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Introduction about EOR
EOR: a stage of hydrocarbon production that involves
using an advanced methods to produce more oil than would
be possible by using primary and secondary production.
EOR methods :
1. Thermal recovery.
2. Gas injection.
3. Chemical injection
4. Microbial injection
Any process in which heat is introduced intentionally into
a subsurface accumulation of organic compounds for the
purpose of recovering oils through wells.(petrowiki (2014))
Thermal recovery types:
• Hot water floods
• Steam injection
• In-situ combustion
• Electrical heating
It is the injection of gas through the wells which is
surround to the production well. (ODD, 2003)
These gases are not first contact miscible with reservoir
oils, but with sufficiently high reservoir pressure they achieve
dynamic miscibility with many reservoir oils. (ODD, 2003)
The injected gas such as (natural gas, enriched
natural gas, flue gas, nitrogen or CO2) (ODD, 2003)
The injection of specified liquid chemicals into a reservoir,
resulting from the more effective oil displacement. (SHENG, 2011)
Chemical injection include injection of:
• alkaline (A)
• surfactant (S)
• polymer (P)
CHEMICAL INJECTION CONT…….
Alkaline injection: The alkaline method relies on a chemical
reaction between chemicals. (SHENG, 2011)
Surfactant injection is a blend of surface acting agents.
Surfactants are usually organic compounds that are
composed of a hydrocarbon chain and a polar hydrophilic
group. Therefore, they are soluble in both organic solvents
and water. (SHENG, 2011)
Polymer injection: the injected chemicals are polymers
whose obvious function is to increase the displacing
polymer solution viscosity. (SHENG, 2011)
MEOR is one of the technologies that can be potentially
implemented with an exceptionally low operating
cost. (AL-SULAIMANI and Joshi, 2011)
MEOR: is simply the process of utilizing microorganisms
and their bio-products to enhance the oil recovery.
1-Green,D.and Willhite,G.(1998)Enhanced oil recovery, Richardson, society of
2-Sheng,J. (2011) modern chemical enhanced oil recovery, Burlington; gulf
3-Al-sulaimani, H. and Joshi,S.(2011) microbial biotechnology for enhanced oil
recovery, India; department of petroleum & chemistry engineering, college of
engineering, sultan qbos university.