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  2. 2. Outlines:  Introduction about EOR  EOR methods  Thermal recovery  Gas injection  Chemical injection  Microbial injection 2
  3. 3. Introduction: EOR: a stage of hydrocarbon production that involves using an advanced methods to produce more oil than would be possible by using primary and secondary production.  EOR methods : 1. Thermal recovery. 2. Gas injection. 3. Chemical injection 4. Microbial injection 3
  4. 4. 1-Thermal recovery: Any process in which heat is introduced intentionally into a subsurface accumulation of organic compounds for the purpose of recovering oils through wells.(petrowiki (2014)) Thermal recovery types: • Hot water floods • Steam injection • In-situ combustion • Electrical heating 4
  5. 5. 2-Gas injection: It is the injection of gas through the wells which is surround to the production well. (ODD, 2003) These gases are not first contact miscible with reservoir oils, but with sufficiently high reservoir pressure they achieve dynamic miscibility with many reservoir oils. (ODD, 2003) The injected gas such as (natural gas, enriched natural gas, flue gas, nitrogen or CO2) (ODD, 2003) 5
  6. 6. Gas injection continue……… 6
  7. 7. 3-chemical injection:  The injection of specified liquid chemicals into a reservoir, resulting from the more effective oil displacement. (SHENG, 2011)  Chemical injection include injection of: • alkaline (A) • surfactant (S) • polymer (P) 7
  8. 8. CHEMICAL INJECTION CONT……. Alkaline injection: The alkaline method relies on a chemical reaction between chemicals. (SHENG, 2011)  Surfactant injection is a blend of surface acting agents. Surfactants are usually organic compounds that are composed of a hydrocarbon chain and a polar hydrophilic group. Therefore, they are soluble in both organic solvents and water. (SHENG, 2011)  Polymer injection: the injected chemicals are polymers whose obvious function is to increase the displacing polymer solution viscosity. (SHENG, 2011) 8
  9. 9. Microbial injection:  MEOR is one of the technologies that can be potentially implemented with an exceptionally low operating cost. (AL-SULAIMANI and Joshi, 2011)  MEOR: is simply the process of utilizing microorganisms and their bio-products to enhance the oil recovery. 9
  10. 10. 10 Referencing: 1-Green,D.and Willhite,G.(1998)Enhanced oil recovery, Richardson, society of petroleum engineers. 2-Sheng,J. (2011) modern chemical enhanced oil recovery, Burlington; gulf professional publishing. 3-Al-sulaimani, H. and Joshi,S.(2011) microbial biotechnology for enhanced oil recovery, India; department of petroleum & chemistry engineering, college of engineering, sultan qbos university.
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