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Communication Process zromba.ppt

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Communication Process zromba.ppt

  1. 1. COMMUNICATION Presented by Mohamed Ali Zromba Demonstrator in Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing Department Faculty of nursing – Monsoura University
  2. 2. Communication is a basic for human relationship, without it, there is no sort of relation will developed. As a psychiatric nurse, it is very important to understand the client and being understood by the client. This can be attained through studying communication process. Introduction
  3. 3. Definition -Communication is a continuous circular process by which information such as ideas attitudes and feeling is transmitted between people and their environment .
  4. 4. Purpose of Communication 1-To understand and be understood. 2-Communicate our beliefs & values. 3-Communicate perceptions & meanings. 4-Convey interest and understanding or insult and judgment. 5-Interaction with others gives the individual sense of identity and being a person’s . 6-Maintain, establish productive relationship.
  5. 5. Communication Model *Berlo’s model 1- The stimulus (referent). 2- Sender (encoder). 3- Message. 4- Medium (channel) 6- feedback
  6. 6. 1-The Stimulus The stimulus can be a need for information , comfort , or advice . Ex :-  A stimulus in a nurse might be the perception the client is feeling discomfort or confusion.  A stimulus a client is feeling discomfort , pain or anxiety.
  7. 7. 2-The Sender - Is the person who initiates the transmission of information (verbal and nonverbal)
  8. 8. 3-The Message  It is the information sent or expressed by other .  The clearest message are those that are well organized and expressed in a familiar manner to the reciver.
  9. 9. 4-Mediums (Channel)  A message can be sent through an auditory (hearing) , visual (seeing) or tactile (touch) medium.  Ex. A person may send a very clear message through silence , body language ,or hug .
  10. 10. 5-Receiver (Decoder)  Is the person who receives the message.. the receiver may then respond to the sender by giving feedback to the sender.
  11. 11. 6- Feed back:  Is the measure by which the effectiveness of the message is gauged.
  12. 12. Types of Communication 1-intrapersonal. 2-interpersonal . 3-public . 4-social . 5-collegial . 6-Therapeutic.
  13. 13. 1-Intrapersonal occur when people communicate within themselves . Ex .self evaluation –personal talk . 2-Interpersonal Communication between groups of two persons and in small groups.
  14. 14. 3-Public Communication  A communication between a person and several other people.  Its most common form is the presentation of a public speech.
  15. 15. 4- Social Communication  It occurs every day setting among people who are friends , relatives . it occurs in work politics ,social activities and vocations.  This type of communication does not have a specific goal.  It is likely to be superficial.
  16. 16. 5-Collegial Communication  It occurs among colleagues within a profession such as nursing or medicine ,psychology .  Its purpose is collaboration in the treatment of clients.
  17. 17. 6-Therapeutic Communication;  It occurs between helper and client .  the content is meaningful not superficial .  focusing on client’s areas of concern.  Uses specialized professional skills primarily therapeutic interpersonal communication.
  18. 18. Therapeutic Communication  The nurse activity listens to each client and responds in ways that convey acceptance and understanding.  Clinical setting; private, quiet, confidential, and safe environment. .  Learned skill, purposeful, client-focused, client sets goals; planned, difficult, intense; disclosure of personal information by client; meaningful and personal, but not intimate relationship occurs
  19. 19. Elements (modes) of Communication  Communication consists of verbal and nonverbal elements .  10% verbal & 90% nonverbal . Effective communicator means using both verbal and nonverbal cues .
  20. 20. 1- verbal communication  Consists of all wards a person speaks language is expression of ideas & all written wards
  21. 21. Nonverbal Communication  It is communication without wards .  It does not encompass language but can be vocal or nonvocal.
  22. 22. It includes ; 1-Kinetics ,(body motion) 2-Paralanguage ( voice quality and use of sounds in non language vocalization. 3-proxemics ,(use of space) 4-Appearance ,(use of clothing and other objects).
  23. 23. 1-kinesies  It refers to the study of body motion .  the face and body communicate even when people are silent , facial expression , posture , gestures ,eye movements and touch.
  24. 24. &  Facial expression ; it is the most important source of nonverbal messages.  Posture; ex. Withdrawn clients often walk or sit in closed position.
  25. 25. &  Body movement &gestures ; hand gestures can convey indifference , relaxation , excitement or agitation.  Eye contact , can communicate level of interest or depression . However eye contact may be culturally related.
  26. 26. &  lack of directed eye contact may be communicating avoidance, shame , low self- esteem or embarrassment.  touch ; touch communicates feeling ranging from tenderness& warmth .  The use of touch is determined by cultural norms .
  27. 27. 2-paralanguge ; It includes tone of voice , spacing of wards & it includes non language vocalizations such as sobbing and laughing .
  28. 28. 3-proxemics ; Is the study of spatial relationships during personal transactions , use of space which depending on people's cultural background.  Intimate  Personal  Public  Consultive
  29. 29. 4-Appearance  It refers to the way in which people use clothing and other objects to convey a message.  Appearance can confirm or deny verbal messages , clothing , hairstyles , makeup , eye glasses are some articles that people put together in unique ways . A change in person’s appearance can indicate developing problems.
  30. 30. Factors that influence the communication process  1-personal factors: - That can impede accurate transmission of a message including (emotional state- knowledge level-language used- perception)  2- Social factors: Culture differences, previous experiences, social status.  3- Environmental factors: Noise, lack of privacy and uncomfortable accommodations.
  31. 31. Successful communication:-  The message should be clear, well organized, simple, and appropriate to the receiver level, back ground and culture.  Feedback: Return Response that indicates the effect made by communication received.  Appropriateness / Relevance.  Flexibility: The absence of over control or under control  Efficiency: Communication understood, simple and clear  The communication must have a goal, and not left to chance.  Select settings that insure privacy and confidentiality eliminate any possible environmental and personal distraction.
  32. 32. Blocks to communication  Changing the subject.  Stating personal opinions and ideas.  Giving false reassurance.  Jumping to conclusions, offering solution to problem.  Medical terminology / jargon.  Rejecting other’s point of view.  Probing: asking too many questions.  Distraction in the environment such as noise.
  33. 33. Effective communication technique  1-non talking techniques: A- Active listening. b- Silence.  2-Talking techniques:
  34. 34. Techniques that enhances communication 1- Give information ; purpose for being here …. The medication for…. My name is… . 2- show Accepting ; Ex. (yes) ( I follow what you say )‫الرأس‬ ‫ايماءات‬
  35. 35. 3- Giving recognition ; indicates awareness of change and personal efforts does not imply good or bad, right or wrong . Ex. Good morning Mr. Ahmed you’ve combed your hair today.
  36. 36. & 4- offering self ; offers presence, interest , and a desire to understood. Ex . I would like to spend time with you. 5- offering general leads; Ex . (go on) ( and then) ( tell me about it).
  37. 37. 6-Giving broad openings ; clarifies that the lead is to be taken by the client. ex. (where would you like to begin) 7- placing the events in time or sequence; ex (what happened before? )
  38. 38. & 8-Making observations ; ex. ( you appear tense).( I notice you’re bitting your lips ) ‫زعالن؟‬ ‫شكلك‬ 9-encouraging description of perception; Ex . What is happened before? ‫ايه؟‬ ‫بتقولك‬ ‫دى‬ ‫األصوات‬
  39. 39. & 10- encouraging comparison;( has this ever happened before ?) ( was this something like …) 11-Restating; repeating pts speech by give meaning of his speech. ‫مشابهة‬ ‫بكلمات‬ ‫للمريض‬ ‫الفكرة‬ ‫نفس‬ ‫اعادة‬ ex . C; (I can’t sleep, I stay a wake all night.) N .( you have difficulty sleep)
  40. 40. &  12-Reflecting ; direct back to pt questions ideas and feeling. Ex. ( what should I do about my husband's affair?) N ( what do you think you should do?) Reflecting : use of pronoun “you” you feel you think
  41. 41. 13- Seek validation ; clarifies that both the nurse and the client share mutual understanding e.g. tell me whether my understanding agree with yours. ‫يعنى‬ ‫تقول‬ ‫عايز‬ ‫انت‬ ‫منه‬ ‫للتأكد‬ ‫أخرى‬ ‫بصيغة‬ ‫الكالم‬ ‫وتعيد‬ 14-Seeking clarification ; help the clients clarify their own thoughts . ex ( I’m not sure. I follow you ) ‫ايه؟‬ ‫تقصد‬
  42. 42. & 15- presenting reality ; (I don’t see anyone else in the room) ( your mother is not here . I am a nurse ). 16-Voicing doubt ; ex ,(really?) ( that hard to believes). ‫بجد‬ ! ‫بتكرهك؟‬ ‫الناس‬ ‫كل‬ ‫ان‬ ‫تقصد‬
  43. 43. &  17- Questioning : careful using no why ?? , close open ended??? 20-Summaring ; ex. (you said that….)
  44. 44. Techniques that hinder communication  1- Negative Reassuring May cause clients to stop sharing feeling. Ex. (every thing will be alright) 2-Giving approval; Ex. (that’s good) 3-Rejecting; ex. (I don’t want to hear about…)
  45. 45. & 4- Disapproving; Ex. (that’s bad…) 5-Aggreeing ; Ex. (that’s right).. (I agree…) 6-Disagreeing ; Ex.( I disagree with that ..) 7-Advising; ex.( I think you should …)
  46. 46. &  8- challenging Ex. ( If you dead , how come your heart is beating?)