”
“Critical” is not intended to have a negative
meaning in the context of “critical reading.”
Definition: An active approach to reading that
involves an in depth examination of the text.
Memorization and understanding of the text
is achieved. Additionally, the text is broken
down into its components and examined
critically in order to achieve a meaningful
understanding of the material.
Passive vs. Active ReadingPassive vs. Active Reading
Passive Reading: - (4 traits)
1. Largely inactive process.
2. Low motivation to examine the text
critically or at an in-depth level.
3. Important pieces of data and
assumptions may be missed.
4. Data and assumptions that are
perceived by the passive reader are
accepted at face value or are examined
superficially, with little thought.
Passive vs. Active ReadingPassive vs. Active Reading
• Active Reading: - Active reading involves
interacting with the text and therefore requires
significantly more energy than passive reading.
• Critical reading ALWAYS involves active
reading. The active reader invests sufficient
effort to understand the text and commit
important details to memory.
• The active reader identifies important pieces
of data, the assumptions underlying arguments,
and examines them critically. They rely on their
personal experiences and knowledge of theory
to analyze the text.
Techniques of Critical ReadingTechniques of Critical Reading
3. Critical Reading (at least two times)
5. Forming a Critical Response
6. Finding a Focus for Your Paper
Form meaningful expectations about the
Pace yourself – decide how much time
you will dedicate to the reading.
◦ Look for Title, Section Headings, Date
◦ Expectations about the Author (previous
◦ Define the important vocabulary words
◦ Brief summaries of chapters
◦ The goal is to obtain a general grasp of the
Writing - MarginWriting - Margin
Mark, highlight, or underline parts of the
text that you think are very important.
Option 1 - Write a few words in the margin
that capture the essence of your reaction.
Option 2 – Write a few words that will help
you to remember the passage. This is
useful for learning definitions or parts of a
Divided Page MethodDivided Page Method
On a separate piece of paper, divide your
page into two columns.
Label one column “text” (meaning from
your reading) and the other “response”
(meaning your response).
Write down a part of the text you think is
important in the “text” column and then
write a reaction to it in the other column.
Landmark/Footnote MethodLandmark/Footnote Method
On a separate piece(s) of paper or in your
reading journal, dedicate an adequate
amount of space to an article, book, chapter,
etc, you are reading.
Highlight, mark, or underline a critical part in
your reading. In the margin, indicate that
you are going to write a footnote. For
example, write a 1 or a (or whatever you
In your reading journal, write a ‘1’ or ‘a’ (or
whatever symbol you chose) and then write
your critical response.
Reading JournalReading Journal
In addition to the other uses described above, use
the reading journal to track what you are reading
and to form critical responses to articles,
chapters, etc you have read in their entirety.
Try to summarize the entire article, describe the
main points, define key terms, and express your
Remember, do NOT refer back to the text until you
absolutely have to! Give your memory a workout!
Force yourself to learn the material as you read and
be able to write it down clearly afterwards.
Also, put concepts into your own words.
A general rule is 3-5 pages of notes per 100 pages of
First ReadingFirst Reading
Read in an environment where you will
be free from distractions.
Read steadily and smoothly. Try to
enjoy the work.
Write notes, but do so sparingly.
What works best for you?
We suggest avoiding your cell phone,
television, computer, and music.
Second ReadingSecond Reading
Re-read the material more slowly than
during your first read.
The two most important objectives are:
1. Understand the content of the material
2. Understand the material’s structure
3 Responses to Texts3 Responses to Texts
Restatement- Restating what a text
says; talking about the original topic.
Description- Describing what a text
does; identifies aspects of text.
Interpretation- Analyze what a text
means; asserts an overall meaning.
Forming Your Critical ResponseForming Your Critical Response
In forming your critical response, you will
now go beyond what the author has
explicitly written to form your impressions
of the text.
Analysis is the separation of something
into its parts or elements, which helps
to examine them more closely.
To analyze reading, you can take at
least these two approaches:
1) Choose a question to guide analysis.
2) Look at the author’s argument
Analysis (continued)Analysis (continued)
Types of evidence
◦ Facts: Verifiable evidence.
◦ Opinion: Judgments based upon facts.
◦ Expert Opinion: Judgments formed by
authorities on a given subject.
◦ Appeal to Beliefs or Needs: Readers are asked
to accept a claim in part because they already
accept it as true WITHOUT factual evidence or
because it coincides with their needs.
◦ Appeal to Emotion: A claim that is persuasive
because it evokes an emotion within the
reader, but may or may not rely on factual
Analysis (continued)Analysis (continued)
Logical Fallacies: Errors in reasoning.
◦ Red herring- introduction of an irrelevant issue
in an argument.
◦ Non sequitur- linking two or more ideas that
have no logical connection.
◦ Making broad generalizations without proven
After breaking down the text into its
components and examining them, ask
yourself about the conclusions you can
draw from this evidence.
What claims does the author make?
What evidence supports these claims?
Can you infer anything beyond what
the author has explicitly written that
either strengthens or weakens the claims
made by the author?
Now that you have broken down the text
into its parts, analyzed them, and
interpreted it all, you should make new
connections with what you know.
Ask yourself again:
◦ What are the main points of this text?
◦ Were my expectations for this article met?
◦ If I “read in between the lines” do I learn
anything else about what the author is saying?
◦ Overall, what can I conclude from this text?
Completely in each topic togetherCompletely in each topic together
Take notesTake notes in an organized manner:in an organized manner:
computer files, note cards, etc.computer files, note cards, etc.
Include all bibliographic info, especiallyInclude all bibliographic info, especially
page number when quoting!page number when quoting!
Flag like information with same color post-Flag like information with same color post-
its across articles.its across articles.
Read the articlesRead the articles
varying definitions of key termsvarying definitions of key terms
methodology usedmethodology used
◦ size & generalizability of subjectsize & generalizability of subject
◦ innovative methodologyinnovative methodology
enough evidence?enough evidence?
findings consistent with those of similarfindings consistent with those of similar
currency: lit review shows the latest workcurrency: lit review shows the latest work
done in subject area. (last 5 years ondone in subject area. (last 5 years on
Include older articles if:Include older articles if:
landmark studylandmark study
only evidence on a topiconly evidence on a topic
helps explain the evolution of thehelps explain the evolution of the
Synthesize the LiteratureSynthesize the Literature
How does each article relate to your topicHow does each article relate to your topic
and purpose?and purpose?
Define your argument/thesis.Define your argument/thesis.
Identify major trends or patternsIdentify major trends or patterns
emerging from your reading.emerging from your reading.
Reassemble your notes based on results ofReassemble your notes based on results of
reading, using organizational aids such as post-reading, using organizational aids such as post-
its, flags, etc.its, flags, etc.
Revise original outline of categoriesRevise original outline of categories
Create a detailed topic outlineCreate a detailed topic outline
◦ begin with your “argument” or claimbegin with your “argument” or claim
◦ present evidence from articles researched that provespresent evidence from articles researched that proves
your claimyour claim
Do not string together a summary of articles. TheDo not string together a summary of articles. The
outline is topic driven.outline is topic driven.
Note landmark studies and if replicated.Note landmark studies and if replicated.
Note how individual studies help illustrateNote how individual studies help illustrate
or advance theoretical notions.or advance theoretical notions.
Note gaps or areas needing moreNote gaps or areas needing more
Make sure your detailed outline follows aMake sure your detailed outline follows a
logical sequence of topics and subtopics.logical sequence of topics and subtopics.
This will give your literature review theThis will give your literature review the
coherence it needs.coherence it needs.
Structure of review articlesStructure of review articles
Literature reviews are in reality a type of
Should conform to the anatomy of a typical
Structure of literature reviewStructure of literature review
• Gives a quick idea of the topic of the literature review,
such as the central theme or organizational pattern.
• Contains your discussion of sources.
• Discuss what you have drawn from reviewing literature
so far. Where might the discussion proceed?
How to organize studiesHow to organize studies
◦ By publication date
◦ By trend
◦ A structure which considers different themes
◦ Focuses on the methods of the researcher,
e.g., qualitative versus quantitative approaches
Making links between studiesMaking links between studies
Similarly, author B points to…
Likewise, author C makes the case that…
Author D also makes this point…
Again, it is possible to see how author E agrees with author
However, author B points to…
On the other hand, author C makes the case that…
Conversely, Author D argues…
Nevertheless, what author E suggests…
Summary tableSummary table
It is useful to prepare.
Such a table provides a quick overview that
allows the reviewer to make sense of a large
mass of information.
The tables could include columns with headings
◦ type of study
◦ data collection approach
◦ key findings
Citation Sample Environment Method Conclusions
Bellizzi, Crowley and
125 Adults Furniture store Laboratory
Warm and cool colours created different emotional
responses. Customers view red retail environments as
more negative and unpleasant than blue.
Bellizzi, & Hite
70 Adult women
Study based on PAD affect measures and approach-
More positive retail outcomes occurred in blue
environments than red.
Smith and Curnow
Retail store Field
Time in store reduced with loud music but level of sales
Milliman (1982) 216 Shoppers Supermarket Field
The tempo of background music influenced the pace at
which customers shopped. Slow tempo music slowed
customers down but resulted in increased volume of sales.
Hui, Dubé and Chebat
116 Students Bank branch
- waiting for
The positive impact of music on approach behaviours is
mediated by an emotional evaluation of the environment
and the emotional response to waiting. Pleasurable music
produced longer perceived waiting times.
Areni and Kim (1994) 171 Shoppers Wine store Field
The investigation found that brighter in-store lighting
influenced shoppers to examine and handle more of the
merchandise in the store
Summers and Hebert
2367 Customers Hardware store
Confirmed Areni and Kims (1994) results. Increased
levels of lighting will produce arousal and pleasure and
increase the approach behaviours of customers.
Citation stylesCitation styles
Information prominent citation
◦ For viscoelastic fluids, the behaviour of the time-
dependent stresses in the transient shear flows is
also very important (Boger et al., 1974).
Author prominent citation
◦ Close (1983) developed a simplified theory using
an analogy between heat and mass transfer and
the equivalent heat transfer only case.
◦ Several authors have suggested that automated
testing should be more readily accepted (Balcer,
1989; Stahl, 1989; Carver & Tai, 1991).
Active or passive voiceActive or passive voice
You should use, where appropriate, both
active and passive voice
As a general rule, use active voice unless
there is good reason not to
A Good Literature Review is:A Good Literature Review is:
Focused - The topic should be narrow. You should only
present ideas and only report on studies that are closely
related to topic.
Concise - Ideas should be presented economically. Don’t take
any more space than you need to present your ideas.
Logical - The flow within and among paragraphs should be a
smooth, logical progression from one idea to the next
Developed - Don’t leave the story half told.
Integrative - Your paper should stress how the ideas in the
studies are related. Focus on the big picture. What
commonality do all the studies share? How are some studies
different than others? Your paper should stress how all the
studies reviewed contribute to your topic.
Current - Your review should focus on work being done on the
cutting edge of your topic.
Vagueness due to too much or
Omission of contrasting view
Omission of recent work
Common errors inCommon errors in
reviewing literaturereviewing literature
Hurrying through review to get started could
mean that you will miss something that will
improve your research.
Relying too heavily upon secondary sources.
Concentrating on findings rather than methods.
Overlooking sources other than academic
journals. Don’t forget newspaper articles,
magazines, blogs, etc.
Searching too broad or too narrow of a topic.
Inaccuracy in the compiling of bibliographic
A reference or listing of the key
pieces of information about a
work that makes it possible to
identify and locate it again.
103. What we quoted in the text
consists of author name (Not
inverted), title and pages of
sources it could be as footnote, at
the end of chapter or at the end
104. In the context of academic
research, a list of books or
references to sources cited, for
further reading, usually printed at
the end of an article or in the back
matter of a book includes author
name (inverted), title, year, place
of publication, publisher.
105. Any note used to further explain a
detail outside of the main text.
The term usually refers to notes at
the bottom of a page
OP Cited (for reference already
given in list)
op. cited ref No 11, H.M Deitel
Ibid (for the same reference use)
Foot NoteFoot Note
106. Various Style ManualsVarious Style Manuals
APA – American Psychological
MLA – Modern Language Association
Chicago Style – Chicago Manual of Style
Turabian Style – based on Chicago Style
Harvard Referencing System
ASA – American Sociological
CBE - Council of Biology Editors
APA styleAPA style
In 1929, published
instructions for authors
on how to prepare
manuscripts for APA
Later used for theses,
term papers, etc.
Latest edition 6th
Widely used in social
Citing references – OutlineCiting references – Outline
Identifying and formatting citing elements
Citing in text
Preparing reference list / bibliography
Citing ElementsCiting Elements
The elements of a citation normally include:
Author or authoring body
Date of publication
Title of the work
Place of publication
Title of the source
Location information within the source
URL or DOI
Non-routine information (page no, Volume no,
Authoring body or groupAuthoring body or group
National Institute of Health
University of the Punjab, Institute of
Pakistan, Ministry of Finance
Date of publicationDate of publication
Journal, book, AV media
Meeting, Monthly magazine, Newsletter
1994, September 28
Accepted work but not yet published
No date available
Publication over long period
Republished work, a note at the end
(Original work published 1923)
Title of the workTitle of the work
Title of book
Title of book chapter
Title of journal article
Title of encyclopedia article
Subtitle with colon
Publisher name for non periodicals
In a brief form
Omit superfluous terms, such as Publishers,
Publications, Co., Inc.
Use only word “Author” when author and publisher
is the same
Place of publicationPlace of publication
Name of city
If city is not well known then add state/province
US postal service abbreviations for states (2-digit
CA for California
If more cities are given, use the first or the
publisher’s head office if clearly mentioned
Title of the sourceTitle of the source
Title of the book in case of a book chapter
Title of the journal in case of journal article
Journal title in full
Harvard Business Review
Not Har. Bus. Rev.
Journal volume and issue number in Arabic numerals
Volume of a book
(Vol.26, pp. 501-508)
Start and end (inclusive) page numbers for journal
article or book chapter
URL or DOIURL or DOI
Uniform Resource Locator (URL)
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
Author’s name in sentenceAuthor’s name in sentence
Schwepps (1998) states that the solution
sat dormant for several months before any
of the employees tested it (p. 743).
Author’s name in parenthesesAuthor’s name in parentheses
When the solution had been sitting for a
number of months, the employees tested for
bacteria (Schwepps, 1998).
Short quotationShort quotation
When fewer than 40 words
Put prose quotation in running text
Put quote marks around quoted material
Author’s last name, publication year, and
page number(s) of quote must appear in the
Example – Short quotationExample – Short quotation
Caruth (1996) states that a traumatic response
frequently entails a “delayed, uncontrolled
repetitive appearance of hallucinations and other
intrusive phenomena” (p. 11).
A traumatic response frequently entails a
“delayed, uncontrolled repetitive appearance of
hallucinations and other intrusive phenomena”
(Caruth, 1996, p. 11).
Long quotationsLong quotations
When 40 words or more
In block form
Indent 5-7 spaces and omit the quotation
marks. If the quotation has internal
paragraphs, indent the internal paragraphs a
further 5-7 spaces
Do not use quotation marks
Double space the block quote
Cite the source after the end punctuation of
Example – Long quotationExample – Long quotation
Meile (1993) found the following:
The “placebo effect,” which had been verified in
previous studies, disappeared when behaviors
were studied in this manner. Furthermore, the
behaviors were never exhibited again, even when
real drugs were administered. Earlier studies were
clearly premature in attributing the results to a
placebo effect. (p. 276)
Secondary referenceSecondary reference
In 1947 the World Health Organization
proposed the following definition of health.
“Health is a state of complete physical,
mental, and social well-being and not merely
the absence of disease and infirmity” (World
Health Organization, as cited in Potter &
Perry, 2001, p. 3).
Multiple authorsMultiple authors
2 authors – cite both names separated by
(Kosik & Martin, 1999, p. 127)
3-5 authors – cite all authors first time;
after first time, use et al.
(Wilson et al., 2000)
6 or more authors – cite first author’s
name and et al.
(Perez et al., 1992)
Multiple citationsMultiple citations
Multiple sources from same author –
chronological order, separated by comma
(Burke, 1998, 1999, in press)
Within same year:
(Burke, 1998a, 1998b, 1999, in press)
Multiple sources – separated by
semicolon, alphabetical order
(Burke, 1998; Perez, 1992; Wilhite,
Sample parenthetical citationsSample parenthetical citations
Recently, the history of warfare has been significantly
revised by Higonnet et al (1987), Marcus (1989), and Raitt
and Tate (1997) to include women’s personal and cultural
responses to battle and its resultant traumatic effects.
Feminist researchers now concur that “It is no longer true to
claim that women's responses to the war have been ignored”
(Raitt & Tate, p. 2). Though these studies focus solely on
women's experiences, they err by collectively perpetuating
the masculine-centered impressions originating in Fussell
(1975) and Bergonzi (1996).
However, Tylee (1990) further criticizes Fussell, arguing
that his study “treated memory and culture as if they
belonged to a sphere beyond the existence of individuals or
the control of institutions” (p. 6).
Reference listReference list
Place the list of references cited at the end of the
Start references on a new page
Begin each entry flush with the left margin
Indent subsequent lines five to seven spaces
Double space both within and between entries
Italicize the title of books, magazines, etc.
Reference list orderReference list order
Arrange sources alphabetically beginning with
author’s last name
If author has more than one source, arrange entries
by year, earliest first
When an author appears both as a sole author and,
in another citation as the first author of a group, list
the one author entries first
If no author given, begin entry with the title and
alphabetize without counting a, an, or the
Do not underline, italicize or use quote marks for
titles used instead of an author name
Example – Reference list orderExample – Reference list order
◦ Baheti, J. R. (2001a). Control …
◦ Baheti, J. R. (2001b). Roles of …
◦ Kumpfer, K. L. (1999). Factors …
◦ Kumpfer, K. L. (2002). Prevention …
◦ Kumpfer, K. L., Alvarado, R., Smith, P., …
◦ Yoshikawa, H. (1994). Preventions …
Book with one authorBook with one author
Carter, R. (1998). Mapping the mind. Berkeley,
CA: University of California Press.
Book with two authorsBook with two authors
Struck, W., & White, E. B. (1979).
The elements of style (3rd ed.).
New York: Macmillan.
Book with six or more authorsBook with six or more authors
Wolchik, S. A., West, S. G., Sandler, I. N.,
Tein, J., Coatsworth, D., Lengua, L.,
et al. (2000). An experimental
Book with no authorBook with no author
Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary
(10th ed.). (1993). Springfield, MA:
Book with editorsBook with editors
Allison, M. T., & Schneider, I. E. (Eds.).
(2000). Diversity and the recreation
perspectives. State College, PA:
Chapter in bookChapter in book
Stern, J. A., & Dunham, D. N. (1990). The
ocular system. In J. T. Cacioppo & L. G.
Tassinary (Eds.), Principles of
psychophysiology: Physical, social, and
inferential elements (pp. 513-553).
Berkeley, CA: University of California
Misumi, J., & Fumita, M. (1982). Effects
of PM organizational development in
supermarket organization. Japanese
Journal of Experimental Social
Psychology, 21, 93-111. [Abstract]
Psychological Abstracts, 1982, 68,
Abstract No. 11474
Web pageWeb page
Green, C. (2000, April 16). History &
philosophy of psychology web resources.
Article with DOIArticle with DOI
Stultz, J. (2006). Integrating exposure therapy
and analytic therapy in trauma treatment.
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 76(4),
Preprint version of articlePreprint version of article
Philippsen, C., Hahn, M., Schwabe, L.,
Richter, S., Drewe, J., & Schachinger, H.
(2007). Cardiovascular reactivity to
mental stress is not affected by alpha2-
adrenoreceptor activation or inhibition.
Psychopharmacology, 190(2), 181–188.
Advance online publication.
Presentation slidesPresentation slides
Columbia University, Teachers College,
Institute for Learning Technologies.
(2000). Smart cities: New York: Electronic
education for the new millennium
[PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from
Press releasePress release
American Psychological Association. (2006,
April 30). Internet use involves both pros
and cons for children and adolescents
[Press release]. Retrieved from
Message posted to anMessage posted to an
electronic mailing listelectronic mailing list
Smith, S. (2006, January 5). Re: Disputed
estimates of IQ [Msg 670]. Message
posted to ForensicNetwork electronic
mailing list, archived at
Weblog postWeblog post
bfy. (2007, January 22). Re: The
unfortunate prerequisites and
consequences of partitioning your mind.
Message posted to
Sample Reference ListSample Reference List
Calvillo, D. (1999). The theoretical development of aggression. Retrieved August
21, 2002 from: http://www.csubak.edu/~1vega/dustin2.html
Flory, R. K., (1969a). Attack behavior as a function of minimum inter-food
interval. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. 12, 825-828.
Flory, R. K., (1969b). Attack behavior in a multiple fixed-ratio schedule of
reinforcement. Psychonomic Science, 16, 383-386.
Flory, R. K., & Everist, H.D. (1977). The effect of a response requirement on
schedule-induced aggression. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 9,
Gentry, W. D. (1968). Fixed-ratio schedule-induced aggression. Journal of the
Experimental Analysis of Behavior 11, 813-817.
Plagiarism – DefinitionPlagiarism – Definition
Taking and using the thoughts, writings,
and inventions of another person as one's
Using someone’s ideas without citing or
quoting; thereby, receiving credit for
someone else’s intellectual effort
How to avoid plagiarismHow to avoid plagiarism
Use quotes for
◦ Information that comes directly from any
◦ Words, spoken or written, that you use directly
from another person
Make sure you document the source
Penalties for teachers, researchersPenalties for teachers, researchers
and staffand staff
Dismissal from service
Demotion to the next lower grade
Freezing of research grants
Promotions/annual increments of the offender may be
University may debar the offender from sponsorship of
research funding, travel grant, supervision of Ph.D.
students, scholarship, fellowship or any other funded
Offender may be “Black Listed” and may NOT be eligible
for employment in any academic / research organization
Notification of “Black Listing” of the author may be
published in the print media or may be publicized on
Ethnicity, gender, religion, health status, etc. Many characteristics can determine the make up of the audience.
Purpose : Is it for information, or is it trying to sell you something?
Form several expectations about what you are going to read. Create questions or hypotheses that you expect to be answered by reading the text and write them down. A good way to generate questions are to look at the title, headings, and skim the text. Next, attend to the thoughts and questions that reading these items brings up for you.
After you have critically read through the article, you will revisit these questions to aid you in forming a critical response to the reading.
Remember, skimming is supposed to be a quick process, but it can also be active (vs passive). Spend no more than 30 seconds per page. Look for headings and subheadings and note your reactions to them. Pay attention to the length of the text you are going to read. Do you currently have enough time to read all the way through the article critically? If not, is there a good stopping point? When you resume reading, will it be in a short enough time for you to remember everything you just read or will you have to spend a lot of time re-reading to get caught back up? How dense does the text seem to be? What type of reading will this be? Technical? Persuasive? Summary?
OWN the material. Writing while reading often means writing on the text you are reading. To be able to do this ethically, you must own the material. It is worthwhile not only for this reason, but because as professionals you are going to build a library of resources that you can (and will) refer back to repeatedly throughout your career. Make sure the materials you own are free of others’ writing. You will not benefit as much from the remarks of others as you will from writing your own remarks while reading.
You can develop your own method of marking, highlighting, etc, that works best for you. Some people find it helpful to use different colored markers to highlight a page. For example, a yellow highlighter may be used on the first read through an article and a blue during the second read through. Or a yellow HL may be for definitions and a blue may be for important arguments and conclusions in the passage.
Advantages – This forces the reader to focus a great deal of attention on a specific part of the reading. In doing so, the reader is more likely to remember the part of the reading and will form a critical response “on the spot,” which will help better understand the reading. The reader not only takes more time to understand a part of the reading, they shift from the visual modality of learning to the motoric (I.e., writing) modality, thereby increasing the degree of comprehension, especially if writing is a strength in the reader’s learning style.
Advantages – Again, you are focusing more attention on a specific piece of the text, are forming a critical response to it, and are switching learning modalities from visual to writing. This technique is most appropriate for lengthy responses to pieces of the text you are reading, unlike the “writing in the margin” technique, which is best used for brief or concise responses. Also, the landmark/footnote method is a great way to preserve the quality of your text. You don’t end up marking and writing all over the page TOO MUCH and your text doesn’t end up looking messy and unreadable. This is a good technique to use if you encounter a word you are unfamiliar with and need to look it up in the dictionary. It is very helpful to mark where the word appeared in the text, look it up, write the definition down, and have it available in case you encounter the word again in the same text or in a different one.
You can use the Landmark and/or Reading Journal methods described above. However, whenever possible, print out a copy of the online document to simply the writing while reading process.
Give students a quick example of how to cut text from an online document, paste it into Microsoft Word, and add comments to it that can be viewed later.
Bullet #2 – To aid in this, it can help to try and make the reading personally relevant to you and your life. For instance, you could ask yourself questions such as: Have I ever experienced anything similar to what is written about here? Do I know anyone that has experienced anything similar to what is written about here? What is interesting about this? How will I use this in my career? How will I use this in my life? There are no limits to the techniques you can use. You have to be creative to do this successfully. If you can make the reading personally relevant, you will interact with the reading more actively, will enjoy it more, and will learn more from it.
Bullet#2 – “Writing in the margin” is a useful technique at this phase. Make note of areas of interest that are important to the reading or areas you want to revisit later to examine more closely. When definitions or terminology are used, make a note of it or underline it. Make note of words you do not understand and need to look up in the dictionary, but come back to these later – rely on the context of the sentence, paragraph, etc to approximate the meaning of the word for now. Write down BRIEF, CONCISE reactions to specific parts of the text as they occur, preferably in the margin.
When you are re-reading a text, don’t be surprised if new pieces “jump out at you.” You will notice new parts of the text, have new reactions and critiques in response, and will further develop your initial reactions. Revisit the areas that you marked before and analyze it more intensely. Write down your reactions and observations. Most importantly, take time to make sure you understand the text AS IT IS WRITTEN, and make note of the themes that emerge in each passage of the text. You will be going back to these passages later on in order to critique the arguments within them.
A summary should state in as few words as possible the main ideas of a passage. Write the main idea of the entire passage. Next, it can help to identify sections within a text to begin breaking it down. Write a one or two sentence summary for each section that captures its main points. Incorporate definitions or concepts that were included into the text into the summaries. Now, begin examining how the summaries you have written interact with one another. How do they connect? How are they the same? How are they different? This will lead to a final summary the captures the main points of the entire text you have read.
Bullet #1 – This will occur on a smaller level than what occurred during summarization, when sections of the text were identified to begin “breaking the text down.”
Revisiting the reactions and questions you generated during the “previewing” phase will be helpful here. You have likely formed new reactions and questions since reading the text further in depth and can use these to generate questions also. Your question can be anything you want it to be, as long as it is relevant and can be answered (even if only partially) by the text you are reading. For example, if you are reading People magazine, you might wonder, “Does People challenge or perpetuate stereotypes?” An important element of this question would be the term “stereotypes.” You would clearly define stereotypes and look for examples of stereotypes in People and see how they are treated.
To be covered on the next slide.
Identify the claims that the author makes in their argument. A useful way to identify claims is to become skeptical and not take the reader’s writing at face value. In response to a sentence, ask the question, “What makes this true?” Within the article should be evidence that explains the reason for why the sentence is true. If there is not evidence within the article, you are left to speculate about whether the author’s claim is true or false.
A short list of some different types of evidence.
Accuracy: Is the evidence drawn from trustworthy sources? Is the evidence cited an accurate representation of the source or is it distorted for some other purpose?
Relevance: Does the evidence apply to the point the author is making? Does the evidence come from an authority on the relevant subject matter or from someone who is not familiar with it? Is the evidence current or outdated?
Representativeness: Look for this when an author makes general statements such as, “Scientists believe…” or “The sample was…” or “Men all believe that…” Is the evidence representative of the entire sample mentioned? If not, which subset of the sample is relevant?
Adequacy: Is there enough evidence to support the claim? Is the evidence specific enough or is it too vague?
When you identify an error in reasoning, this does not ultimately prove that the claim is not true, but it should prompt you to consider this possibility and examine the evidence for the claim more closely.