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# Lecture 10.ppt

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# Lecture 10.ppt

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### Lecture 10.ppt

1. 1. Introduction to the Encoding Techniques Digital-To-Digital Encoding Types of Digital-To-Digital Encoding
2. 2. Information must be transformed into signals before it can be transformed across the communication media How this information is transformed depends upon its original format and on the format of the communication hardware
3. 3.  Digital-to-Digital conversion/encoding is the representation of digital information by digital signal  For Example:  When you transmit data from Computer to the Printer, both original and transmitted data have to be digital
4. 4. Digital/Digital Encoding Unipolar Polar Bipolar
5. 5.  Simple and Primitive  Almost Obsolete Today  Study provides introduction to concepts and problems involved with more complex encoding systems
6. 6.  PROS  Straight Forward and Simple  Inexpensive to Implement  CONS  DC Component  Lack of Synchronization
7. 7.  The average amplitude of a unipolar encoded signal is non zero.  This creates a DC component.
8. 8.  Bit Rate = 1000 bps  1000 bits ---------- 1 second  1 bit ---------- = 0.001 sec  Positive voltage of 0.005 sec means five 1’s  Sometimes it stretches to 0.006 seconds and an extra 1 bit is read by the Receiver 1000 1
9. 9.  Polar encoding uses two voltage levels  One positive and one negative  Average voltage level on the line is reduced  DC Component problem of Unipolar encoding is alleviated
10. 10.  The level of signal is either positive or negative  Two popular forms of NRZ  NRZ-L(Non Return to Zero-Level)  NRZ-I(NRZ-Invert) NRZ NRZ-L NRZ-I
11. 11.  In NRZ-L the level of the signal depends on the type of bit that it represent.  The positive voltage usually means a 0 while a negative voltage means the bit is a 1.
12. 12.  NRZ-Invert  In NRZ-I ,an inversion of the voltage level represents a 1 bit.  It is the transition between a positive and negative voltage, not the voltage itself, that represents a 1 bit.  A 0 bit is represented by no change.
13. 13. Introduction to the Encoding Techniques Digital-To-Digital Encoding Types of Digital-To-Digital Encoding UniPolar Encoding Polar Encoding NRZ