- Identify factors that contribute to heart
- Explain why cholesterol and saturated fats
are limited in some cardiovascular
- Identify foods to avoid or limit in a
3. - Explain why sodium is limited in some
- Identify foods that are limited or
prohibited in sodium-controlled diets.
- Identify alternatives to sodium in diets for
patients with heart disease
4. Cardiovascular Disease
- Affects heart and blood vessels
- Leading cause of death and permanent
disability in the United States
- More deaths are caused by heart disease
than by cancer, accidents and AIDS
5. Risk Factors of heart disease:
- Smoking - Hypertension
- Diabetes - Insulin resistance
- Infection - Periodontal disease
- Obesity - age
- Male sex - Sedentary lifestyle
6. Cardiovascular Disease
Cardiovascular disease can be acute or
Acute: means sudden such as myocardial
infarction (MI) also known as heart attack
Chronic: develops over time such as
congested heart failure (CHF),
Arteriosclerosis and Atherosclerosis
9. Arteriosclerosis: arteries harden, making
the passage of blood difficult and
Atherosclerosis: thickening and weakening
of artery walls by cholesterol and fatty
deposits called plaque
11. Dietary managements MI
- After the heart attack, the client is in
- Client should be NPO (nothing by
- IV fluids may be given.
12. - After several hours, client may begin to
- Liquid diet usually recommended for the
first 24 hours.
- Then, a low-cholesterol, low-sodium diet
- Foods should not be extremely hot or
13. - Food that is easy to chew and digest is
- Sodium limited to prevent fluid overload.
- Restriction on caffeine the first few days
after an MI
14. Congestive Heart Failure
- Due to decompensation or severe injury to
the heart muscle
- Decreased circulation causes decreased
oxygenation of the body.
- Shortness of breath, chest pain on
exertion, and edema are common.
15. - Decreased nutrients to body tissues
- Edema may mask the problems of
malnutrition and underweight.
- The heart beats faster and enlarges.
16. Diet for Congestive Heart Failure
- Fluid restriction may be ordered.
- Soft Foods
- Small, frequent meals
- Diuretics and a sodium-restricted diet are
17. - Diuretics can cause excessive loss of
potassium and blood levels should be
- Hypokalemia can upset the heartbeat.
- Fruits, especially oranges, bananas, and
prunes, are excellent sources of
potassium, but supplements may be given.
22. Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes
- Initiated by the National Cholesterol
- Reduced intake of saturated fats and
- Therapeutic dietary options for increased
- Weight reduction increased physical
24. - Contributes to heart attack, stroke, heart
failure, and kidney failure
- “Silent disease” because sufferers can be
- Heredity, age, obesity and African-
American race are predisposing factors.
- Smoking and stress also contribute to
25. Dietary Treatment
- Weight-reduction diets.
- Sodium-restricted diet and/or diuretics
can be prescribed to alleviate edema.
- Increasing fruits and vegetables helps to
lower blood pressure.
26. Foods Permitted for hypertensive
- Fresh fruits and vegetables
- Pasta, rice
- Fresh meats and fish
- Oil, vinegar ()خل
- Unsalted margarine
- Popcorn - Spices - Coffee, tea
27. Foods to Avoid
- Tomato or vegetable juice
- Canned vegetables
- Dried, smoked or canned fish or meats
- Potato chips, salted nuts, pretzels
- Fast foods
28. Dietary Approaches to Stop
- High potassium foods
- Low fat dairy products
- Use low cholesterol and low saturated fat
- Use fresh, frozen, or no-salt-added
- Increase dietary fiber
29. Considerations for the Health Care
- Most cardiac clients will be told to reduce
fat, sodium, and sometimes, the amount
of calories in their diets.
- Help the cardiac client want to learn how
to help himself or herself via nutrition.
- Cardiovascular disease is the leading
cause of death in the United States.
- May be acute, as in myocardial infarction,
or chronic, as in hypertension and
- Hypertension may be a symptom of
31. - Cholesterol is associated with
atherosclerosis and a low-cholesterol diet
or a fat-restricted diet might be
- The health care professional can
encourage the client to maintain a healthy
weight, exercise, limit salt and fat intake,
and avoid smoking to reduce the risk of