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Ram Chandra Sharma.pptx

  1. Incidence and Prevalence Measures of Disease Frequency Ram Chandra Sharma Group-218
  2. Objectives  Importance of Measures of Disease Frequency  Prevalence  Incidence  Relationship Between Prevalence and Incidence  Stratification of Disease Frequency by Person, Place, and Time
  3. Importance of Measures of Disease Frequency  Prior to any clinical trial: How frequently does the disease occur?  Provide big picture information about a disease, framing public health questions and guiding resource allocation.  Describe the absolute risk of a disease.  Can be categorized, or stratified to gain insight into the pathogenesis (mechanism) of disease.
  4. Prevalence  The amount of a disease at one particular point in time  The proportion of people who have the disease  Prevalence (%) = ×100% n _ u _ m _ b _ e _ r _ o _ f _ p _ e _ o _ p _ l _ e _ w i t _ h _ d _ i s e a _ s e number of people in the population
  5. Prevalence  What is the prevalence of anxiety disorder among UM medical student?  What is the prevalence of cognitive disorders among school children born at < 34 wks GA in Manitoba?
  6. Prevalence Prevalence measures help to describe the current burden of a disease in a population in order to facilitate planning and resource allocation
  7. Incidence  The number of new cases of disease that develop over time
  8. Incidence  Two definitions  Incidence proportion = x 100% n _ u _ mbe_ r _ o_ f _ n_ e_ w ca _ses o_ f _ d_ isea _ se population without disease at baseline  Incidence rate (Incidence density) = n _ u _ mbe_ r _ o_ f _ n_ e_ w ca _s _e _s o_ f _ d_ isea _ se person-time at risk
  9. Incidence  What is the incidence of influenza infection among UM medical students (500 students) during a 3-month period from January through March 2009?  Time-at-Risk concept
  10. Incidence Diagram of individual risk time and disease status
  11. Incidence Incidence measures help to provide clues as to the cause or development of a disease
  12. Relationship Between Prevalence and Incidence
  13. Stratification  Refers to the process of separating analysis by subgroups.  Stratification can be by:  Personal Characteristics: age, race/ethnicity, sex  Geography  Time periods
  14. Reference  Epidemiology and Biostatistics: An Introduction to Clinical Research Bryan Kestenbaum; editors, K. Adeney, N. Weiss ; contributing author, Abigail B. Shoben Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009