To give the introductory knowledge of the basic
concepts in Psychology
To ensure that the students will aware of the
nature of psychology as a scientific approach
To give comprehensive knowledge about the
subject matter of Psychology
On completion of this lecture the students will be
able to understand how Psychology has gained
the status of a social science going through
different periods of history.
3. Why we learn Psychology??
To understand the nature and mechanism of
behavior and mental processes
To develop understanding the relationship
between behavior and mental processes
To apply this understanding to real life situations
and on the basis of this learn for future
4. Definition of Psychology
The word of psychology is derived from two Greek
words “Psyche and Logos”
Psyche means “Soul/Spirit/Mind” and Logos means
Psychology stands for the knowledge of mind/soul
Psychology is the scientific study of mind and
5. Subject Matter of Psychology
Subject Matter of psychology is A-B-C
A stands for Affect
B stands for- Behavior (Overt and Covert
C stands for- Cognition
6. Subject Matter of Psychology
Affect: refers to the experience of feelings or
It’s the observable expression of emotion through
facial expression e.g., voice tone, hand gestures,
Behavior: Behavior anything that we do (Overt
and Covert Behavior).
Cognition: The mental process of knowing
including perception, attention, memory,
learning, sensation, decision making, judgement
7. Subject matter of Psychology
Behavior that other
people can see
directly or sense
mostly in which we
used body language
e.g. walking, running
Behavior that is
hidden, consist on
mental, social and
physical actions that
are not immediately
e.g. behavior of
8. Historical background of Psychology
The roots of Psychology can be traced back to
some half million years.
Primitive people assumed that behavior was
caused by the presence of good and evil souls .
People have been interested in the behavior of
other people throughout history so that roots of
psychology may be found in philosophy, religion,
9. We can divide history period into two
Pre scientific period
10. Pre scientific period
Some of our modern ideas of mind came from
Term Psychology was derived from the Greek
word ‘Psyche’ (soul) and ‘logos’ (knowledge). It
eventually came to mean the “study of the mind”
Pre scientific period can be divided into three sub
11. i) Greek period
ii) Middle ages
iii) Islamic period
12. Greek period
Some early Greek philosophers regarded Psyche as a
substance. This substance was thought to control the
Some Greek philosophers are:
1: Hippocrates :
Greek physician Hippocrates thought that personality was
made up of four temperaments and these temperaments
were influenced by the presence of “humors or fluids” in
The problem of interest to the early Greek philosophers
was the relationship between “mind” and body.
13. Hippocrates four humors and
Personality Type or temperaments:
Black Bile Yellow Bile Phlegm Blood (humors)
Melancholic Choleric Phlegmatic Sanguine
(temperaments / personality type)
Anxious Restless CarefulOutgoing
Rigid Aggressive Thoughtful Talkative
Sober Excitable Peaceful Responsive
Pessimistic Changeable Controlled Easygoing
Reserved Optimistic Calm Carefree
14. Greek period
He stressed the controlling influence of soul or
He postulated the theory of mind body dualism
and held the view that as long as the soul remains
in the body, the man is alive, and when it leaves
the body, the man dies.
Mind-body dualism: mind and body are not
identical, both are function separately without
15. Greek period
Rejected the Plato’s theory and suggested that mind is a
function of the body itself just as vision is a function of the
His concept of mind as a function of bodily processes was
an important step in the direction of making Psychology a
Attention turned, eventually, from pure speculation about
the mind to the study of organism.
16. Middle ages
He was influenced by Plato and Aristotle’s thoughts.
He tried to understand religious beliefs through reasoning.
2: St. Augustine:
Being a Christian philosopher, he believed that human
being is interaction of soul and body.
He was founder of introspective method (examination of
one’s own conscious thoughts and feelings).
He thought that an individual can understand his own
17. Islamic Period
If the ideas of modern Psychologists about mental
health are assessed, we come to know that these are
based on the views of Islamic philosophers and
The Muslim philosophers described the principles of
life in the light of Quran and the Sunnah.
18. Islamic Period
Here a brief description of Muslim philosophers
may be added into the history of psychology.
He was a great Arab philosopher.
He believed that our souls have originated from
According to him, our real happiness lies in the
reason and spiritual life.
19. Islamic Period
He tried to combine religion and philosophy as
both seek reality; philosophy focuses on
theoretical aspects whereas religion stresses
20. 2: Al- Farabi
He wrote more than 80 books on various topics.
He believed that a man is composed of body and
soul, which belong to God.
God is immortal and above all human thoughts.
Farabi was influenced by the teachings of Plato
21. Islamic Period
He was physician, poet and psychologist all in one.
According to him, there are three kinds of mind
:Human mind, Animal mind, and vegetable mind.
Vegetable mind: the power of growth, reproduction
Animal mind: the power perception, or cognition
Human mind: ability to reason, given to humanity
Vegetable and animal mind connect to earth and human mind
connect to God
22. Only the Human mind possess reason and
He said that physical illness could be treated with
medicine but mental illness could be treated
psychologically with religion.
He thought that body had no link with mind, body
perishes but mind remains alive.
23. 4: Imam Ghazali
He wrote a number of books on religion.
According to him those obsessed with love of God
and treading the right path do not contact mental
Therefore, he also instructed people to follow the
24. He said that this world is a place of actions and
hard work and no body was allowed to remain
idle in life.
He viewed that man was recognized by his
He stressed upon children’s education.
He said children’s capabilities must be assessed
for proper education.
He thought that mental diseases were caused by
negative emotional problems and one should get
rid of them.
25. 5: Allama Bin Khaldun
He proposed the theories of social psychology
and explained human beliefs, prejudices,
attitudes and other subject matters.
According to him, religion influences human mind
and whole life.
26. 6: Shah Wali Ullah
He wrote many books and made a deep study of human
mind and behavior. He discovered the causes of mental
disorders and treated them.
According to him conflict goes on between positive and
negative forces within human mind and healthy
personality develops only by striking balance b/w the two.
If irrational ideas are in excess, mental health is affected.
28. 1 : John Lock :
He believed we were born with empty mind in the
world, like blank slates upon which all of life’s
experiences could be written.
Memories are imprinted on our mind as a result
Other influences on early psychology came from
biology and physics.
29. 2: Charles Darwin :
In his book” The Origin of Species” in 1859,he
outlined his theory of evolution.
In his theory he suggested that animals and
people show behavior that is adaptive to the
environment and helpful to their survival.
30. 3: Paul Broca
A French physician identified a part of the brain
(still called “Broca Area”) working as control
centre for speech.
31. 4: Weber:
About the middle of 19th century the discoveries
made in physics gave rise to a new field known as
Psychophysics is the branch of psychology that
deals with the relationship between physical
stimuli and mental phenomena.
Weber observed the relationship between
changes in the physical stimuli and human ability
to perceive changes.
32. 5. Fechner
He looked into mathematical connection between
the physical and psychological changes.
For the first time it had been demonstrated that
psychological phenomenon could be quantified
and investigated with scientific method.
34. School of Thoughts
The formal history of Psychology can
be described by school of thoughts
which guided Psychologists in their
Each school determined a subject
matter and the methods to be used in
investigating that particular subject
Group of people who share common
ideas/opinion related to any discipline, social
issue or subject belongs to a single specific school
36. School of Thoughts
• There are five historical school of thoughts of
1. Structuralism (study of conscious experience)
2. Functionalism (study of functions of
3. Behaviorism (study of observable behavior)
4. Psychoanalysis (study of unconscious
5. Gestalt Psychology (study of whole)
37. 1: Structuralism:
The science of psychology had its formal
beginning in 1879 when Wilhelm Wundt (1832-
1920), a German psychologist set up a laboratory
at the University of Leipzig to study mind/mental
He studied the conscious experience of mind
Introspection: “looking inward”
observation or examination of one's own mental
and emotional state, mental processes, etc.
38. Wilhelm Wundt also known as father of
Wundt was the first person to believe that
consciousness could be studied through
39. Earlier he devoted attention on studying
the building blocks of the mind. Later he
defined psychology as the study of
conscious experiences, he is founder of the
system of psychology known as
Edward B. Titchener who first coined the
term to describe this school of thought.
Structuralism: An early approach to
psychology which focused on the
fundamental elements that form the
foundation of thinking ,
consciousness, emotions , and other
kinds of mental states and activities.
Its emphasize on studying the most
basic components or structures of
conscious experiences / mental
Structuralism held that even our most
complex conscious experiences could be
broken down into components or
elemental structures, to identify these
structures of conscious thoughts a
procedure used that is called
Structuralists held the belief that
“ Whole is equal to the sum of the parts”
42. • Structuralists concluded that all conscious experiences
consisted of three elements:
Sensations, images and feelings
e.g. a person having a slice of cake, would not simply define the
type of food, this conscious experience comprised of basic
elements: taste, smell, texture, color, shape etc.
Using introspection, Wundt presented his trained
subjects with a stimulus such as bright green
object and asked them to describe it in their own
He thought that we can understand the structure
of mind through the reports of subjects. The
subject might first report on the colors they saw,
then the smells and so on, to create a total
description of their conscious experiences.
Wundt did not have the technologies at his time.
Therefore he had to rely on combination of
external stimuli and reports of internal
observations by the participants.
He believed that there were two sides of any
explanation of phenomenon.
External side: Measured in laboratory which
involve sensory processes (Physiological response
to an external stimuli e.g eye registering a small,
round, green object).
Psychological side: Measured by self report of
internal observations known as perception
(psychological interpretation of sensation).
Strengths of Structuralism:
Structuralism influenced experimental
46. Criticism on Structuralism
• By today’s scientific standards,
the experimental methods used to study
the structures of the mind were too
subjective—the use of introspection led to
a lack of reliability in results.
• Other critics argue that structuralism was
too concerned with internal behavior,
which is not directly observable and cannot
be accurately measured.
William James was the founder of this
School of thought. He was influenced by
Darwin’s work and he believed that
psychology should explain the functions of
consciousness as it influences behavior.
48. Functionalism concentrated on what the
mind does. They asked what the roles
behavior played in allowing people to
better adapt to their environments. They
examined the ways in which behavior
allows to satisfy their needs.
William James regarded consciousness is an ever-
changing stream or flow of images and sensations
not a set of lifeless blocks.
Structuralism focus on “ what happens” when we
engage in mental activity whereas functionalism
focus on “ how it happens” and “why” such as
why behavior and mental processes worked in a
Functionalist used not only introspection to study
behavior but also used tests, surveys and
experimental techniques to study functions of
psychology as science of consciousness.
Psychologists of this school studies the topics
such as thinking, memory, learning, motivation,
intelligence. They were also interested in applying
psychological concepts in schools, homes and
51. Criticism on Functionalism
• Functionalists did not explain the concepts
of unconsciousness, so they were criticized
by many psychologists.
• They used introspective method which was
not scientific method.
Strengths of Functionalism
• Influenced behaviorism and applied
• Influenced the educational system.
52. 3: Behaviorism:
School of Psychology and theoretical viewpoint
that emphasizes the study of observable
John B Watson (1878-1958) became the founder
of this school of thought.
He believed that Psychology should be the science
of overt behavior that can be observed and
studied through objective measurements.
He rejected the ideas of structuralists and
He maintained that the proper subject matter for
Psychology was Behavior and Behavior.
He shifted an emphasis from instincts to learned
According to him, environment was all important
and give the opportunity to raise children as he
He emphasized that all human behavior was
• Watson used experimental
method to study behavior.
• Behaviorists performed many
experiments on rats, pigeons
and concentrated how
behaviors are modified by
events in an environment.
• Watson realize he could study
the behavior of animals even
though he couldn’t ask them
questions or know what they
55. He simply observe the relationship between stimulus
and animal’s responses.
These observations were objective because they did
not involve introspection (subjective).
Skinner: actions are controlled by rewards and
The school of behavior greatly influenced Psychology.
56. Criticism on Behaviorism:
Behaviorists went to the extreme with their ideas.
They did not explain consciousness and sub
It disregards the activities of the mind.
58. 4: Psychoanalysis:
• Sigmund Freud(1856-1939), an Austrian
physician was the founder of
• He specialized in the disorders of the
• He observed that some of his patients had
nothing physically wrong with them, even
though they had
symptoms of physical
illness (headaches, insomnia).
He suspected that mental conflicts lay behind
these symptoms_ conflicts that had been pushed
out of normal awareness and into a part of mind
called “ unconscious”.
He believed that if unconscious conflicts could be
brought into patient’s consciousness, they would
lose their power to control the patient’s life.
He used psychoanalytic technique to uncover
unconscious conflicts of his patients.
Freud helped his patients to interpret and
understand their mental problems.
He called his approach to treatment as
Freud believed that early past experiences of
which a person is unaware significantly influence
his current behavior.
He treated people with psychological problems.
61. Criticism on Psychoanalysis:
• Freud did not fully explain consciousness
and human behavior.
• Psychoanalytical theory is not scientific.
Strengths of Psychoanalysis:
• Psychoanalytic theory had its deep impact
on concept of personality and therapy
techniques in Psychology.
• Its concepts provided understanding of
everyday phenomena such as prejudice and
62. 5: Gestalt Psychology:
Gestalt psychology is a school of thought that
looks at the human mind and behavior as a
Originating in the work of Max Wertheimer,
Gestalt psychology formed partially as a response
to the structuralism of Wilhelm Wundt.
The German word “Gestalt” means “whole” and
they believed that people are more than the sum
of their parts and that we can understand the
whole as one unit.
Gestalt’s Psychology’s goal was to study
perception, learning, problem solving or
personality as a whole.
Gestalts psychologists believed that you must
looked at the whole of experience. Their
viewpoint was: “the whole is greater than the
sums of its parts”.
a form of psychology that considers behavior, feeli
ngs, beliefs, etc. as part of a
greater whole, not as simple and separate
64. Criticism on Gestalt Psychology:
Gestalt Psychology performed only in the area of
They did nothing about unconscious processes
which are three fourth of our cognitive processes.
Their approaches were not purely scientific.
65. Psychology as the study of Individual
Individual psychology is a term used specifically
refer to the psychological method or science
founded by the Viennese psychologist Alfred
The term individual psychology commonly known
as differential psychology or the psychology of
individual differences, which study the ways in
which individual people differ in their behavior.
Adler was among the co-founders of the
psychoanalytic movement as a core member of
the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society.
The concept of 'individual psychology' was
formulated in the process in which Adler broke
away from the psychoanalytic school of Sigmund
Adler called his theory Individual Psychology
because he felt that each person was unique and
no previous theory can be applied to all people.
He also emphasized the training of parents,
teachers, social workers and so on to allow a child
to exercise their power through reasoned decision
making while co-operating with others.
Human beings always strive to overcome the
feelings of inferiority.
The sole dynamic force behind people's actions is
the striving for success
Psychologically unhealthy individuals strive for
personal superiority with little concern for other
people. Although they may appear to be
interested in other people, their basic motivation
is personal benefit.
69. • An inferiority complex is an acute feeling of inferiority
that can result in extreme shyness or aggressiveness as
compensation for these feelings.
• While normal feelings of inferiority can motivate a person,
the inferiority complex paralyzes them.
• People with an inferiority complex believe they are
worthless or that they will always fail.
• They display low self-esteem and prevent failure through
70. An inferiority complex is a belief that one does
not measure up to the standards he or she has
placed on themselves, or the standards others
placed on the individual.
You can clearly see this when children are told
over and over again that they are not smart, not
ambitious enough, “You are stupid and lazy”.
Most people grow up internalizing these feelings
about themselves and believing it.
71. A superiority complex is a psychological defense
mechanism that compensates for an inferiority
A grossly exaggerated feeling of being superior to
everyone, which Adler believed was simply a
defense mechanism in most people who really
feel inferior to others.
Adler said it was as if someone felt inferior
because he or she was too short and then went
through life walking on tip toes to seem taller.
72. Personality Types
Adler's Psychological Types
Ruling Type Leaning Type Avoiding Type Socially Useful Type
This type refers to
those who will push
others in order to
They have a lot of
causes them to
push others out of
their way. This type
Those who fall under
this type are sensitive
and build a shell
They have low
energy levels. They
are dependent on
others to help them
with life difficulties.
Such people survive
by avoiding life. They
have the lowest
energy levels. They
psychotic, living in
their own worlds.
have the right amount
of energy and take
interest in others.
73. Current approaches/ perspectives/ models
The major approaches to study Psychology are
i) The biological approach/ model
ii) The psychodynamic approach/model
iii) The cognitive approach/ model
iv) The behavioral approach/ model
V) The humanistic approach/ model
74. i) The biological approach/ model
According to this approach, the behavior of
people and animals should be considered from
the view of their biological functioning.
The study of brain and nervous system helps us
interpret perception, memory emotions and
psychological disorders, etc.
75. ii) The psychodynamic approach/model
The psychodynamic theory emphasizes
unconscious motivation and the influence of
sexual and aggressive drives on behavior. It has
major impact in the fields of personality,
psychological disorders and therapy
76. iii) The cognitive approach/ model
This approach includes the study of mental
processes, such as thinking, perception, memory
and problem solving. Cognitive psychologists seek
to explain how we process information and how
our ways of thinking about the world influence
77. iv) The behavioral approach/ model
The behavioral approach concentrates on
observable behavior. It suggests that an
understanding and control of a person’s
environment is sufficient to fully explain and
78. V) The humanistic approach/ model
The humanistic approach emphasizes that people
are unique and complex organism; each person
has a capacity to reach his or her maximum
potential. It is specially important in the field of
personality , motivation and psychotherapy.
79. Psychology today
All these five approaches have come to dominate
psychology in the 21st century. These models add
to our understanding of why human beings
behave the way they do.
Psychologists with different view points have
different things to say; each tackles the issue from
different angle and contribute different insights.
81. Psychology as a science
Psychology is a science of behavior including a
person’s overt behavior and his cognitive mental
As a science, psychology shares goals and
scientific methods with other sciences, such as
biology, chemistry, etc.
Psychologist begin with a body of knowledge and
then proceed to investigate. They use a variety of
82. Psychology as a science
for this purpose. These research methods allow
them to reach the goals of description,
explanation, prediction and control.
Psychology is comprised of systematized
knowledge that is gathered by carefully
measuring and observing events.
Theories are used to summarize observation and
to predict the outcomes of
83. Psychology as a science
Another important aspect of psychology as a
science is its use of measurement_ the
assignment of numbers to objects or events
according to certain rules.
87. What Research is?
Attempt to achieve systematically and with
the support of data the answer to a
question, the resolution to a problem, or
the greater understanding of a
Generation of new information and testing
88. Scientific & non scientific approaches to
Non Scientific Scientific
89. Scientific & non scientific approaches to
measurements Not valid or
Valid and reliable
hypotheses Un testable testable
90. Methods of Psychology
To understand the influence of society on
individual and individual’s influence on
society, we have to understand the
Research methods are important source to
understand the nature of emotions,
cognitions and human behavior by
91. Methods of Psychology
e.g. causes of poverty, unemployment,
how it effects the quality of people’s lives
and how the individual behavior, emotions
and feelings can be motivated to overcome
the related problems
92. Methods of Psychology
Understanding of research methods also
help to avoid the some tempting logical
traps e.g. lack of financial sources is the
only cause of illiteracy in Pakistan
95. Goals Questions asked to
reach the goal
Description What happens?
When and where does it
How does it happen?
Explanation Why does it happen?
Prediction What will happen next?
Control How can we influence this
behavior or intervene in
96. Goals of Psychological Research
Description of social behavior
Are people who grow up in warm climates different from those in
Establish a relationship between cause & effect
Does heat cause higher amounts of aggression?
Develop theories about why people behave the way that
We dislike Duke students to feel better about ourselves
Creating effective therapeutic treatments, more successful
negotiation tactics, and greater understanding amongst groups of
97. Purposes of Research
A research can be undertaken for two
To solve a currently existing problem (applied
To contribute to the general body of
knowledge in a particular area of interest
98. The Scientific Research Process
Identifying the problem
Defining the problem
Analyzing the data
Preparing a report
99. The Process of Doing Research
First, select a topic
Has predictive power
Is simple & straightforward
Then, search the literature
Find out what others have done
that may be applicable to your
area of interest
100. The Process of Doing Research
Next, formulate hypotheses
Hypothesis: specific statement of
expectation derived from theory
State the relationship between two
Variable: can be any event,
characteristic, condition, or behavior
101. Let’s take a closer look . . .at variables
Dependent variable (outcome variable)
Dependent on the influence of other factor(s)
How do we operationalize?
Independent variable (predictor variable)
Factor(s) that change the outcome variable
How do we operationalize & manipulate?
102. The Process of Doing Research
Then pick your research method
Experimental vs. correlational (Design)
Field vs. laboratory (Setting)
Finally, collect & analyze your
103. Correlational research
The purpose of correlational research is to
discover relationships between two or
Relationship means that an individuals
status on one variable tends to reflect his
or her status on the other.
Helps us understand related events,
conditions, and behaviors.
Is there a relationship between educational
levels of farmers and crop yields?
To make predictions of how one variable
might predict another
Can high school grades be used to predict
106. Experimental Research
Researcher manipulates one variable (IV) to
see effect on other variable (DV)
Try to hold everything else constant
True experiments have
Random sampling: selecting Ps randomly from
Random assignment: chance assignment to
107. Let’s take a closer look . . . at research
Research methods used in psychology:
Tests, Questionnaire, Survey
108. Imp. Concepts in Research
Population: any set of individuals (or objects) having some common
Sample: the subset of a population which represents the
characteristics of the population.
A sample consists of respondents or subjects
An informant: a person from whom a linguist obtains information
about language, dialect, or culture.
A corpus is a collection of written or spoken material.
A hypothesis is a tentative statement that proposes a possible
explanation to some phenomenon or event
Triangulation is an approach to data analysis that
synthesizes data from multiple sources.
a combination of Quantitative & Qualitative
techniques are implied
Ideas stemming from Qualitative research are
tested empirically through Quantitative studies.
Combined findings enable psychologists to design
more meaningful and effective strategies.
113. What is Science?
– a body of established knowledge
– the observation, identification, investigation,
and theoretical explanation of natural
What is scientific method??
• The scientific method refers to the ways in which
scientists ask questions and the logic and
methods used to gain answers
114. Goals of Scientific Research
Researcher seek to describe events and
relationship between variables.
Description of events and their relationships
often provide a basis for prediction, researcher
predict behavior or events.
116. Goals Questions asked to
reach the goal
Description What happens?
When and where does it
How does it happen?
Explanation Why does it happen?
Prediction What will happen next?
Control How can we influence this
behavior or intervene in
117. Goals of Psychological Research
Description of social behavior
Are people who grow up in warm climates different from those in cold
Establish a relationship between cause & effect
Does heat cause higher amounts of aggression?
Develop theories about why people behave the way that
Creating effective therapeutic treatment and greater understanding
amongst groups of people
118. Research Methods in Psychology
To understand the influence of society on
individual and individual’s influence on
society, we have to understand the research
Research methods are important source to
understand the nature of emotions,
cognitions and human behavior by empirical
119. Research Methods
Some Important Research Methods in Psychology
2. Experimental Method
3. Correlation Method
4. Survey Method
5. Case Study Method
120. 1. Observation
• One basic technique to study social behavior
is systematic observation-Carefully observing
behavior as it occurs
• “A method of research in which
behavior is systematically observed
and recorded is called systematic
Observation can be conducted in informal
way but in social psychology systematic
observation is widely used
e.g. in order to understand the causes of
mass failure of students in universities,
systematic observation of students can be
Systematic observation is that in which
researcher have specific purpose, observe
and record target behavior
122. Naturalistic Observation:- Observing
behavior in natural setting is called naturalistic
observation e.g. observing students attitudes
towards studies in the universities
Observation can be Direct( in which
observer/researcher directly observer the
phenomena or targeted behavior) or Indirect (in
which information can be gathered by indirect
resources e.g. by recording the behavior etc
123. Participant Observation:- A method of observation
in which observer/researcher participate in the natural
environment and observe the phenomena while living in the
same natural environment-through this method researcher
can control the effects of awareness to be observed
Non-Participant Observation:- In this method,
researcher observe the phenomena as being an
outsider of that natural environment
i. Direct sources
ii. Based on natural environment
iii. Simple Method
i. Observer Effect
ii. Observer Bias
125. 2. Correlational Method
The term correlation refers to a tendency for
one event to change as the other changes
A method of research in which a scientist
systematically observes two or more
variables to determine whether changes in
one are accompanied by the changes in
e.g. Free education will increase the rate of
Social psychologists refers to such changeable
aspects of the natural world as variables
because they can take different values
127. The existence of correlation is very useful
from scientific point of view because when a
correlation exist, it is possible to predict one
variable from information about one or more
128. The ability to make such prediction is one of
the important goal of all branches of science
Such type of prediction are very supportive
for social psychology as some of the future
dangerous behaviors/attitudes which can be
predicted by correlated variables will be
controlled or managed before time.
The stronger the correlation between the
variables in phenomena, the more accurate
Correlation can range from zero to -1 or + 1 ,
the greater the departure from zero, the
stronger the correlation
130. Types of Correlation
Positive Correlation:-The increase in one
variable causes the increase in other variable
called positive correlation
Perfect Positive Correlation:- When the
correlation falls at +1, it called perfect
Negative Correlation:- The increase in one
variable causes the decrease in other variable
called negative correlation
Perfect Negative Correlation:- When the correlation
falls at -1, it called perfect negative correlation
In this approach, social psychologists attempt to
determine whether and to what extent different
variables are related to each other.
i. Predict future behavior
ii. Find the relationship between two variables
i. Can misguide about the relationship
between two variables
ii. Excessive rely on predicted behavior
iii. Cannot find cause and effect relationship
134. 3. Experimental Method
Correlation method is very useful in making
accurate prediction but it is less useful in attaining
the goal of “why” question
To answer the why, social psychologists use another
research method that is called Experimental
135. In a formal experiment , the relationship between
two or more variables is investigated by deliberately
producing a change in one variable in a situation
and observing the effects of that change on other
aspects of the situation.
“A method of research in which one or more factors
are systematically changed to determine whether
such variations affect one or more other factors”
It is a scientific attempt to see cause and effect
136. Let’s take a closer look . . .at variables
Variable: can be any event, characteristic, condition, or
• Independent variable (predictor variable)
The variable that is controlled and manipulated by the
experimenter. For example, in an experiment on the impact of
sleep deficiency on test performance, sleep deficiency would be
the independent variable.
• Dependent variable (outcome variable)
The variable that is measured by the experimenter. In
previous example, the scores on the test performance
measure would be the dependent variable.
138. Strategy of Experimental Method
involves the following
strategy: one variable is
and the effects of this
changed on one or
more other variables
are carefully measured
Experimental Manipulation: Experimental
manipulation is the change that an
experimenter intentionally produces in a
Experimental research requires the
responses of at least two groups be
compared with each other.
A group receiving a treatment (the manipulation
implemented by the experimenter) in an
A group that receives no treatment in an experiment.
The variable involved in a particular experiment may
be classified as independent and dependent.
141. Characteristics of Experimental
Another important characteristic of the
experimenter method is control. it means
that only independent variable be allowed to
change. Factor other than I.V ,which might
affect the dependent variable, must be held
In an experiment we must control conditions
, which would give misleading results.
Random Assignment to condition:
A procedure in which participants are assigned to
different experimental groups or “ conditions” on
the basis of chance and chance alone is called
random assignment to condition.
Extraneous Variables: There are some variables
which can also effect the results of the experiment
but experimenter does not want them to effect the
dependent variables e.g. lack of coeducation
institution in some particular region can not create a
change in the people attitude even after taking
effects from media or due to lack of financial
sources people can not go for studies in
coeducation, these two factors can work as
The experimental method has the following
Very useful to conclude the cause and effect
With the help of this method psychologists
gain better understanding of behavior by
exerting control over stimuli.
i. Expensive Method
ii. we can not easily manipulate large groups
of people that might lead to mental illness
iii. Artificial Environment
iv. Humans react differently when they know
they are participating in an experiment
iv. Need highly expert and skilled experimenter
v. Experimenter Bias
vi. Might not be able to apply to outside the
147. Survey Method
A method of research in which
large numbers of persons answer
questions about their attitudes or
A method in which information
are gathered from a large number
of people either through written
questionnaires or through
A sample of people chosen to
represent some larger group of
148. Steps in Planning and conducting Survey
1. Selection of Problem
3. Questionnaire about Problem
4. Sampling the Population
5. Methods of measurement
6. Analysis of Data
7. Results/Conclusion/Report Writing
149. Steps in Planning and conducting
Selection of Problem
Topic of Particular social issue, on which survey is
A hypothesis is a tentative Statement (Measureable
Questionnaire about Problem
Next step is to select the Tool or Scale on Related
150. Steps in Planning and conducting
Questionnaire: A list of statements either in
form of question or simple statement which are
the direct source of taking information about
some particular phenomena
Types of Questionnaire:
i. Open-Ended Questionnaire
ii. Fixed-Ended Questionnaire
Open ended Questions
is designed to encourage a full, meaningful
answer using the subjects own knowledge
and feelings. e.g Tell me about your self?
Close ended Questions
Encourages a short or single word answer. e.g
Do you get on well with your teacher?
152. Steps in Planning and conducting
Sampling the Population
To draw a sample from target Population
Methods of measurement
In survey Method information from people can be taken by
153. Steps in Planning and conducting
Face to Face/Direct
154. Steps in Planning and conducting
Analysis of Data
Statistically analyze the information of
respondents. e.g. Frequency and %ages of
Conclude the results of survey and write a
report on whether Hypothesis is accepted or
i. Information from a large group of people in
i. Non-serious attitudes of people
ii. Can be expensive in some cases
156. The Case Study Method
An in-depth study of an individual in order to
understand that individual better and to
make inferences about people in general.
Every human being is unique; each of us
possess a distinctive combination of traits,
abilities; and characteristics.
157. The Case Study method
A Research method that focuses on the life history,
attitudes, behavior, and emotions of a single
individual or organizations, or group of people.
It is possible to learn anything about human
behavior from detailed study of one individual or
perhaps a few person.
Information taken from a case study is then used by
the researchers to formulate principles, or to reach
at conclusions that may be applied to large number.
In depth, detailed knowledge
Individuals can give such fruitful knowledge, which leads to
Unrepresentative information, common source of mistaken
If persons are unique, we cant generalize the results.
There is repeated contact with the individual, being studied,
so researcher's bias may be there( lose scientific objectivity)
160. Interview Method
An interview is a conservation between two or
more people (the interviewer and the interviewee)
where questions are asked by the interviewer to
obtain information from the interviewee.
Types of Interview
iii. Semi structured
Has a formalized limited set of questions which are
asked during interview.
Semi Structured Interview
Flexible, allowing new questions to be brought up
during the interview as a result of what the
Questions can be changed or adapted to meet the
respondents intelligence , understanding or beliefs.
A great deal of information can be obtained in a
relatively short period of time.
Subjects are sometimes not willing to express
themselves. they may be suspicious or
Interpretations could not be reliable when there is a
factor of subjectivity and personal liking,disliking.
164. Sensation and Perception
–The process through which the senses pick
up visual, auditory, and other sensory
stimuli and transmit them to the brain;
sensory information that has registered in
the brain but has not been interpreted
–The process by which sensory information
is actively organized and interpreted by the
165. • Sensation: your window to the world
• Perception: interpreting what comes in your window
167. • Sensation is a process that makes
possible, and facilitates our contact with
• ‘To sense’ means to become aware of
• All living organisms have sense organs.
• Sensation is the process by which our
sense organs respond to different stimuli.
168. • It is the mechanism through which stimuli from outside or
inside the body are received and felt by different faculties e.g.,
hearing, sight, smell, touch, taste.
• In the process of sensation the incoming nerve impulse is
registered in that part of the brain, which has a potential of such
reception. The awareness of a stimulus results from the
perception of the sensory receptors
169. Three parts of the psychology of
• Psychophysics: The study of the relationship
between the physical nature of stimuli and a
person’s sensory responses to them
• Sensory physiology: The Study of how
sensory stimulus is transferred by sensory
receptors and processed by the nervous
• Transduction: The action or process of
converting something and especially energy or
a message into another form. It is that in which
Stimulus is converted into neural impulses
170. Sensation….important concepts
• Stimulus: A source of physical energy that
produces a response in a sense organ.
• Sensation: A process by which an organism
responds to a stimulus.
• Intensity: The strength of a stimulus.
171. • Sensory receptors:
– Specialized cells in the
sense organs that detect
and respond to sensory
odors. It transduce
(convert) the stimuli into
– Provide the essential link
between the physical
sensory world and the
172. Sensory Thresholds
• We do not detect all of the stimuli that are present.
Senses are limited or restricted.
• Absolute Threshold: The smallest amount of
physical intensity by which a stimulus can be
detected. The absolute threshold is the point
where something becomes noticeable to our
senses. It is the softest sound we can hear or the
slightest touch we can feel. Anything less than
this goes unnoticed
173. Sensing the difference between 2 stimuli:
Once a stimulus becomes detectable to us, how do we
recognize if this stimulus changes. When we notice
the sound of the radio in the other room, how do we
notice when it becomes louder
• Difference threshold (just noticeable difference):
The smallest detectable difference between two
The difference threshold is the amount of change
needed for us to recognize that a change has occurred.
This change is referred to as the just noticeable
– The JND increases with the amount of the
• Can we ever detect stimuli that are below
threshold? As humans, we have great abilities
to perceive things (e.g., to see things
happening far away, to hear sounds at a
distance, etc.). However, we also have
• Subliminal: Below one’s absolute threshold
for conscious awareness.
175. • When we are presented with some
information that is just below our conscious
awareness but still reaches our brains, it is a
• You may be familiar with the idea of
subliminal messages is advertising in which a
message is flashed so quickly that we don't
"think" we saw it (containing the message the
advertiser wants us to get) but our brains
actually processed it. The idea being that we
will still respond to that message even though
we didn't realize we saw it.
176. Sensory adaptation
– The process of becoming less sensitive to an
unchanging sensory stimulus over time
– Sensory Adaptation occurs when sensory
receptors change their sensitivity to the stimulus.
– An example of sensory adaption is dark
adaptation, when the pupil of the eye gets bigger
when exposed to a dark environment
focusing of conscious awareness on a particular
178. Vision/ The visual sensation
• The sensation that takes place through the
function of eyes; eyes receive the visual
messages or stimulation, that is carried by
nerves to the concerned part of the brain that
processes the received information.
179. The Eye
• The eye is a very complex, delicate, and vital
structure, that is responsible for an organism’s
interaction with the external world. It is the
most important and influential sense organ.
• It receives information from the outside world
in the form of light, and sends loads of
information to the brain all the time
• The human eye is a little less than one inch in
diameter and almost spherical
180. • The eye has a very specific design or form,
which captures and processes light coming
from outside…light reflected by the stimuli
• Eyes function like a camera, which has its
opening, and a lens through which the light
enters and cells present in it process the
received light just as do the involved internal
parts of the camera
181. Structure of the Eye
• The anatomy/ structure of the eye is broadly divided into three parts
i. The external structure of the eye
ii. The immediate structure of the eye
iii. The internal structure of the eye
182. The external structure
The external structure consist of following structures:
1. Cornea: front surface of eye, light enters here. Its a
transparent protective window into eyeball, constantly
being washed by tears, keeping it moist and clean.
183. 2. Sclera: Outer walls of the eye are formed by a hard, white
substance called ‘sclera’, sclerotic coat covers 5/6th of the
surface of the eye. The sclera is commonly known as "the white
of the eye." It is the tough, opaque tissue that serves as the
eye's protective outer coat.
184. The immediate structure
1. Pupil: A dark, adjustable opening in the center of the eye through
which the light enters. It changes its size as the amount of light entering
the eye varies
2. Iris: Around the pupil of the eye, there is a ring of muscle tissue that
controls the size of the pupil opening, through its contraction and
• It contains the color pigments and thus gives color to the eye__ the color
which the eyes possess such as brown, black, green, blue etc are due to
the iris muscles
185. 3. Lens: The transparent part of the eye that is located
behind the pupil that changes it shape in order to focus
images on the retina
Accommodation: The lens changes its own thickness in
order to focus image properly on retina, this ability of
the lens is called “accommodation”
Kind of accommodation depends on the location of
distant objects → relatively flat lens
close objects → Thick, rounder lens
187. The internal structure
• Retina: Retina is the light- sensitive inner
surface or chamber of the eye that converts the
electromagnetic energy of the light into useful
information for the brain.
• It contains about 130 million nerve cells.
188. • It contains the receptors rods and cones plus the neurons;
these cells are very important as they initiate the processing of
• The retina has an area of 5 square centimeters located at the
back of the eye, which is a location where all light detection
189. Two types of light sensitive receptor cells
Rods → long & cylindrical (
perform well in poor light,
insensitive to color & small
details, used for peripheral vision
& night vision)
Cones → short, thick, cone
shaped (responsible for sharp
focus and color perception,
particularly in bright light)
• Peripheral Vision: The ability
to see objects outside the eye’s
main center of focus.
190. Important Regions of Retina
• Fovea: The very sensitive and important part
of the retina that helps in focusing; it is the
area of best vision.
The largest concentration of cones is present
There are no rods present in fovea
• Blind Spot: The area/ point where the optic
nerve leaves the eye; no receptor cells are
located here, thus creating a “ blind” spot__
area of no vision
• Optic Nerve: Nerve at the back of the eyeball
that carries neural impulses (visual
information) from the eye to the brain.
192. Optic Chiasm: A point
between and behind the eyes
at which nerve impulses
from the optic nerves are
reversed and “righted” in the
• When the optic nerves split
at this point, the nerve
impulses from the right half
of each retina go to the right
side of the brain and those
from the left half to the left
side of the brain.
• The process of the eye becoming used to a
certain amount of light is called adaptation.
What will happen when you enter into a dark
room and hardly see anything? The other
people, or your seat. And what happens after a
few moments? It is an example of adaptation to
• Light Adaptation: The eye’s temporary
insensitivity to light dimmer than that to
which it has most recently been exposed.
• Dark Adaptation: A heightened sensitivity to
light resulting from being in low level light for
some duration. On the contrary, you can see
quite well in light after coming from the
darkness__ dark adaptation
196. In a general sense, every aspect of the body
functioning is important to behaviour , since the
overall health and wellbeing of the organism is
Many aspects of behavior and mental
functioning can be better understood with some
knowledge of the underlying biological processes.
197. Our nervous System ,sense organs, muscles and
glands enable us to be aware of and to adjust to
Perception of events → Efficiency of Sense Organs
Behavior Motivation → Needs ( Hunger, Thirst, Avoidance
Ability to use language, think, and to solve problems→
Functioning of Brian
Our primary interest is in the nervous system
and in the effectors or bodily organs activated by
198. Biology and Behavior
Biopsychology: The study of how biological
processes, especially activity in the brain and
nervous system, relate to behavior. Its also called
Scientist have long known that the brain is the
organ of consciousness and action
The human brain is the size of a large grapefruit
It weighing a little over 3 pounds, it consists of
some 10 to 12 billion neurons
The human body is made up of trillions of cells. Cells of the
nervous system, called nerve cells or neurons (Neurons:
Individual nerve cells)
Neurons carry process , messages or information, they also
activate muscles and glands
The brain is composed of 10 to 12 billions of nerve cells or
Each of these are interconnect.
Neurons are the specialized cells that are the basic elements of
the nervous system that carry messages. Neurons have the
ability to communicate with other cells.
202. Dendrites ;Neurons
have a cluster of fibers
called dendrites at one
end of a neuron that
receive messages from
Cell body; The second
part of neuron , It is the
life-support center and
provides the energy for
all the cells activity.
Connects the dendrites
to the axon.
203. Axon ; A long
extension from the end
of a neuron that carries
messages to other cells
through the neuron.
Small bulges at the end
of axon branches that
transmit messages to
204. Myelin Sheath ; A protective
coating, made up of series of
specialized cells of fat and
protein that wrap themselves
around the axon.
The purpose of the myelin
sheath is to allow impulses to
transmit quickly and
efficiently along the nerve
cells. If myelin is damaged,
the impulses slow down.
205. If your hand touches a painfully hot stove, the
information regarding the pain is passed
through neurons in the hand and arm that
contain a relatively large quantity of myelin,
speeding the message of pain to the brain.
206. Nodes of Ranvier
oThe mylian sheeth is not a continuous
covering, but consists of segmants with small
gaps, called nodes of ranvier.(approximately
1 micrometer in diameter)
they allows nutrients and waste to enter and
exit the neuron.
207. The Synapse
A tiny gap between two
neurons. Neurons do NOT
touch each other- the space in
between is call the synapse.
Nerve Impulse;. the electrical
and chemical transmission of
information from one neuron
A neural Impulse fires when
the neuron is stimulated by
pressure, heat, light , or
chemical messages from
209. A neurotransmitter is a chemical messenger that
carries, increases and modulates signals
between neurons and other cells in the body.
Neurotransmitters play a major role in everyday
life and functioning. Scientists do not yet know
exactly how many neurotransmitters exist, but
more than 100 chemical messengers have been
When neurotransmitters are affected by disease
or drugs, there can be a number of different
adverse effects on the body.
210. Neurotransmitters and Mental Health
The following are those neurotransmitters which play a
significant role in our mental health.
Neurotransmitter function Psychological disorder
Dopamine Correlate with learning,
Too much dopamine
schizophrenia, too little
GABA Inhibits excitation and
Too little associated with
Endorphins involved in pain relief
and feelings of pleasure
211. Types of neurons
Sensory Neurons: that receive sensory signals from
sensory organs and send them to the central nervous system
Motor Neurons: The central nervous system then sends
instructions out to the body’s tissues through motor neurons.
212. Inter-neurons: that interconnect various neurons within the
brain or the spinal cord.
send information between sensory neurons and motor
neurons. Most interneurons are located in the central nervous
215. Nervous System
Human nervous system
consists of billions of
interconnected cells. Most of
these cells are neurons that
control and coordinate the
whole human behavior.
The nervous system is divided
into two main parts.
1. The Peripheral Nervous
2. The Central Nervous System
216. Peripheral Nervous System
Its Consists of the spinal cord and cranial nerves
(nerves directly emerged from the brain); these connect
the CNS to the rest of the body. PNS connects the
body’s sensory receptors to the CNS, and the CNS to
the muscles and glands.
PNS has two important parts:
1: Somatic Nervous System
2: Autonomic Nervous System
217. 1: Somatic Nervous system
The part of the nervous system that controls voluntary
It is the system which directs the organs and muscles to
action, such as to move the arm, looking up, running and so
It reports the current state of skeletal muscles and carries
218. 2: Autonomic Nervous system
The part of the nervous system that controls involuntary movement(
the actions of heart, lungs and other organs).
Considered as the “self governing or self-regulatory mechanism”
because of its involuntary operation.
Controls the glands and muscles of internal organs e.g. heart,
stomach, and glandular activity.
A.N.S. has a dual function; i.e. both arousing and calming.
Comprises two sub systems; Sympathetic and parasympathetic
219. Autonomic Nervous System
It also has two subdivions
1. Sympathetic System
2. Parasympathetic System
Sympathetic System; It acts to prepare the body in
stress or emergency situations .This response takes
the form of “fight or flight”.
e.g. a person saw the snake in his path, his sympathetic
nervous system cause the increase in heart rate
,blood pressure and breathing.
220. If something alarms, endangers, excites, or enrages a person,
the sympathetic nervous system accelerates heart beat, slows
digestion, raises the sugar level in blood, dilates the arteries
and cools the body through perspiration; makes one alert and
ready for action.
221. Parasympathetic Nervous System
It acts to calm the body after the emergency situation is resolved. It
causes heart rate to slow down ,blood pressure to drop and
breathing to become normal.
It produces an effect opposite to that of sympathetic nervous
It conserves energy by decreasing heart beat, lowering blood
pressure, lowering blood sugar and so on.
Sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions work in opposition to
each other. If one system is arousing the body, the other system is
relaxing the body.
222. The Central Nervous System
The central nervous system has two
1. The Spinal Cord
2. The Brain
Spinal Cord; It is encased in the
backbone and has a number of
functions to perform.
1. It receives sensory input through the
2. It controls all the body’s activities
3. It control reflexes.
The center of the nervous system.
The vital organ that is responsible for the functions of seeing, hearing,
smelling, tasting, thinking, feeling, remembering,
speaking, dreaming, information processing, and a lot more.
The regulator of basic survival functions such as breathing, resting and
It is responsible for abstract level functions such as decision making,
foresight, and problem solving.
The spinal cord is an information highway connecting the PNS to the brain.
Information travels to and from the brain by way of
It is divided into three
1. The Brain Stem/
3. The Forebrain
225. 1: The Brain system/ Hindbrain
It extends from spinal
cord and gradually
changes into the brain
stem, near the junction
of the skull.
Responsible for basic
survival functions such
heartbeat, and blood
226. Brain stem/ Hindbrain
It contains four parts
1. Medulla; It is important in many
activities as heart rate, blood pressure
and other bodily actions.
It controls tongue movements, taste,
touch and position of limbs .
2.Pons; The sensory neurons in the pons
receive input from hearing receptors and
head position receptors.
On the movement or motor side, the
pons control jaw movement, certain eye
movements and muscle movements
involved in facial expressions.
227. 3. Reticular Formation
• The reticular formation is a region running through the
middle of the hindbrain and into the midbrain.
• A dense network of nerve cells.
• It keeps the brain alert even during sleep
• Serious damage to reticular formation may result into a
4. The Cerebellum
This structure receives sensory and other inputs from the
spinal cord, brain stem and forebrain and processes this
information to many parts of the brain to help make our
movements precise, coordinated and smooth.
In other words, It is involved in coordination of the motor
activity, maintenance of physical postures (position of the
body) and the body balance.
228. 2. Midbrain
Midbrain; It is relatively
small region that connects
the hind brain with the
forebrain. It appears to
function mainly as railway
station for messages
coming into the brain. It
also contains structures
that play a role in seeing
,hearing and movement.
229. 3. The Forebrain
It influences many of the
basic life support functions ,
and higher level behaviors as
memory, speech, motivated
behavior and fine control of
Four major regions are as
3. Limbic System
230. The Forebrain
1.Thalamus; It primarily acts as a transmit station ,
mostly messages concerning sensory information
,from eyes, ears and skin travel to the thalamus to
be communicated upward to higher parts of the
2. Hypothalamus; It helps provide a constant body
temperature and monitors the amount of food
stored in the cells. It also produces and regulates
behavior that is important to survival like eating,
drinking ,fighting and so on.
231. The Forebrain
3. Limbic System; Certain structures of the limbic system are
involved in emotional behavior like expression of aggression
and feelings of pleasure. It is also important for memory.
4.Cerebrum;It is divided into two halves: the right and left
hemispheres. The left hemisphere controls the right side of the
body and receives impulses from the right side of the body and
of the external world ; the right hemisphere controls left side
and receives impulses from it.
232. The Forebrain
There are four sections or lobes in each hemisphere
1. The Frontal Lobe; Located at the front center of
cortex, containing motor and speech, reasoning and
remembering. e.g, in class room giving answer to the
questions , you are using your frontal lobes.
2. The Parietal Lobe; It is responsible for interpreting
senses such as touch, pain and temperature.
3. The Temporal Lobe; It’s major function is related to
hearing e.g, when you hear someone talking, you
temporal lobes are operating
4. The Occipital Lobe; Located at the back of the brain.
It’s major function is related to vision e.g., occipital
lobes allow you to interpret what you see in the environment
• Perception; is a complex cognitive process that is
concerned with selection, organization and
interpretation of stimuli.
• Perception involves cognitive process like thinking,
memory and ability to form meaning through the
• Perception is an active process in which sensory
experience is carried through the nervous system to
the brain and interpreted.
237. Difference between Sensation &
• Psychologists tend to view sensation as biological
process and perception as cognitive process.
• Both are interrelated .
• Sensation; refers to the process by which the sense
organ gathers information about the environment.
• Perception; is the process by which the brain organizes
and interprets sensations.
238. Factors of Perception
There are two types of factors that affecting perception
1. Objective / external Factors
2. Subjective / internal Factors
239. Objective Factors
There are a number of characteristics of stimuli that influence our
3. Distinct & Striking
8. Abrupt Change
240. Objective factors
• Intensity; The intensity of an external stimulus determines its
probability to being perceived. louder a sound , the more likely
a person is to perceive it. The brighter a light ,the more likely it
is to be in the focus of perception.
241. • Size; a larger object is more likely to be
noticed than a smaller one. A full page
advertisement is more likely to be noticed
than a half- column one
I trust on ALLAH
I trust on
242. Distinct & Striking; distinct (clearly described) and striking
(attractive and unusual) things are perceived sooner than dull
and unclear things.
243. • Movement; When things move suddenly in
still and motionless environment ,it is quickly
perceived .e.g. birds sitting quietly on tree are
not quickly perceived as compared to ones
about to fly.
244. • Repetition; The more number of a time the
stimulus is repeated, the more it is likely to be
noticed. Repetition is one of the most
frequently used techniques in advertising and
is the most common way of attracting the
people’s attention. Frequency results in
making people aware of the stimulus.
• Duration; Television and radio advertisements
of long duration are attended to more than
those of short duration.
245. • Novelty; new object in a familiar situation
draw the perceiver’s attention. A new and
novel thing is perceived sooner than old and
• Abrupt Change; Any change in stimulus
conditions, such as increase in noise , often
246. Subjective Factors
Sometimes, perception is determined not only by the physical
characteristics of stimuli but by the characteristics of the perceiver.
1. Motives or needs
2. Interests & values
3. Past experience
5. Preparatory set
6. Social & cultural factors
247. 1. Motives or Needs; when people are motivated
,they tend to see and hear what they want to hear.
In other words, we may be set to perceive the world
in ways that agree with our motives and match our
People at different levels of needs and desire
perceive the same thing differently. Power
seekers are more likely to notice power related
stimuli. That is to say expectancy, motives or interest
also affect people perception.
248. Subjective Factors
2. Interests & Values; we attend to those aspects of world that
relate to our interest.
3.Past Experience; Experience and knowledge have a constant
bearing on perception. Successful experiences enhance and
boost the perceptive abilities and lead to accuracy in
perception of a person. Much of our daily activity is dependent
upon past experience. we have learned to react to cues &
symbols. E.g., on seeing a moving line on the sky, we guess it to
be an airplane.
249. Subjective Factors
4. Age; Age brings a change in perception as
well. A child perceives things in different
way as compared to a young person.
5.Preparatory Set; This refers to a person’s
readiness to respond to one kind of sensory
input, but not to other kinds.
6.Social & Cultural Influences ; The normal
perceptual experiences of a culture may
lead its members to develop perceptual
biases, suggestions and prejudices.
250. Kinds/Types of Perception
We perceive objects in different manners as compared to their
position in the environment. Objects may be moving or static,
when we have to perceive motion. We may have to locate sounds
and voices in the space around us. Lets look at:
1. Form Perception
2. Size Perception/ Perceptual Constancy
3. Motion Perception
4. Depth Perception
5. Time Perception
251. Form Perception
• Our perception is a unified experience. We are
familiar to organizing things in our mind into
a form, shape , a melody or a scene that
makes up a meaningful whole.
252. 1.Figure /Ground;
• we see objects and forms
of everyday experience as
standing out from the
background. e.g., a clock
hanging on the wall is
perceived as the figure,
while the wall is the
• Our first perceptual
decision is what is the
image is the figure and
what is the background
253. • 2.Similarity; the tendency to group together
those elements that are similar in appearance.
• objects similar in appearance are perceived as
being part of same group
• 3.Proximity; The tendency to group together
those elements that are near to each other in
• group objects that are close together as being
part of same group
254. • 4. Closure; The tendency to group according
to enclosed or complete figures rather than
open or incomplete ones.
• we fill gaps in if we can recognize it
• 5.Simplicity; The tendency to perceive a
pattern in the most basic ,straightforward
255. Size Perception/Perceptual Constancy
Size perception ; Size perception is the tendency to perceive objects
in a consistent manner despite the changing sensations that are
received by our senses. visual constancy plays an important role in
helping us adapt to our environment successfully.
Learning plays an important role in the development of constancy.
Once we know that certain objects in our environment have certain
characteristics ,we tend to perceive them in the same way,
regardless of the conditions under which they are perceived.
257. Size Perception
Size Constancy; When we know that
an object is of a certain size, we tend
to perceive it as being that same
size, regardless of how far it is from
In Size constancy ,the perceiver has
the ability to judge true or measured
size, regardless of the distance
E.g., when you finish a conversation
with a friend and he begins to walk
away ,the image on retina become
smaller & smaller. The knowledge
that he is also farther away,
compensates for change in retinal
image and you perceive him as the
258. Size Perception
2.Shape Constancy; When we know that
the object is a certain shape ,we tend
to perceive it as the same shape,
regardless of the viewing angle. We
have learned to make corrections in
our perception dependent on the
angle from which we observe.
• Everybody has seen a plate shaped in
the form of a circle. When we see
that same plate from an angle,
however, it looks more like an ellipse.
Shape constancy allows us to perceive
that plate as still being a circle even
though the angle from which we view
it appears to distort the shape
259. Size Perception
• 3.Color Constancy; Colors of
objects tend to remain
constant in perception when
we know their true color.
• refers to our ability to
recognize that color remains
the same regardless of how it
looks under different levels of
light. That deep blue shirt you
wore to the beach suddenly
looks black when you walk
260. Motion Perception
Motion Perception; Motion is perceived by following the
progressive change of an object’s position in space with time. It has
1. Real Motion; The perception of the actual movement of objects
in the world is termed as “real motion perception”.
• watching a ball thrown across your
field of view, you can easily perceive
that the ball is moving relative to the
261. 2: Apparent Motion; It is movement perceived in the absence of
physical movement of an image across the retina
• looking at a neon street sign, where a series of lights flash one
after another, it appears to move
262. Types of apparent motion
a) Induced Motion; - movement of one object results in the
perception of movement in another object.
• have you ever seen the sun/ moon goes behind a cloud? if so,
you experience induced motion.
263. • b). Phi Phenomenon; perceiving continuous
motion between separate objects viewed
rapidly in succession
• a string of lights across a house appear to
"run" even though you know it's just one light
turning off and the one next to it turning on
and so on down the line.
264. • C). Stroboscopic
Motion ; When a series
of still pictures is
presented in a rapid
succession so that we
is called stroboscopic
motion. E.g., animated
movies & cartoons.
265. Motion Perception
d) Auto kinetic Motion; If we stare at a small
spot of light in a dark room for a few minutes,
it will appear to begin to move around
although the light is stationary; we see it
move randomly back and forth in the
darkness. While we don’t know the reason for
this positively, the auto kinetic effect may be
caused by the eye muscles moving to keep the
266. Depth Perception
Depth Perception ; the ability to judge the
distance of objects and the spatial relationship
of objects at different distances
There is a distance between the eyes so both eyes
receive different image on retina and the brain
integrates them into composite view.
267. Depth Perception
lets examine some of the cues we employ in depth
1. Monocular Cues
2. Binocular Cues
1.Monocular Cues; Cues that can operate when only
one eye is looking.
1.Motion Parallax; The change in the position of an
object on the retina, as the head moves from side
to side. The brain is able to calculate the distance
of the object by the amount of change in the
268. Depth Perception
2.Relative Size; It means that if two objects are the
same size, the one that makes a smaller image on
the retina is farther away than the one that
provides a larger image.
3. Interposition; When one object appears to cut off
our vision of another, we judge the first object to be
somewhat closer to us than the second.
4. Linear Perspective; Objects appear smaller and
closer together as they become more distant.
Railroad tracks or the edges of a highway appear to
meet on the horizon.
269. Depth Perception
5. Clearness; In judging the distance of an object from us,
we are influenced by the clearness of the perceived
detail. Any familiar object appears closer when we can
perceive clearly the details of the object.
6.Shadows; photographers often manipulate shadows to
enhance the three- dimensional effect.
270. Depth Perception
7. Texture; Objects located on coarser ground
appear closer while those on a finer texture
ground appear further away.
8. Accommodation; As we fixate on objects of
varying distance from the eye, the lens alters in
shape. The lens thickens when we look at
objects close to us and tends to thin when the
objects are further away.
271. Depth Perception
2. Binocular Cues; Many of the cues for depth
require only one eye. In fact, one-eyed people,
under most conditions, have quite adequate
depth perception. Most of us look out at the
world with both eyes simultaneously and we
are thus able to add the binocular cues for
depth perception to the monocular ones.
272. Depth Perception
1.Retinal Disparity; When look at a particular
object, the two eyes do not receive exactly the
same image. The difference in the images in
the two eyes is called “ Retinal Disparity”.
2. Convergence; The eyes turn inward or
converge when we look at nearby objects. As
we fixate objects further away, the lines of
vision of the eyes tend to be almost parallel.
273. Time Perception
• We take time in seconds, minutes and hours which
pass into days, weeks, months , years and even
centuries. Time is also perceived in terms of past,
present and future.
• It refers to the subjective experience of time, which
is measured by someone's own perception of the
duration of the indefinite and continuous unfolding
of events. Another person's perception of time
cannot be directly experienced or understood, but
it can be objectively studied and understood
through a number of scientific experiments
• Attention is the cognitive process of selectively
concentrating one aspect of the environment
while ignoring other things.
• We are particularly attentive to stimuli that
appear exceptionally bright, large, loud, novel or
high in contrast.
• We also pay greater attention to stimuli that are
particularly meaningful or are relevant to our
• E.g., If we are hungry ,we are more apt to be
sensitive to food and food related stimuli.
• It also includes listening carefully to what
someone is saying while ignoring other
conversation in a room.
277. Factors of Attention
• Why do we pay attention to something and not
to others? What directs our attention?
1. Objective Factors
2. Subjective Factors
278. External / Objective Factors
The external factors are concerned with the environment. These are
also called Objective Factors. Intensity
6. Abrupt change
279. • Size: Size has effect on attention. It is natural an
unusual size attracts attention of the people.
Very big size or very small size too draws our
attention when compared with normal size. For
example, a dwarf man walking on the road too
draws our attention.
• Intensity: Loud sounds, strong smells and deep
colors are attractive in nature. If a sound is
intense then it would attract our attention. The
thunder is louder than a car sound. So, our
attention is drawn on thunder
280. • Movement: Moving things draws our
attention more than stationary one. A
moving car attracts faster than a
• Repetition: If a thing or person or
event is repeated several times, then
our attention drawn to it. When an
advertisement is repeated in the walls
drawn our attention.
• Duration: attention is drawn to a thing
that lasts longer. A salesperson draws
attention by lengthening his voice.
281. • Novelty: Newness attracts quickly than
traditional one. A new teacher attracts the
children very much in the school.
282. Subjective Factors
The internal factors are concerned with the individual. So, these
are also called subjective factors
4. Aim/ goals
6. Past Experience
283. • Interest: we are interested in some things and
disinterested in other things. Interesting things draws our
attention soon. An engineer and a botanist going down
the same path will attend entirely different things on the
way. Engineer attention will be on the buildings and
botanist attention will be on the trees.
• Desire: A person’s desire becomes a cause of paying
attention to a thing. For example, a person has to desire
of buying a hammer. There are many things available in a
market, but when he goes to a shop where hammers are
284. • Motives: Basic motives are important in drawing attention.
Human motives like hungry, thirst, safety, etc., play a vital role
in drawing attention. A thirst person attention always on
where water is available.
• Aim/Goal: Every man has some immediate aim and ultimate
goal in their life. The immediate aim of a student is to pass in
the examination while his ultimate goal may be to become a
doctor. The student, whose goal is not to pass the
examination, will not be concerned with textbooks or note,
etc, but who has the aim to pass in the examination, will at
once attend to them
285. • Habit: Habit is also a vital determinant of attention. The
kind of habit we found in our life, our attention is drawn
to such things. if a person has habit to play cricket, then
his attention is always drawn to it, and he will listen to
cricket commentaries with attention.
• Past Experience: It is also affect attention. If we know by
our past experience that a particular person is sincere to
us, we shall pay attention to whatever he advises us. If
our experience is contrary, we shall not attend even to
his most serous advice.
286. Span of Attention
• How many things can we hold in our attention at
the same time?
• Most psychologists agree that the ability to focus
attention on a task is important for the
achievement of one's goals.
• The attention span for this level is very brief,
with a maximum span, without any break at all,
that may be as short as 8 seconds
287. Poor attention span with distractibility
• Fails to finish the things started
• Shift from one uncomplicated activity to other
• Does not seem to listen
• Easily distracted by external stimuli
• Often loses things
288. Distraction of Attention
• Distraction means the dividing of attentions or some interference in
attention. The object which causes the distraction is called the
• Duration of attention is often short. Different stimuli distract person’s
attention. if a person wants to attend a stimuli constantly , Even then
different factors can distract him. Person pays more attention and
concentration to his work but remain unable to maintain it.
289. Distraction of Attention
• There are individual differences in distraction of
attention. Its not always necessary that two
different people get distracted by same stimuli.
Some people can study in noise ,while others
need complete silence. Two important factors
are as under:
• Objective Factors
• Subjective Factors
290. Objective Factors
• The factors that distract attention from environment are
called objective factors. It is also called environmental
factors. Routine work distract less attention while
different and novel work distracts more.
• Noise, music, improper lighting, uncomfortable seats,
defective method of teaching, improper use of teaching
aids, defective voice of the teacher are the common
external distractors in the classrooms.
291. Subjective Factors
• These factors are related to person’s internal
characteristics. Every person get distracted by
his tendencies or interests.
• Emotional disturbances, mental and physical
health, anger, fear, feeling of insecurity,
boredom, lack of motivation, feeling of fatigue,
lack of interest, desires, preferences, freshness,
unrelated subject matter are the examples for
292. Control of Distraction
• Distraction of attention affects our performance. So these
factors can decrease distraction of attention.
1. By giving Reward
2. Social Acceptance
3. Through Self Control
4. Increase in Capability
5. Through clear objective
293. Fluctuation of Attention
• We can only attend a stimulus for few seconds. If we have to
attend a stimulus for long, then the attention fluctuates. This
is called fluctuation of attention.
• Fluctuation of attention is the length of time one can attend
continuously to a single object. Attention is not steady or
concentrated throughout. At one time the object come in our
focus, at another time, it goes out from focus.
• Attention is a mobile or dynamic activity, and it is difficult to
attend to one a particular object for any great length of time.
When attention moves from one object to another, it is called
the shifting of attention. But even when the attention persists
with one object, it grows more or less in degree. This is called
fluctuation of attention.
294. Fluctuation of Attention
• In shift of attention our attention passes from
one stimulus to another or from one part of a
complex stimulus to another part.
• Our receptors get fatigued by concentrating on
one stimuli and stop working. But when
attention decreases , the capacity of receptors
• Usually we say, that I can study for 1 or 2 hour.
But when a person is studying ,even then his
attention is not static ,rather it’s diverting on
different words ,phrases and concepts.
• An illusion is an incorrect perception that
occurs when sensation is distorted.
• When there is definite discrepancy between
what we perceive and actual facts, the
experience is termed as illusion.
• It is also called false perception, and produced
by physiological or psychological distortion.
• Example; a pencil put in a glass of water
appears as bent which it is not.
297. CAUSES OF ILLUSION
Causes of illusion are;
• Abnormal conditions or defects of the sense organs.
• Limitations of the sense organs.
• Odd arrangement of stimuli.
• Psychological and social factors.
298. CAUSES OF ILLUSION
Abnormal conditions or defects of the sense organs.
• Illusion is due to some diseases of the sense organs or the
• For example color-blind person will mistake colors. State of
drunkenness also fall under this condition.
299. CAUSES OF ILLUSION
Limitations of the sense organs.
• An illusion is sometimes spoken of as a
“deception of the sense”.
• The natural powers of sense organs are
limited; therefore they sometimes play us
false and give rise to illusions.
• For example; Eye is limited in its perception of
objects that are too small or too far away.
Similarly, Ear can not correctly hear sounds
that are too low.
300. CAUSES OF ILLUSION
• It is also consider as the state of mind at the moment. Our
interest and expectations influence our perception.
• For example, if we are looking for our friend, we are likely to
take almost any person for him, and we have the illusion of
seeing what we are looking for.
301. CAUSES OF ILLUSION
Odd arrangement of
• This illusion is produced
by odd combination of
lines, such as Muller-lyer
302. CAUSES OF ILLUSION
Psychological and social factors.
• Our needs, motives, past experiences and expectations about
how the world is put together and the way we perceive it.
– A false perception of actual stimuli involving a
misperception of size, shape, or the relationship of
one element to another
– The two lines above are the same length, but the diagonals
extending outward from both ends of the lower line make it look
longer than the upper line
305. Color Perception
Humans are able to discriminate 7 million different hues.
Colors convey important information:
Ripeness of food
Eye contains 3 different color sensitive elements
Blue, green or red elements
Trichromatic theory accounts for color mixing of lights.
Visual system is organized into red-green, blue-yellow and black-
Theory can account for negative color afterimages.
308. Extrasensory Perception
• ESP refers to the ability to perceive stimuli
that are outside the 5 senses
– Telepathy: the ability to read minds
– Clairvoyance: the ability to perceive objects or
– Precognition: the ability to predict the future
– Psychokinesis: the ability to move objects