• A Textile is a flexible material comprised of a
network (interlacement / Interlooping / Bonded) of
natural or artificial FIBERS
• The term ‘Textile' is a Latin word taken from the
word ‘TEXERE' which means ‘to weave'.
• The term Textiles covers Fibres, Yarns and
3. Organizational Structure of
This does not refer to the shape of the factory
but to the ways in which, the various parts of
the structure relate to each other..
4. Vertical Organization
A company which is structured in such a way that it
takes in a basic raw material and performs all of the
necessary processing functions to convert it into the
finished product is said to be vertical or vertically
12. How a Linear Structure Is Formed
Fiber is a linear structure
• A long continuous
chain formed by one
chemical or by the
reaction of more
produces a repetitive
• One unit that repeats in
polymer is called a
14. Polymerization happens:
• As a natural process.(natural)
• With natural material under controlled
• With synthetic material /chemicals under
15. The history of fibres is as old as human
Traces of natural fibres have been located to
ancient civilizations all over the globe. For
many thousand years, the usage of fiber was
limited by natural fibres such as flax, cotton,
silk, wool and plant fibres for different
Flax is considered to be the oldest and the
most used natural fibre
since ancient times
• A basic and fundamental unit of textiles
• A long slender thread like structure of cell
• A smallest entity of textiles we wear
• A unit of matter which is capable of being spun into
a yarn or made into a fabric by bonding or by
interlacing in a variety of methods including
weaving, knitting, braiding, felting, twisting, or
webbing, and which is the basic structural element
of textile products.
17. • It is a smallest textile component which is
microscopic hair like substance that may
be man made or natural.
• They have length at least hundred times
to that of their diameter or width
• Fibres used for apparel range in length
from about 15mm to 150mm.
• Flax ranges up to 500mm and more
• Thickness of these fibres tend to range
from about 10µm to 50µm
18. Staple Fiber
• A basic standard length of fiber is called staple
• The fibre can be a short staple or a long staple.
• It may be natural or continuous fibers may be
cut to a staple length
• A long continuous fibrous structure ranging
in length from a few hundred
meters (silk) to several kilometers
(man made fibres) Thickness of filaments is
silmilar to that of fibres
• Mono filament
– A strand containing a long continuous
• Multi filament
– A strand containing 2 or more filaments
20. Properties of Textile Fiber
Macro structure of Micro structure of
fibre and filament fibre and filament
Fibre length Microscopic -
Fibre thickness Appearance
Length to breadth ratio Microscopic-
Colour longitudinal struc.
Lustre cross sectional struc.
Sub Microscopic struc.
22. PROPERTIES OF FIBRES
Properties of fibers can be classified
based on various factors like :-
– Visual / Physical properties
– Microscopic properties
– Chemical properties
– Mechanical properties
– Environmental & Biological properties
– Thermal properties
– Electrical properties
23. Physical properties of FIBERS
Physical properties are those which can be seen in
F) FIBRE LENGTH
24. Fiber Length
• The average length of fiber is termed as
• The length is to make a long continuous
strand with small length staple fibers
minimum fiber length is 5mm.
• The fiber should have minimum length to
width ratio of 1:100.
• COLOUR:- manufactured fibers are usually
white in color where as natural fiber may
vary in shades white to brown or tan to
black e.g. (color of wool fiber depends on
• SHAPE:- shape of a fiber is determined by its cross
sections .often it can also be included in microscopic
properties of fiber. All fibers have length ,cross section
,surface contour and diameter and also some fibers have
• Length :fibers may be staple or filament
• Cross section :it is referred to the appearance of the fiber
when viewed across its diameter.
• Surface :surface contour is sometimes referred to as
• Diameter : it is the width of the cross section.
• Crimp : the wave or bump of the fiber.
27. Fiber Fineness
• The fiber fineness is the relative measurement of its
size, diameter and linear density.
• It also suggests the uniformity of the fiber.
28. Uniformity / Evenness
• Uniformity in thickness and length of fiber gives
more even and fine yarns resulting in fine
• The property of an
individual fiber by
virtue of which the
fibers hold on one
another when spun
• For e.g, cotton’s
scales help them to
Cover is the ability to occupy an area
it varies from fiber to fiber
(e.g. wool, asbestos , flax, hemp etc)
• Hand is the way a fiber feels when handled.
Fiber shapes vary and includes round, flat
and multimodal (e.g. soft, crisp, dry, silky
Luster is the quality of fiber to reflect the light
from its surface.
• Different fibers have different luster properties.
• Silk has high luster in natural fibers.
• Most of the man made fibers have high degree of luster.
• The luster of fibers can be varied by different processes.
33. CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF FIBERS
Chemical properties of fibers can be defined as those
properties of fibers which they exhibit when they come in
contact with any kind of chemicals.
It is very necessary to understand various chemical
properties of different fibers because
1. It relates directly to the care required in daily processing
like cleaning, washing and ironing .
2. Also because fibers usually come in contact with
chemicals during textile processing like dyeing and printing
and various other finishes.
Generally it can be said that synthetic fibers have less
chemical reactivity than natural fibers. But different fibers
react differently with various kinds of chemicals………..
34. CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF
• Chemical properties of different fibers depend on the inbuilt properties of
• Also the effect of a chemical on the fiber will be determined by:
• The type of chemical
• The strength of chemical and the strength of fiber
• Time of exposure of the fiber to the chemical.
• Chemical reactivity of different fibers basically includes:
• EFFECTS OF ALKALIES
• EFFECTS OF ACIDS
• EFFECTS OF OXIDISING AGENTS
• EFFECTS OF SOLVENTS
• ABSORBENCY / POROSITY
35. 1. EFFECT OF ACIDS
The effect of acids on a fiber is determined by the
type and strength of the acid. mineral acids even in
dilute concentration will damage natural fibers like
cotton. however dilute concentrations of acids will
not harm protein fibers like wool (even they are
used in wool processing .
2. EFFECT OF ALKALIES
Alkalies do not harm natural cellulosic fibers such
as cotton which is often treated with NaOH to improve
its strength . various soaps and detergents are not
recommended for wool as they are alkaline in nature
and alkalis are not suitable for protein fibers.
36. 3. EFFECTS OF OXIDISING AGENTS
Oxidizing agents such as chlorine bleach are used to
remove colors or stains in fibers. For example many
natural fibers are not white enough to give good dye
results, so they are treated with bleaches. However
chlorine based bleaches are not suitable for
protein fibers whereas it can safely be used on
nylon and polyester. Cotton requires controlled
4. EFFECTS OF SOLVENTS
Chemical solvents are used in dry cleaning. organic
solvents are used to remove oily stains and dirt.
Acetone is one of the solvents that will damage both
acetate and triacetate.
• Porosity is volume of air contained within the
volume of the fiber.
• This facilitates absorption of moisture, lubricants
• Natural fibers have higher porosity than
38. Mechanical properties of fibers
The mechanical properties of fibers are determined in a
textile testing laboratory.
These procedures make possible accurate evaluation of
the quality of textile products.
» Abrasion Resistance
» Dimensional Stability
» Elastic Recovery
» Resiliency or Wrinkle Recovery
» Specific Gravity or Density
39. Abrasion Resistance
Abrasion Resistance is the ability of a fiber to withstand the
effects of rubbing or friction. It is a significant factor in the
durability of a fiber. e.g
Nylon is used extensively in action outerwear, such as ski
jackets, because it is very strong and resists abrasion.
Excellent abrasion resistance -Nylon, Aramid
Poor abrasion resistance -Glass, Acetate.
41. ABRASION RESISTANCE OF DIFFERENT
42. DIMENSIONAL STABILITY:-
• It is the ability of a fiber to maintain its original shape,
neither shrinking nor stretching.
• Some varieties of Rayon and wool shrink progressively.
Pilling is the formation of small balls of loose fibres on the
surface of a fabric, results from abrasion.The tumbling
action of washing and automatic drying may also cause
Excellent against pilling- Rayon Cotton
Poor against pilling - Nylon Polyester
44. ELASTIC RECOVERY:-
Ability of a fiber to return to its original
Elastomeric fibers like spandex can be
stretched 100 percent and still return to its
Fibres with high Elastic Recovery recovers
its creep after being compressed.
The ability of fiber to be plied or twisted without any
rupture to the fiber.
• Fibers that bend or fold easily have good
• The fiber should be sufficiently pliable so that it can
wrap around another fiber when spun. Stiff fibers are
hard to spin into yarn and create fabric with limited
• It contributes greatly to the drape of a fiber.
• All man made cellulosic fibers have good flexibility.
46. RESILIENCY OR WRINKLE RECOVERY:-
It is the ability of a fiber to return to its original shape after being bent or
folded. Fibres with good resiliency like polyester are often used in
apparel when retention of appearance is important.
Compressive resiliency or loft is the ability of a fiber to return to its
original thickness after it is crushed.
RESILIENCY OF DIFFERENT FIBRES
RESILIENCY OF DIFFERENT FIBRES
• The resistance to compression, flexing or torsion is
termed as resiliency. Some fibers have natural
tendency to return to their original condition after
the applied force is removed.
• This is an important factor considered while
selecting the fibres for carpet.
48. Tenacity / Fibre Strength
• The strength of material, when it is loaded along
its load axis is called tensile strength or tenacity of
the fiber .
• In general, strong fibers last longer and provide
more service than do weak fibers.
• Tenacity or Fiber strength, is important factor
contributing to the wear life of a textile product.
• Nylon, Aramid and Glass fibers are noted for their
strength. Acetate and Acrylic are relatively weak,
49. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF
MAJOR TEXTILE FIBRES
COTTON GOOD 3.0-5.0 GOOD POOR EXCELLENT 1.54
FLAX EXCELLENT 6.6-8.4 FAIR POOR EXCELLENT 1.52
WOOL POOR 0.8-2.0 FAIR GOOD FAIR 1.32
SILK GOOD 3.9-4.5 FAIR FAIR GOOD 1.30
RAYON-VISCOSE FAIR 0.7-6.0 FAIR POOR GOOD 1.54
ACETATE POOR 0.8-1.5 POOR POOR GOOD 1.32
TRIACETATE POOR POOR GOOD GOOD 1.30
ACRYLIC FAIR 1.8-3.5 POOR GOOD FAIR 1.19
GLASS EXCELLENT 6.0-7.0 POOR EXCELLENT EXCELLENT 2.54
NYLON EXCELLENT 2.5-7.5 EXCELLENT EXCELLENT POOR 1.14
POLYESTER EXCELLENT 2.5-9.5 EXCELLENT EXCELLENT POOR 1.38
SPANDEX POOR 0.6-0.9 POOR EXCELLENT EXCELLENT 1.21
50. ENVIRONMENTAL PROPERTIES OF FIBERS
Environmental properties or the various biological properties of
fibers are important as it will determine the effect of various climatic
conditions , micro organism and insects on textile products.
Environmental or biological properties of fibers include:
1. SENSITIVITY TO THE CLIMATE
2. SENSITIVITY TO MICROORGANISMS
3. SENSITIVITY TO INSECTS
51. SENSITIVITY TO CLIMATE
Exposure to sunlight and air pollution will cause some fibers to
deteriorate. for example cotton and flax looses its strength after long
exposure to sunlight. white wool and silk turns yellow on prolonged
exposure to sunlight.
SENSITIVITY TO MICROORGANISMS
Most synthetic fibers remain unaffected by microorganisms but
fibers like cotton and regenerated cellulosic get discolored and
eventually rots by microorganisms like mold and mildew
SENSITIVITY TO INSECTS
Insects such as moths, carpet beetles and silverfish can attack
fibers. Wool is specially susceptible to attack from moths and carpet
beetles. Silverfish will attack cotton and regenerated cellulosic
52. THERMAL PROPERTIES OF FIBERS
Thermal properties of fibers are those properties which are
exhibited by a fiber when they are exposed to heat directly
or if exposed to similar conditions
Thermal properties of fiber include:
• EFFECTS OF HEAT
53. EFFECTS OF HEAT
• The reaction to heat may take the form of melting or
• Different Fibers react differently to heat.
• The heating causes decomposition & weakens the fabric
• Most synthetic fibers are thermoplastic (fibers melt or
soften when exposed to heat).
• The suitable treatment of fibers can give a fair degree of
resistance to fiber.
55. Heat Setting
• Applying heat and pressure in a controlled
manner, permanently changes the shape and
improves the dimensional stability of
• The fibers, yarns and fabrics are very stable
at temperatures lower than those at which
they were set.
It is the important factor considered for the
suitability to end use
• Fibers react differently to flames.
• Some fibers will ignite, some don't.
• Cellulose fibers are most flammable ones.
(cotton, flax, viscose)
• Acetate and triacetate burn immediately
• Nylon, polyester, acrylic, spandex don’t catch
fire but melt and form hard beads
57. • Protein based wool & silk are less
flammable. They burn slowly.
• The Inorganic fibers like asbestos, glass,
and metal do not burn.
• Fibers that do not conduct electrical charges
create static electricity.
• Hydrophobic fibers tend to have low
electrical conductivity because of their low
• Synthetic fibers are poor conductors of
59. • Synthetic fiber materials are charged with static
electricity so it attracts the dust & dirt particles
and it becomes easily soiled
• The fabrics like cotton, wool and other fabrics
retain moisture, the static leaks away to earth, just
as fast as it is formed, via the metal parts of the
machinery used & so causes no trouble.
61. For the standardisation, classification
and easier identification of fibres,
Federal Trade Commission assigned
generic groups of manufactured fibres
according to their chemical
Flax | Cotton | Wool | Silk | Rayon | Acetate | Nylon |
Polyester | Glass etc
62. NATURAL FIBRE
• Any hair like raw material directly
obtainable from an animal, vegetable or
mineral source that can be convertible after
spinning into yarns and then into fabric.
• Under them there are various categories:
• (1) plant
• (2) animal
• (3) minerals
63. Vegetable fibers
they can be further on classified
(a) fibre occurring on the seed (raw
cotton , java cotton)
(b) phloem fiber (flax, ramie ,
(c) tendon fibre from stem or
leaves (manila hemp, sisal hemp
(d) fibre occurring around the trunk
(e) fibre of fruit/ nut shells
(coconut fibre – Coir)
cotton and linen are the most
important among them.
64. ANIMAL FIBRES
• Animal fibers are
natural fibers that consist largely of proteins s
silk, hair/fur, wool and feathers.
• The most commonly used type of animal fibe
65. MINERAL FIBRE
• Asbestos is the only natural
mineral fibre obtained from
varieties of rocks.
• It is fibrous form of silicate of
magnesium and calcium
containing iron and aluminium
and other minerals.
• It is acid proof, flame proof and
• Its particles are carcinogenic and
hence its use is restricted.
66. MAN MADE FIBRE
• Natural man made fibre
(A) Cellulosic fibres
• Cellulose is one of many polymers found in nature.
• Wood, paper, and cotton all contain cellulose. >
Cellulose is an excellent fiber.
• Cellulose is made of repeat units of the monomer
• The three types of regenerated cellulosic fibres are
rayon, acetate and triacetate which are derived
from the cell walls of short cotton fibres called
• Paper for instance is almost pure cellulose
67. SYNTHETIC MAN MADE
• Polyester is a category of
polymers which contain the ester
functional group in their main chain.
• The term "polyester" is most commonly
polyethylene terephthalate (PET).
• it has a high melting temperature
• it can be dyed with only disperse dyes
• they are thermoplastic, have good
strength and are hydrophobic
• the fibre has a rod like shape with a
• it is lustrous and its hand is crisp.
• it has excellent resiliency and so it the
best wash and wear fabric.
• there are problems of static and pilling in
• Nylon is one of the most
common polymers used as a
• There are several forms of
nylon depending upon chemical
synthesis such as nylon 4, 6,
6.6, 6.10, 6.12, 8,10 and 11.
• Nylon is found in clothing all
the time, but also in other
places, in the form of a
• Nylons are also called
polyamides, because of the
characteristic amide groups in the
• These amide groups are very
polar and are linked with each
other with hydrogen bonds.
• nylon is a regular and
symmetrical fibre with
crystalline regions and make very str
• the fibre has a smooth rod like
shape with a smooth surface
70. RUBBER FIBRE
• Rubber is an elastic
polymer that naturally occurs as a
colloidal suspension, or
latex, in the sap of some plants.
• The manufacturing process
consists of extruding the natural
rubber latex into a coagulating
bath to form filament.the material
is cross linked to obtain fibres
which exhibit high stretch
• It can be synthesized.
• natural rubber is essentially a polymer
of isoprene units, a hydrocarbon diene
• Synthetic rubber can be made as a
• oprene or various other monomers
• The material properties of natural
rubber make it an elastomer .
• Rubber exhibits unique physical and
• Rubber's stress-strain behavior exhibits
the Mullins effect, the Payne effect and
is often modeled as hyperelastic.
• Rubber strain crystallizes.
72. GLASS FIBRE
• It is also known as Fiberglass that is a
material made from extremely fine
fibers of glass. .Glass fiber is formed
when thin strands of silica-based or
other formulation glass is extruded into
many fibers with small diameters
suitable for textile processing
• it has a high degree of viscosity
• The basis of textile grade glass fibers
is silica, SiO2. In its pure form it exists
as a polymer, (SiO2)n.
• In order to induce crystallization, it
must be heated to temperatures above
1200°C for long periods of time.
• The first type of glass used for
fiber was soda-lime glass or A
glass which was not very
resistant to alkali. A new type, E-
glass was Glass fibers are useful
because of their high ratio of
surface area to weight. However,
the increased surface area makes
them much more susceptible to
• By trapping air within them,
blocks of glass fiber make is
used as a reinforcing agent for
many polymer products.
• it has a good thermal insulation,
with a thermal conductivity of
• Because glass has an amorphous structure, its
properties are the same along the fiber and across
• Humidity is an important factor in the tensile
strength. Moisture is easily adsorbed, and can
worsen microscopic cracks and surface defects, and
• it has no effect on exposure to sunlight even after
• It is completely hydrophobic
• Metallic fibers are
manufactured fibers composed
of metal, plastic-coated metal,
metal-coated plastic, or a core
completely covered by metal.
Gold and silver have been used
since ancient times as yarns for
fabric decoration. More
recently, aluminum yarns,
aluminized plastic yarns, and
aluminized nylon yarns have
replaced gold and silver.
• they are made through laminating
• Coated metallic filaments help to
• When suitable adhesives and films
are used, they are not affected by salt
water, chlorinated water in swimming
pools or climatic conditions.
• If possible anything made with
metallic fibers should be dry-cleaned.
• Ironing can be problematic because
the heat from the iron, especially at
high tempatures, can melt the fibers.
• they are used mainly for decorative
77. Fiber Identification
Cotton swells Swells&
Opens up &looses strength
leaving grey ash of
burning paper smell
Longitudinal twists. Resistance to alkalis.
jute -do- -do- -do- ---
--- -do -do Dissolves -do Longitudinal
Coir --- --- Color
--- --- --- Dissolves
Opaque thick serations
Brittle & resistant to
Viscose Swells Swells &
Dissolves Dissolves Dissolves
leaving grey ash of
burning paper smell
--- --- Dissolves
--- Dissolves Self extinguishing
Wool -do- -do- Dissolves --- --- Dissolves
Polyester --- --- --- --- --- Dissolves
Acrylic --- --- --- --- --- Looses
Dissolves & Turns
Burns & stops
Out of flame
Leaving dark hard
Lofty & more
Nylon --- --- --- --- --- Looses
Burns & stops
Out of flame
Leaving dark hard