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Effective presentation skills & performance

  1. Effective Presentation Skills & Performance
  2. Objectives of the course 1. Recognising good and poor talks. 2. Identify and resolve your concerns. 3. Techniques to avoid poor talks. 4. Dealing with your nerves. 5. Tips for group presentations.
  3. Agenda • Introduction. • Developing Oral Presentation Skills. • Planning your presentation. • The presentation sequence. • Creating effective visual aids. • Effective presentation techniques.
  4. Introduction
  5. Definitions Presentation • “Something set forth to an audience for the attention of the mind “ Effective • “…producing a desired result”
  6. Why Give A Presentation? Three Main Purposes 1. Inform 2. Persuade 3. Educate
  7. Why Are Presentation Skills Important? Deliver information about your programs and services Enlist support for financial and managerial needs Educate the public on specific health issues Influence and persuade stakeholders, government leaders, etc. Provide opportunities to:
  8. Advantages of presenting • Addressing the multiple senses. • Increasing your credibility. • Effective use of time. • High profile. • Persuasive.
  9. Four Cornerstones of a Great Presentation Great presentations require you to: Know Your Audience Know Yourself Know The Material Know Your Purpose
  10. Fear • Feared more than death! • THE FACTS: Shaky hands, memory loss, nausea, and knocking knees. • NORMAL!
  11. Causes of the Anxiety • Fear of the unknown OR loss of control. • Fight or flight mode. • No backup plan. • No enthusiasm for subject. • Focus of attention.
  12. Effective Presentations • Control anxiety – Don’t fight it. • Audience centered. • Accomplishes objective. • Fun for audience. • Fun for you. • Conducted within time frame.
  13. Feedback
  14. Why is it important to know your audience? Know Your Audience Purpose: Allows you (the speaker) to determine what and how you should present.  Demonstrate concern for the audience's interests  Tailor the presentation to fit the audience’s needs
  15. Audience Profile Start by creating an audience profile that includes: Audience Information Roles and Responsibilities Age Knowledge Base Learning Styles Culture Number of Participants Purpose for Attending Why? Use job related examples Ensure the use of age appropriate content/materials Tailor presentation based on knowledge of audience Incorporate all learning styles Use culturally sensitive content/materials Ensure enough materials/handouts are available Address the question, what’s in it for me (WIFM)? Why?
  16.  Talk with members of the audience beforehand.  Distribute a survey before the presentation.  Talk with the organizer.  Review evaluations from past presentations.  Get a sense of what the audience is like by attending a presentation .  Ask for information that describes the audience. Ways to Gather Information about your Audience
  17. Know Your Purpose Why are you doing the presentation? Decide whether the main purpose of your talk is to…  Provide information  increase awareness  Change attitudes  create emotion  Build new skills  training activities
  18. Types of Presentations Motivational Speech (change attitudes)  Purpose: Interest the audience in your topic and motivate them to take action Informational Speech (provide information)  Purpose: Inform the audience about a specific topic or issue Extemporaneous Speech  A person is asked to speak without preparation Demonstration Speech (build new skills)  Purpose: Teach the audience something new
  19. Know The Material  Research  Use content information from credible sources  Data/Statistics  Incorporate data /statistics that is relevant to the audience  Resources  Provide some resources that will be helpful to the audience
  20. Know Yourself Part of knowing yourself as a speaker is knowing… a) Your style b) Your skills/strengths c) Your weaknesses
  21. Communication is Key Our body language can positively or negatively impact the way we interact with one another. What do you think this picture is saying?
  22. Presentation Styles What are some ways to keep the audience engaged? Type of Activity Lecture Group discussion Question and answer Case study Brainstorm Quiz Game Panel Debate Story Problem solving Role-playing Demonstration Large Group Small Group Pairs/Threes Individual                                    
  23. Learning Styles Learn best by seeing Learn best by hearing Learn best by doing
  24. Developing Oral Presentation skills
  25. What makes a talk poor? • Little/no eye contact – No engagement with the audience. • Mumbling – Often because not engaging with audience. • Reading from a paper – Too fast, monotone. • Little/no structure – Lack of clarity. • Too much information. • Bad visual aids.
  26. Dealing with nerves • Be prepared – Plan and rehearse. – See ‘dealing with nerves’ box. • Deep breathing! – May sound naff, but it works. • Engage with your audience – Makes you feel more relaxed.
  27. Presenting as part of a team • Plan talk together. • Set responsibilities. • Structure talk – Intro – sections - conclusion – Ensure everyone will speak. • Smooth links between speakers – Someone to introduce talk. – Introduce next topic & speaker. – Someone to conclude.
  28. Planning Your Presentation
  29. “Great speakers aren’t born, they are trained.” Presenting is a Skill… Developed through training and experience
  30. Planning • Who are you talking to? • Why are you talking to them? • How long do you have to talk? • What main points do you want to convey?
  31. Planning Your Presentation 1. Determine purpose – What do you want to accomplish? 2. Know your audience !!! – Success depends on your ability to reach your audience. – Size. – Demographics. – Knowledge level. – Motivation. – Why are they attending? – What do THEY expect?
  32. More Planning 3. Plan Space – Number of attendees and seats. – Seating arrangement. – Lighting, and lighting controls. – Audio/Visual equipment. – Distracters. 4. What Day and Time? – Morning. – Afternoon. – Evening. – Work day versus weekend. – Any day!
  33. Still More Planning 5. Organization – Determine main points (1-5). – Evidence. – Transitions. – Prepare outline. – Prepare a Storyboard. 6. Rehearse…Rehearse…Rehearse!! – In the actual room if possible. – Work to a script and time your presentation. – Practice Q & A. – Check equipment – load your slides in advance. – Make contingency plans.
  34. Organizing Your Presentation Organizational patterns • Topical • Chronological (time based) • Problem/Solution • Cause/Effect
  35. Presentation Outline • Keyword reminders. • Conversational flow. • Flexibility. • More responsive to audience.
  36. Extra preparation hints Ask ahead of time what equipment provided: - overhead projector vs. PowerPoint What format used: - PC vs. Mac? CD / Memory Stick (flash drive) / Zip? Emergency back-ups: - overheads - handouts
  37. The Presentation Sequence
  38. Build Rapport • … relation marked by harmony or affinity – Audience members need to trust you and feel that you care about them. • Start before you begin – Mingle; learn names. – Opportunity to reinforce or correct audience assessment. – Good first impression. • People listen to people they like.
  39. Opening Your Presentation • Introduce yourself – Why should they listen. • Get attention, build more rapport, introduce topic – Humor. – Short story. – Make audience think. – Invite participation. • Get audience response
  40. Completing the Opening • Clearly defining topic • If informative… – Clear parameters for content within time. • If persuasive… – What’s the problem. – Who cares. – What’s the solution. • Overview
  41. Keep it simple and clear If you understand it - you should be able to explain it in simple terms. It is not enough to know it - you have to explain it clearly. More information  more learning
  42. Structuring your Presentation • Three section structure: introduction. information. recap. • Prepare everything you need in advance. • Check on the day that everything works.
  43. Presenting Main Points • Make point-transition,…make point- transition,…make point-transition, etc… • Supporting evidence. • Examples. • Feedback & questions from audience. • Attention to, and focus on, audience… are they listening?
  44. Practice • Practice in front of people. • In the venue. • Fix things that don’t work. • Timing. • Gets you used to being in front of an audience.
  45. Giving the Presentation • Only a small proportion comes from what you say. • Posture. • Tone of voice. • Don’t rush!
  46. Six steps of presenting effectively • Decide what your purpose is. • Think about the audience. • Gather data. • Apply suitable structure. • How open? • How close?
  47. Common failings of presenters • Rejecting the audience. • Showing nerves. • Poor use of visual aids. • Speaking for too long. • Poor preparation. • Being clever!
  48. Structuring the presentation 1. Tell them what you are going to tell them 2. Tell them 3. Tell them what you just told them
  49. First few minutes Be aware of: • Negative body language • The unfunny joke • The overbearing expert!
  50. Warm up! • Helps you to relax • Helps you to be heard • Helps you to sound more confident.
  51. Warm up! • Deep breathing exercises- in for a count of 5, out for a count of 5. In for 6, out for 6, and so on, up to 10. • Hum! This loosens the vocal chords and warms them up • Do some tongue twisters. Really try to articulate the words. Get faster and faster!
  52. Tongue Twisters! • Unique New York. • She sells sea shells by the sea shore The shells that she sells are sea shells I’m sure. • Red Lorry, Yellow Lorry. • Peter Piper picked a peck of picked peppers. • Rubber buggy baby bumpers.
  53. Giving the Presentation, cont: • Clothing: comfortable, appropriate. • Maintain eye contact. • Use notes if you need them. • Think about when to use hand-outs.
  54. Public Speaking Tips • Breathe deeply. • Take your time. • Test the microphone. • Smile!
  55. Preparing Power point • 5 lines, 5 words per line (per slide). • Headings should “grab” the reader. • Font size – minimum 24. • Use colour to keep attention. • Use pictures, graphics, quotations, cartoons, charts, etc
  56. Don’t Bore them ! 56
  57. Power Point Advantages • Portable. • Professional. • Can add graphics. • Clear . • Can use for hand- outs. Disadvantages • Depends on technology. • Lack of audience contact. • Can’t add to it. • Overcrowded .
  58. Power point Advantages – Professionalism. – Creates strong image. – Organization. – Increase attention. – Improve retention. Disadvantages – Technical hiccups. – Hard to design. – Set-up time.
  59. Power Point tips • Look at the audience, not the slides. • Don’t overcrowd. • Pay attention to colour and layout. • Print out slides. • Test beforehand.
  60. Successful Learning Environment • Room set-up. • Table set-up. • Setting up flipcharts .
  61. Tips for an Inviting Room • Speaker position and tables. • Registration table / Table for handouts. • Break out rooms. • Lighting/heating/comfort. • Is there a Microphone, LCD Projector and a screen, flip charts etc?
  62. Concluding Your Presentation Goal • Inform audience that you’re about to close. • Summarize main points. • Something to remember, or call-to-action. • Answer questions.
  63. Creating Effective Visual Aids
  64. Designing Good Slides • Content – If it doesn’t add value, don’t say/use it. • Color – Know your room and lighting • Dark room – use light font on dark background. • Bright room – use dark font on light background.
  65. Content • Purpose – Complement speaker. – Talk ≠ technical report. • Density – 7-10 lines/page. – 4-8 words/line. – Test: Project a sample in the room, or in a room of approximately the same size as will be used in the real presentation.
  66. Maximizing Visibility • Font size minimums: – Titles - 32 point . – Text in bulleted lists - 20 point. – San serif font. • Use of Colors: – High contrast. – Dark background with light letters. – Light background with dark letters OK.
  67. Maximizing Visibility • Font size minimums: – Titles - 32 point – Text in bulleted lists - 20 point – San serif font • Use of Colors – High contrast – Dark background with light letters – Light background with dark letters OK
  68. If it can’t be read – it’s a waste & it annoys the audience
  69. Appropriate Composition • One major concept per slide. • Keep slides simple, balanced. • Keep a border.
  70. – Outline of talk – not every word. – Put talk in speaker notes. – No full sentences. – Delete articles (the, a, an) – Illustrate concepts. Appropriate Composition
  71. Visual aids Information taken in through the senses: Sight 71% Hearing 20% Touch 3% Taste 3% Smell 3%
  72. Why Use Aids? • Audience visualize message. • Keeping audience interested. • Increasing retention & understanding. • Reinforcing major points.
  73. • To make, explain or identify a point. • To emphasize, clarify or reinforce a point. • To remind, summarize or review a point. • We remember – – 10% of what we read – 20% of what we hear – 30% of what we see – 50% of what we see and hear Why Use Aids?
  74. • Enhance understanding. • Add variety. • Support claims. • Lasting impact. Used poorly, however, they can be a distraction and lead to an ineffective presentation Why Use Aids?
  75. Visual aids • Make use of facilities at hand i.e. PowerPoint. • Don’t over use the technology. • Make your slides clear and not too detailed. • Utilise other visual aids such as flipcharts, whiteboards … etc.
  76. • PowerPoint slides • Overhead transparencies • Graphs/charts • Pictures • Web links ( ) • Films/video • Flip charts • Sketches • Chalk or white board Visual Aids
  77. Visual Aids and Supportive Materials Flip Chart White Board Handouts DVD/Video Laptop and LCD Projector
  78.  Practice beforehand.  Do not obscure the screen.  Ensure all listeners can see the visual aid.  Talk to the audience – not the board or screen.  Have a backup plan just in case the equipment does not work.  Keep the layout simple and with minimum details. Visual Aids and Supportive Materials
  79. Use of Images • Use one image per slide. • Two to contrast, but make them big. • Draw arrows – animate. • Do not enlarge small images. • Do not distort the image. • Credit the source – author, book/article/website, date, URL.
  80. Pathology The Bad Example
  81. Use of Animation • Should enhance, not distract. • Should not kill time. • Custom Animation only. • Use same transition between slides.
  82. Flipcharts and Whiteboards Good Points • Low-tech. • Easy to add to. • More contact with audience. • More interactive. Bad Points • Can only use once. • Can’t add graphics. • Can be hard to read. • Hard to see.
  83. Flipcharts and Whiteboard Tips • Don’t hide! • Draw lines if needed. • Pay attention to colour. • Call ahead to check on facilities. • Stick to a few key points.
  84. Flip Charts • Capture audience feedback. • 2 Separate charts for Contrast. • For groups < 40 individuals. • Neat handwriting Markers soak thru .
  85. Using Flipcharts • Prepare ahead . • Use top 2/3 of page. • Talk facing audience. • Alternate colors. • Practice flipping and tearing off pages. 86
  86. Visual Aids Should… • Outline, explain, support main points. • Serve audience’s needs, not speaker’s. • Be simple and clear. • Supplement and support… NOT DOMINATE!... the presentation
  87. Be Visible • Use Sans Serif fonts (fonts without feet) – e.g. Arial, Tahoma, Trebuchet, Verdana, etc. • Titles should be 32-44 pt. font size, BOLD. • Text should be as large as possible – First level 24-32 pt font size. – Second level 20-28 pt font size. – Etc. • Use color wisely – Contrasting colors.
  88. Key tips for slides • There should be contrast in written text against the background This is OK This is OK This is not OK This is not OK Use high contrast colors for important lines, symbols or text, and lower contrast colors for less important lines, symbols or text. But use a limited number of colors
  89. Red/Blue Conflict Red letters on blue background creates “flicker effect” Blue letters on red background just as bad
  90. Low Contrast White on yellow Yellow on white Black on blue Blue on black
  91. • Upper left • Upper right • Lower left • Lower right Eye Movement The “Z” Rule
  92. Effective Presentation Techniques
  93. What makes a good presentation? • Divide into groups. • What makes a good presentation? • Some things to think about - presenter. - resources. - structure.
  94. What Makes an Effective Speaker? • Control of information. • The voice used. • The right words. • Use of body language. • Prompts, scripts and notes. • The right location. • Useful and meaningful visual aids.
  95. Preparation • Preparation is key! • Key message. • Audience. • Time. • Resources. • Close.
  96. Influence feelings • Emotion. • Relevancy. • Speaker Impact. • Congenial Surroundings.
  97. Instruct • Tell your audience how to do something: –Volunteer. –Refer Clients. –Donate.
  98. Inform • Sharing knowledge. • Relevant data. • Too much information deadly. • Decide what is essential, leave out rest. • Provide sufficient facts. • Interested listeners can ask for more.
  99. Writing & Organization • Catchy Titles. • Poignant Openings. • Body. • Closing. • Summary.
  100. Catchy titles • Catchy titles should: – Command attention; and – Encourage people to sign up – Short – no more than 10 words – Explanatory
  101. Vocal Techniques • Loudness – Will you be using a microphone? • Pitch – Vary to make points • Rate – Watch your audience • Pause for effect – Allow time for message to “sink in” • Deviate from the norm for emphasis
  102. Speak Clearly • Speak at reasonable pace. • Use inflection. • Project your voice. Do not mumble. • Talk to the audience: Not screen, camera, notes, or self. • Use professional language. Avoid idioms / slang.
  103. The Voice C: Clear – the use of simple, easily understood words and phrases. L: Loud (enough) – it is important that everyone can hear you. A: Assertive – a bright and confident air born of knowledge of the subject and good preparation. P: Pause – it is essential to allow the listeners time to digest what you have said.
  104. Use the Rights Words What you say, and how you say it, is the key to a successful presentation: – state your position or point. – explain your ideas. – use examples. – restate your position or point.
  105. Body Language • Make eye contact,…Audience focus: maintain eye contact with audience. • Use your hands,…but don’t go crazy. • If possible move around,…but slowly! • Maintain good posture. • Make sure everyone can see you.
  106. Body Language • DON’T speak with your back to the audience. • Dress professionally. • Face your audience. • Point and re-orient. • Be enthusiastic.
  107. Audience Involvement • Involve the audience, if time. • Ask questions; call on individuals; small group activities. • Repeat what they say. • Write responses on white board or flip chart.
  108. Scripts and Notes • Learn and use a script for formal presentations to large groups. • Underline key words that will best remind you what you want to say. • Use one card for each slide or topic. • If possible, have someone else advance slides for you.
  109. Speaker Reads Slides • A speaker may put his entire presentation on his slides. He turns his back to the audience and reads the slides aloud. Perhaps he feels this approach guarantees all the information will get to the audience. • This may be the most annoying way to give a presentation. Audience members feel insulted: they already know how to read! They wonder why the lecturer doesn’t simply hand out a copy of the slides. • The visual presentation dominates the presenter. The presenter is not adding any value to what is on the slides. Psst! This slide is way too busy!
  110. Common Problems • Verbal fillers – “Um”, “uh”, “like”, “you guys” – Any unrelated word or phrase. • Swaying, rocking, and pacing • Hands in pockets. • Lip smacking. • Fidgeting. • Failure to be audience-centered.
  111. Pauses • Useful – Awaiting thought. – Switching gaze. – Reading slide. – Reinforcing point. • Powerful. • Difficult.
  112. Control of Information • Know your subject well. • Know what you are talking about. • Practice. • More practice. • More rehearsals. - in front of the mirror. - in front of colleagues or friends. - in front of family members. • Believe in yourself. • Know your opening by heart.
  113. Closing Summary • Audience is always attentive at the beginning. • Somewhat less attentive in the middle. • Generally more attentive at the end. • Tell them what you are going to say. • Then say it. • At the end, say it again. • Allow time for questions.
  114. Practice • If group: rehearse as a group – Check timing . – Provide feedback to each other . • If individual: rehearse with friend or faculty. • Rehearse without PowerPoint. • Rehearse with PowerPoint in classroom.
  115. Performance Don’t Apologize Speak loudly & clearly Use short simple sentences Avoid unfamiliar jargon & abbreviations Vary pitch, tone, volume, speed and pauses
  116. Performance Avoid distracting mannerisms. Relax, be enthusiastic. Make eye contact. Be aware of the time remaining.
  117. Performance Explain figures, and point to important aspects Visual Aids should: Supplement presentation Outline main points Serve audience’s needs, not speaker’s Simple and clear Vs.
  118. • What are some positive signs of expressing, other than verbally?
  119. Non-verbal • Eye contact. • Smile. • Posture. • Gestures. • Movement. • Stand or sit.
  120. Voice • Volume. • Pace. • Pause. • Pitch & Tone. • Filler Words.
  121. Speaking Notes • Write opening & closing. • Use Index cards - key points. • Use VERY LARGE LETTERS . • Number each card.
  122. Rehearse, Rehearse • Practice in front of a real audience. • With your peers – tougher & honest. • If not, practice on your feet. • In front of a mirror.
  123. Using Humour • Adds spice to your presentation. • Mental recess for a heavy topic . • Use earlier in the presentation. • Help connect with audience.
  124. Some Humour • People are funny. They want the front of a bus, middle of the road and the back of the Mosque. • Do not take life too seriously. You will never get out of it alive. • When all else fails, please read the instructions.
  125. Audience Interaction • Attending. • Questioning. • Responding. • Answering Questions.
  126. Questions Paraphrase questions from the audience: 1. so that other people hear the question.
  127. Questions Paraphrase questions from the audience: 1. so that others hear the questions. 2. to make sure you understand the questions.
  128. Questions Paraphrase questions from the audience: 1. so that others hear the questions. 2. to make sure you understand the questions. 3. to stall while you think about an answer.
  129. Questions If you don’t know the answer, say so. Offer to find out. Ask the audience.
  130. Questions and Answers Opportunities • Welcoming gestures. • Focusing gaze. • Body language. • Getting point. • Reinforcing message. • Including audience. Pitfalls • Hostile gestures. • Wandering gaze. • Body language. • Missing point. • Seeking approval. • Excluding audience.
  131.  Consider what questions may be asked and prepare the answer ahead of time.  Do not be afraid to say you do not know the answer to the question.  Always be polite when answering questions.  Allow the audience to answer some of the questions – this enhances their experience and allows knowledge sharing. Questions and Answers
  132. • Know your audience as best you can. • Recognize influential/expert members of your audience at the outset. • Paraphrase back to ensure understanding. • Answer honestly, get back later if necessary. • Respond in a focused way. • Check you have answered the query. Dealing with Questions
  133. Dealing with Questions • Questions show people are listening! • Allow time to deal with them. • Decide when to answer them. • Try and anticipate. • Don’t be afraid to stop and think.
  134. Nervousness • Before Presentation • During Presentation
  135. Presenting With Confidence
  136. Presenting With Confidence • Non-Verbal Communication. • Voice and Vocal Variety. • Speaking Notes. • Rehearsing. • Interacting with Audience.
  137. Facing your Fears • Write your fears on a post-it. • Stick them up. • Find ways to face them in the group.
  138. Facing your Fears Be prepared know your presentation Rehearse (but don’t over rehearse!) Talk with audience beforehand Provide Handouts Turn your nervousness into energy Ask questions
  139.  Practice and get feedback from friends, co- workers, etc.  Be realistic and set realistic goals for yourself.  Use relaxation exercises such as deep breathing.  Encourage yourself and avoid self-criticism. Methods for Managing Stress What are some common signs of stress?
  140. Techniques for managing stress: Methods for Managing Stress  Progressive Muscle Relaxation – Isolate one muscle group and creating tension for 8-10 seconds, and then let the muscle relax.  Mindfulness – Focus on body sensations and breathing.  Meditation – Clear the mind of stressful outside interferences by focusing on a single thing, such as a key word, sound, or image.  Guided Imagery – Direct thoughts to a safe, comfortable place free of stress such as a beach or garden.  Humor Therapy – Use the power of smiles and laughter to aid healing.
  141. Handling difficult people
  142. How to deal with inconsiderate interruptions? • Hecklers • Silly Questions • Hostile remarks • Latecomers • Chatterers • Other
  143. Skills for Delivery • Using and Selecting Audio and Visual Aids. • Creating a Successful Learning Environment. • Overcoming Jitters. • Presenting with Confidence.
  144. Number of Slides • 1 slide = 2 – 3 minutes. • Image slides less. • Time yourself. • Leave time for questions.
  145. Appropriate Handouts • Supplement presentation. • Useful tables or Outline of presentation. • Pertinent articles. • Presentation (3 or 6 slides per page) as last resort.
  146. 5 Presentation Tips 1. Smile 2. Breathe 3. Water 4. Notes 5. Finish on, or under time
  147. Punchy Closings • Summarize • Close with a Relevant Story • Call to Action • Make a Statement
  148. Closing… • Leave the audience laughing • Leave them crying • Leave them with hope • BUT please do not just leave them
  149. Summary • Preparation is key! • Practice! • Watch out for tone and body language. • Your flipchart/PowerPoint is a complement only, don’t let it take over! • Questions are good, but prepare for them. • Fears can be tempered with good preparation.
  150. Summary Guide audience gently Design slides carefully Use pauses effectively Answer questions inclusively
  151. Like most things, the best way to learn is to do
  152. Any Questions?
  153. Call to Action Write 3 things that you learned today, you can use in your next presentation.. 1. 2. 3.
  154. Thank You 155