3. Cotton Fiber
Cotton fiber is classified as a natural vegetable seed staple fiber. It grows
on a plant of a botanical name Gossypium. Cotton is a member of the
Malvaceae family. The fiber is almost pure cellulose. The English name
derives from the Arabic (al) quṭn نْطُق. Each fiber is a single plant cell in the
outer layer of the cotton seed. These seed hairs are called lint. Fibers
which are too short to be spun into yarn are called linters.
4. PROPERTIES OF COTTON FIBER
A. According To Physical Structure:
Length Of Cotton Fiber:
Physically the individual cotton fibres consist of a single long tubular
cell. Its length is about 1200-1500 times than its breadth. Length of
cotton fiber varies from 16mm to 52 mm depending upon the type
Indian cotton- 16-25 mm
American cotton- 20-30 mm
Sea Island- 38-52 mm
Egyptian cotton- 30-38 mm
5. Fineness Of Cotton Fiber:
Longer the fiber, finer the fiber in case of cotton fiber. It is expressed in
term of decitex and it varies from 1.1 to2.3 decitex.
American= 2.1-2.2 dtex
Egyptian= 1.2-1.8 dtex
Sea Island= 1.0-1.1 tex
Fineness may be more in case of immature fiber. So it is necessary to
express maturity with fineness.
Strength and Extension Of Cotton Fiber:
Cotton fiber is fairly among natural fibers in relation to tenacity which is 3-
3.5g/dtex. Its tensile strength is between wool and silk fiber but
disadvantage is low extension at break which is 5-7%.
6. Elastic Properties Of Cotton:
Recovery from deformation of cotton fiber, yarn or fabric from
applied load is very low. By applying heat it can’t be achieved. This
property can be achieved by
• Chemical treatment to improve crease recovery, but the problem is
the materials become harsher due to chemical treatment
• Blending or mixing of cotton with elastic fiber, e.g. polyester, blend
ratio depends on the end use of the fabric. The initial modulus is fairly
5 g/dtex (wool=0.25 g/dtex)
Cross-section of cotton fiber is some what ribbon like. The cell wall
is rather thin and the lumen occupies about two-third of the entire
breadth and shows up very prominent in polarized light. Fiber cross-
section becomes round when mercerized.
Cotton fiber is fairly short, fine and creamy white color. Color of the fiber
depends on soil of growth. By adding chemicals in the soil, color of the
cotton fiber may be varied.
Cotton fiber is more or less twisted on its longitudinal axis which cab not
be seen from out side is called convolution. The twist in the fiber does not
to be continuous in one direction i.e. if at first right direction, then left
direction. This property of cotton fiber helps in spinning.
8. B. According To Using Process:
Cotton fiber has large amorphous portion and this is why the air can be in
and out through cotton fiber. So, the fabric made by cotton fiber is quite
comfortable to use.
Cotton fiber is too much regular fiber and if properly ginned; this fibre can
be the best soft hand feeling fiber amongst the others.
Cotton fiber has high absorbency power and this is why this fiber can be
died properly and without any harassment.
9. Good Color Retention:
If the printing is applied on cotton fiber, it seems it doesn’t spread the
color outside the design. So printing efficiency is good on cotton fibre.
Machine Washable & Dry Cleanable:
It is seen that some fibers can’t be dried or washed due to it’s sensitivity
and weak fastness properties but in case of Cotton fiber you will have
large number of options to choose. You can easily wash the cotton made
fabric by machines and even you will be able to dry this fiber by using
If you want to seek an average strength which might be enough for you;
then cotton fiber can be your ultimate choice. The strength of cotton fiber
is quite good.
10. Fibre Drapes Well:
The drape-ability of cotton fiber is awesome. You can use the
cotton fiber made fabric in any kind of wear which needs more
flexibility and drapes.
Sewing & Handling Is Easy:
The sewing efficiency on Cotton made fabric is easier and
comfortable than other fiber. This is why the demand of cotton
made fabric is higher in all over the world.
11. USES OF COTTON FIBER
Cotton has a wide variety of uses, especially in the textile industry. The
following are some of the most common uses of this product.
1. Because of its high capacity to absorb, hold and dry moisture, cotton
offers maximum comfort under extreme heat and humidity.
2. It is a fiber that “breathes”. Consumer prefers cotton for its comfort,
laundrability, absorbency, ease finishing and dyeing.
3. It is a preferred fabric for children & for anyone who has a sensitive skin
and is allergic to other fibers, since it is non allergic.
4. A wide range of fabric construction methods can be employed including
weaving, knitting as well as non woven techniques.
5. Cotton is used universally for a variety of apparel (both inner and outer
12. 6- It finds extensive usage in home textiles i.e towel, pillow cover, bed
spreads and table cloth etc.
7- The fiber also has industrial applications including medical & surgical.
8- Blending of cotton fiber can be done at the fiber, yarn or fabric stage.
9- Cotton is also used to create fishing nets, tents and cotton paper. Cotton
paper is used to create banknotes and high quality art paper.
10- After the cotton is removed from the seeds there are some fine fibers
left attached to the seeds. These are called linters and when processed
are known as viscose rayon.
11- The seed of the cotton plant also has some important uses. Firstly, it can
be used to produce cottonseed oil, which is a popular vegetable oil for
cooking. The remains can be used as feed for cattle and other animals.
13. Silk Fiber
Silk is an animal fiber and it is also called protein fiber. Silk is only
natural fiber which is found in filament form. Silk is produced by
insects. Fibroin is the main chemical components of silk. The best-
known silk is obtained from the cocoons of the larvae of the
mulberry silkworm. The shimmering appearance of silk is due to the
triangular prism-like structure of the silk fiber, which allows silk
cloth to refract incoming light at different angles, thus producing
14. PROPERTIES OF SILK FIBER
The silk fiber is chiefly composed of 80% of fibroin, which is protein in
nature and 20% of sericin, which is otherwise called as silk gum.
Silk as a fiber, has good tensile strength, which allows it to withstand great
pulling pressure. Silk is the strongest natural fiber and has moderate
abrasion resistance. The strength of the thrown yarns is mainly due to the
continuous length of the fiber. Spun silk yarn though strong is weaker than
thrown silk filament yarns.
Silk fiber is an elastic fiber and may be stretched from 1/7 to 1/5 of its
original length before breaking. It tends to return to its original size but
gradually loses little of its elasticity. This would mean that the fabric would
be less sagging and less binding resulting in the wearers comfort.
Silk fabrics retain their shape and have moderate resistance to wrinkling.
Fabrics that are made from short – staple spun silk have less resilience.
Silk has a liability and suppleness that, aided by its elasticity and
resilience, gives it excellent drapability.
Silk is a protein fibre and is a non-conductor of heat similar to that of
wool. This makes silk suitable for winter apparel.
Silk fabrics being protein in nature have good absorbency. The absorptive
capacity of the silk fabric makes comfortable apparel even for warmer
atmosphere. Fabrics made from silk are comfortable in the summer and
warm in the winter. Silk fibre can generally absorb about 11 percent of its
weight in moisture, but the range varies from 10 percent to as much as 30
percent. This property is also a major factor in silk’s ability to be printed
and dyed easily.
16. Cleanliness and Wash Ability:
Silk fabric does not attract dirt because of its smooth surface. The dirt,
which gathers can be easily removed by washing or dry cleaning. It is often
recommended for the silk garments to be dry-cleaned. Silk fabrics should
always be washed with a mild soap and strong agitation in washing
machine should be avoided. Silk water – spot easily, but subsequent
washing or dry cleaning will restore the appearance of the fabric.
Reaction to Bleaches:
Silk, like wool, is deteriorated with chlorine bleaches like sodium
hypochlorite. However, mild bleach of hydrogen peroxide or sodium per
borate may be used for silk.
Silk fabrics are subjected only to normal shrinkage which can be restored
by ironing. Crepe effect fabrics shrink considerably in washing, but careful
ironing with a moderately hot iron will restore the fabric to its original size.
Effect of Heat:
Silk is sensitive to heat and begins to decompose at 330° F (165° C). The
silk fabrics thus have to be ironed when damp.
17. Effect of Light:
Silk fabric weakens on exposure to sun light. Raw silks are more resistant
to light than degummed silk.
Resistance to Mildew:
Silks will not mildew unless left for sometime in a damp state or under
the extreme conditions of tropical dampness.
Resistance to Insects:
Silk may be attacked by the larvae or clothe moths or carpet beetles.
Reaction to Alkalis:
Silk is not as sensitive as wool to alkalis, but it can be damaged if the
concentration and the temperature are high. A mild soap or detergent in
lukewarm water is thus advisable.
Reaction to Acids:
Concentrated mineral acids will dissolve silk faster than wool. Organic
acids do not harm silk.
18. Affinity for Dyes:
Silk has good absorbency and thus has good affinity for dyes. Dyed silk is
colourfast under most conditions, but its resistance to light is
Resistance to Perspiration:
Perspiration and sunlight weakens and yellows silk fabrics. The silk itself
deteriorates and the colour is affected causing staining. Garments worn
next to the skin should be washed or other wise cleaned after each
19. USES OF SILK FIBER
1. Silk is mainly used in the manufacture of clothing such as dresses, ties,
shirts, trousers, pajamas, underwear and folk costumes. It is also used in
skiing garments because of its ability to keep body warmth contained
and because it is lightweight.
2. Silk is also used to make silk comforter or duvets which are lightweight
and hypoallergenic. It is also used as fabric for upholstery, curtains, rugs
and bedding such as sheets.
3. Silk is sometimes used in the construction of parachute materials and
cords, though it is more common for parachutes to be made from nylon.
4. It is also occasionally used to make the casing of bicycle tires; cotton and
nylon are also used for this purpose.
5. Silk thread is used as a non-absorbable surgery sutures.
20. 6- Silk has been used to make disposable cups and tableware.
7- Due to its refractive nature holograms have been made using silk
8- It has been used to create capsules for drug delivery.
9- Spider silk was once used to create the cross hairs in instruments such as
microscopes and telescopes. Spider silk is still used in the field of optics
to create fine diffraction patterns need in optical communications.
21. JUTE FIBER
Jute is a bast fiber which is obtained from the stalk of the plant. The fibers
are long covered by the woody stem. They are held together by a gummy
22. PROPERTIES OF JUTE FIBER
Strength and Extensibility
Jute is a strong but low extensible fibre mainly due to composite like
structure with highly oriented long chain molecules. Tenacity depends on
test length i.e., it increases with decrease in test length. Tossa jute is
stronger than white jute. The very low breaking extension (1.0 to 1.80 %)
is a negative point for its weaving related operations but the same is a
positive point for manufacturing dimensional stable products.
Flexural and Torsional rigidity
The flexural and torsional rigidities of jute are much higher than cotton
due to its coarseness and inelastic structure. But during bending, the chain
molecules within the fiber structure get displaced due to breakage of
hydrogen bonds and subsequently locked in the new positions as a result
of quick reformation of hydrogen bonds in some other places resulting
development of wrinkles and creases.
23. Moisture absorption
Due to presence of numerous polar –OH groups, jute fiber shows good
moisture absorption capacity. Moisture regain value may be up to 36% at
100% relative humidity which is much higher than cotton. Since long chain
molecules are almost aligned along the fiber axis, the swelling of jute fiber
is found to be much more laterally than longitudinally. The diameter wise
and cross sectional wise swelling of jute in water is about 20% and 44%
respectively which are higher than cotton but the longitudinal swelling is
only 0.4%. Water holding capacity of jute is about 500%.
On heating to high temperature, jute fiber chars and burns without
melting like cotton. Ignition temperature of jute is about 1930C.The high
specific heat value (1360 J/kg/K) results good thermal insulation of jute.
Dry jute exhibits high electrical resistance but electrical resistance drops
down at a very high rate with the absorption of moisture. The dielectric
constant of jute at a frequency of 2 kHz is 1.8 in dry jute, 2.4 at 65% RH
and 3.6 at 100% RH.
It is a coarse fiber. Its diameter varies from 6 to 20 microns.
Effect of chemicals
Water: Jute is a hygroscopic fiber i.e. it takes in or gives out moisture
to its surrounding atmosphere. Under standard testing atmosphere,
moisture content value is 12.8% and moisture regain value of this
fiber is 14.6%.
Acid: This fiber is damaged by the action of strong acid hence wet
processing on Jute fiber is not done in acid medium.
Alkali: It is safe in alkali medium; hence wet treatment is done on alkali
25. USES OF JUTE FIBER
Jute is the second most important vegetable fibre after cotton, not only
for cultivation, but also for various uses.
1. Jute is used chiefly to make cloth for wrapping bales of raw cotton, and
to make sacks and coarse cloth.
2. The fibers are also woven into curtains, chair coverings, carpets, area
rugs, hessian cloth, and backing for linoleum.
3. While jute is being replaced by synthetic materials in many of these
uses, some uses take advantage of jute's biodegradable nature, where
synthetics would be unsuitable.
4. Jute butts, the coarse ends of the plants, are used to make inexpensive
5. Jute can be used to create a number of fabrics such as Hessian cloth,
sacking, scrim, carpet backing cloth (CBC), and canvas.
26. 6- Hessian, lighter than sacking, is used for bags, wrappers, wall-coverings,
upholstery, and home furnishings.
7- Sacking, a fabric made of heavy jute fibers, has its use in the name.
8- Diversified jute products are becoming more and more valuable to the
consumer today. Among these are espadrilles, floor coverings, home
textiles, high performance technical textiles, Geotextiles, composites, and
9- Jute is also used in the making of ghillie suits which are used as
camouflage and resemble grasses or brush
10-Traditionally jute was used in traditional textile machineries as textile
fibers having cellulose (vegetable fiber content) and lignin (wood fiber
content). But, the major breakthrough came when the automobile, pulp
and paper, and the furniture and bedding industries started to use jute
and its allied fibers with their non-woven and composite technology to
manufacture nonwovens, technical textiles, and composites.
27. Thus, jute is the most environment-friendly fiber starting from the seed to
expired fiber, as the expired fibers can be recycled more than once.
Another diversified jute product is Geotextiles, which made this
agricultural commodity more popular in the agricultural sector. It is a
lightly woven fabric made from natural fibers that is used for soil erosion
control, seed protection, weed control, and many other agricultural and
landscaping uses. The Geotextiles can be used more than a year and the
bio-degradable jute Geotextile left to rot on the ground keeps the ground
cool and is able to make the land more fertile.
28. LINEN FIBER
Linen is a bast fiber which is obtained from the stalk of the plant. The
fibers are long covered by the woody stem. They are held together by a
29. PROPERTIES OF LINEN FIBER
A. Physical Properties:
Linen is a strong fiber. It has a tenacity of 5.5 to 6.5 gm/den. The strength
is greater than cotton fiber.
Elongation at break:
Linen does not stress easily. It has an elongation at break of 2.7 to 3.5 %.
The color of linen fiber is yellowish to grey.
18 to 30 inch in length.
It is brighter than cotton fiber and it is slightly silky.
30. Elastic Recovery:
Linen fiber has not enough elastic recovery properties like cotton
Specific gravity of linen fiber is 1.50.
Moisture Regain (MR %):
Standard moisture regain is 10 to 12%.
Effect of Heat:
Linen has an excellent resistance to degradation by heat. It is less
affected than cotton fiber by the heat.
Effect of Sun Light:
Linen fiber is not affected by the sun light as others fiber. It has
enough ability to protect sun light.
31. B. Chemical Properties of Linen:
Linen is a natural cellulosic fiber and it has some chemical properties. Chemical
properties of the linen fiber are given below:
Effect of Acids:
Linen fiber is damaged by highly densified acids but low dense acids does not
affect if it is wash instantly after application of acids.
Effects of Alkalis:
Linen has an excellent resistance to alkalis. It does not affected by the strong
Effects of Bleaching Agents:
Cool chlorine and hypo-chlorine bleaching agent does not affect the linen fiber
Effect of Organic Solvent:
Linen fiber has high resistance to normal cleaning solvents.
Effects of Insects:
Linen fiber does not attacked by moth-grubs or beetles.
It is not suitable to dye. But it can be dye by direct and vat dyes.
32. USES OF LINEN FIBER
Linen is used for a variety of purposes. The use of linen fabric has gone
beyond the fashion industry alone. It is now used in mix with other
materials and is used for daily wear. Linen is definitely the king of fabrics
1. Linen is a popular fabric choice for clothing. The fabric is welcoming
during the summer months for its cooling sensations but on the
contrary, it is good in winter because of its warming features.
2. It is scientifically proven that if you choose pure linen sheets you will feel
greater sensation within your bed linen and sleep far better. Personally
we, the Epic Linen Team, have once tried and never gone back to
traditionally used bedding. Linen provides you with every pleasure of
having a deep and healthy sleep.
33. 3. Practical applications include the use of linen in such things as dish towels,
upholstery and sheets. You can also find linen used in such home decor items as
draperies, table cloth, bedspreads, curtains, drapes, and even rugs. Apparently,
it can even be used for making wall canvases, artist’s canvases, wall coverings,
napkins, lampshades, chair backing covers, runners, handkerchiefs, gift
wrappings, book covers, cell phone pouches and other various accessories…
4. Moreover, vintage sheets can be used as throws, hanging displays, screen covers,
room dividers or as upholstery fabric for chairs and headboards. You can even
make your own linen window treatments and blinds. Old or unused tablecloths
can also be used as bedcovers or draperies, shower curtains... There are many
different options and combinations of linen that are suitable.
5. You can also find linen used for a number of miscellaneous applications in which
one or more of linen’s characteristics make it a suitable choice. Some of these
applications include insulation and filtration materials, fabrics used in light
aviation products, reinforced plastics, sewing thread, surgical thread and twine.
6. Sometimes, with very little work, a nice piece of linen fabric may be transformed
into a wonderful set of curtains or cushions which we think would be an
adorable addition to the new look of your home!
7. The Epic Linen Team proposes that you‚ ‘Be Inspired And Creative!‘ Feel Free To
Explore Your Own Creative Uses!
34. WOOL FIBER
Wool fiber is the natural hair grown on sheep and is composed of
protein substance called as keratin. Wool is composed of carbon,
hydrogen, nitrogen and this is the only animal fiber, which contains
sulfur in addition. The wool fibers have crimps or curls, which
create pockets and give the wool a spongy feel and create
insulation for the wearer. The outside surface of the fiber consists
of a series of serrated scales, which overlap each other much like
the scales of a fish.
35. PROPERTIES OF WOOL FIBER
Wool is a complicated weak fiber. The low tensile strength is because of
comparatively fewer hydrogen bonds. When it absorbs moisture, the water
molecules steadily force sufficient polymers apart to cause a significant number of
hydrogen bonds to break. The water molecules also hydrolyze several salt linkages
in the amorphous regions of the strand. Breakage and hydrolysis of these inter-
polymer forces of attraction are explicit as swelling of the fiber and result in loss of
strength of the wet woolen material.
This is elastic . Covalent bonds can stretch, but they are strong. The disulphide
bonds in the amorphous parts of the strand or fiber are able to stretch when the
strand is extended. When the strand is released the disulphide bonds pull the
protein molecules back into their original positions.
Wool fiber can be stretched up to 50% of its length when dry and up to 30% of its
length when wet without breaking It will return to its original length when
It has a comparatively low density and therefore fibers are light
with regard to their visible weight.
Conductivity of heat:
It has a low conductivity of heat and therefore makes it ideal for
cold weather. The resiliency of the fiber is significant in the warmth
properties of the fabric. Wool fibers do not pack well in yarns
because of the crimp and scales, and this makes wool fabric process
and capable of inserting much air. Air is one of the best insulators
since it keeps body heat close to the body. The medulla of the wool
fiber comprises air spaces that increase the insulating power of the
It has poor dimensional stability and therefore shrinks easily. Felting
or shrinkage results since under mechanical action, such as
agitation, friction and pressure in the presence of heat and
moisture, it tends to move root wards, and the edges of the scales
interlock prohibiting the fiber from returning to its original position.
This results in the fabric becoming thicker and smaller, that is it
shrinks or felts.
37. Effect of acids:
Concentrated acids damage it since they hydrolyze the salt linkages and hydrogen
bonds. Dilute acids do not affect it.
Like cotton wool is easy to dye. Acid dyes, chrome and mordant dyes are utilized to
dye this. The dye molecules are attracted into the amorphous areas of wool.
Caused by the unique chemical and physical properties of wool. The fiber tends to
bend and turn in to a resilient 3 dimensional structure. It holds in air to insulate
the wearer. This property make wool naturally elastic and resilient causing rapid
wrinkle recovery, durability, bulk, loft, warmth, and resistance to abrasion.
Wool can absorb up to 30% of its weight in moisture without feeling damp or
clammy. This makes wool good for all climates since it aids in the body's cooling
mechanisms to keep moisture away from the skin.
Resistance to Fire
Wool contains moisture in every fiber allowing it to resist flame without any
additional chemical treatment. The wool will just char and self extinguish.
38. Dye ability
Wool absorbs many dyes deeply, uniformly, and directly without the use of
chemicals. This characteristic allows wool to achieve very beautiful and
rich colors when dyed.
The flexibility of wool makes it very durable. A single wool fiber can be
bent back on itself more the 20,000 times without breaking. Compare this
to the only 3,000 times of cotton and 2,000 times of silk. Its elasticity
makes it very resistant to tearing. Wool also has an outer film making it
resistant to abrasion.
Wool fiber can be stretched up to 50% of its length when dry and up to
30% of its length when wet without breaking It will return to its original
length when released.
39. USES OF WOOL FIBER
• Wool fabric is used for all kinds of clothing, couch
covers, bedspreads, toilet covers, tablecloths, and
• Bedding and blankets are also created using wool or a
blend of different fabrics that includes wool.
• Most active wear is made from wool blended fabric.
Shirts, pants, dresses, ties, skirts, and jackets can be
made from wool.
• It is used to make carpets, rugs etc.
• Wool felt covers piano hammers, and it is used to
absorb odors and noise in heavy machinery and stereo
40. NYLON FIBER
Nylon is very much suitable for hosiery and the knitted fabrics because of
its smoothness, light weight and high strength. Nylon is a lustrous fibre.
The luster of the fiber can be modified by adding the delustering agent at
the molten stage
41. PROPERTIES OF NYLON FIBER
• Variation of luster: nylon has the ability to be very lustrous,
semi lustrous or dull.
• Durability: its high tenacity fibers are used for seatbelts, tire
cords, ballistic cloth and other uses.
• Produced in both regular and high tenacity
• Highly elastic
• Excellent Resiliency
• Excellent Drapability.
• Retains its shape. No shrinkage
• Substantially inert to alkalis.
• acids Decomposes.
• Excellent. Resistance to insects
42. • Fabric color might fade in perspiration
• Low absorbency.
• High elongation
• Excellent abrasion resistance
• Highly resilient (nylon fabrics are heat-set)
• Paved the way for easy-care garments
• High resistance to insects, fungi, animals, as well
as molds, mildew, rot and many chemicals
• Melts instead of burning
• Used in many military applications
• Good specific strength
43. USES OF NYLON FIBER
• Nylon is a high strength fiber. It is used for making fishing
nets, parachutes and type cords.
• It is used for making fabrics in textile industry.
• Nylon is widely used as plastic for making machine parts.
• Apparel: Blouses, dresses, foundation garments, hosiery,
underwear, raincoats, ski apparel, windbreakers, swimwear,
and cycle wear
• Home Furnishings: Bedspreads, carpets, curtains,
• Industrial and Other Uses: Tire cord, hoses, conveyer and
seat belts, parachutes, racket strings, ropes and nets,
sleeping bags, tarpaulins, tents, thread, monofilament
fishing line, dental floss
44. POLYESTER FIBER
A manufactured fiber in which the fiber forming substance is any long-
chain synthetic polymer composed of at least 85% by weight of an ester of
a substituted aromatic carboxylic acid, including but not restricted to
substituted terephthalic units, p(-R-O-CO- C6H4-CO-O-)x and
parasubstituted hydroxy-benzoate units, p(-R-O-CO-C6H4-O-)x.
45. PROPERTIES OF POLYESTER FIBER
• Any of numerous synthetic resins; they are light and
strong and weather resistant and easy to wash.
• Resistant to stretching and shrinking and most
• Quick drying
• Crisp and resilient when wet or dry
• Abrasion resistant
• Able to retain heat-set pleats and creases
• Very strong
• Satisfactory draping quality
46. • Very low absorbency.
• Heat conductivity better than acrylic.
• Melts nd flamable by effect of heat.
• Good resistance when exposed to light.
• Good resistance to bleaches.
• Fair resistant to alkalis at room temperature.
• Good resisitance to acids.
• Resistant to insects.
47. USES OF POLYESTER FIBER
• Apparel: Every form of clothing .Polyester fibers are the
first choice for apparel and are used in trousers, skirts,
dresses, suits, jackets, blouses and outdoor clothing
• Polyester fabrics used for conveyor belts, safety belts,
coated fabrics and plastic supporting with high-energy
• Home Furnishings: Carpets, curtains, draperies, sheets
and pillow cases, wall coverings, and upholstery
• Other Uses: hoses, power belting, ropes and nets,
thread, tire cord, auto upholstery, sails, floppy disk
liners, and fiberfill for various products including
pillows and furniture
48. ACETATE FIBER
Acetate is manufactured by treating purified cellulose refined from cotton
linters and/or wood pulp with acetic anhydride in the presence of a
catalyst. The resultant product, cellulose acetate flake, is precipitated,
purified, dried, and dissolved in acetone to prepare the spinning solution.
After filtration, the highly viscous solution is extruded through spinnerets
into a column of warm air in which the acetone is evaporated, leaving
solid continuous filaments of cellulose acetate.
49. PROPERTIES OF ACETATE FIBER
• Filament man-made fiber
• Length: Can be achieve as desired
• Density: 1.25-1.35 g/cm3
• Tenacity: 1.1-1.4 g/d (dry)
• 0.65-0.75 g/d (wet)
• Moisture Content: 6.5%
• Strength: Weakest of all textile fiber
• Elasticity: Good
• Resilience: Good
• Drapability: Good
• Heat Conductivity: Moderate
50. • Absorbency: Not very absorbent
• Does not attract dirt
• Effect of Heat: Moderate, too much heat will melt it
• Effect of light: prolong exposure weakens it, but better
than cotton or any rayon
• Resistance to Insects: Very Good
• Resistance to mildew: Very Good
• Reaction to alkalies: Conc. sol. damages it
• Reaction to acids: Conc. sol. damages it
• Affinity for dyes: Moderate
• Resistance to Perspiration: Fairly resistance to
51. USES OF ACETATE FIBER
• Used in a cigarette filter.
• Used in playing card
• Used in photographic film
• Apparel: Blouses, dresses, linings, wedding and party
attire, home furnishings, draperies, upholstery
• Award Ribbon: Rosettes for equestrian events,
dog/cat shows, corporate awards, advertising and
identification products all use cellulose acetate
• ink reservoirs for fiber tip pens.
• High absorbency products: diapers and surgical