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Helping your students struggle less workshop for braz tesol Goiânia

These are slides I used to present a worskshop on Specific Learning Differences based on an online course provided by www.futurelearn.com . I highly recommend the course and all credit goes to the creators of the course.

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Helping your students struggle less workshop for braz tesol Goiânia

  1. 1.  SPLD  Students fail to learn despite adequate instruction  Different degrees of severity  Behavioural, cognitive, biological and environmental level
  2. 2. - essential for efficient, quick, effortless and accurate performance in a number of skills - How to develop it?
  3. 3. hear na utterance and show recognition non-verbally (e.g. by indicating an appropriate picture or acting out a movement) hear an utterance and respond verbally initiate a spoken exchange recognize a written word or sentence and respond verbally recognize a word or sentence and respond in written form initiate a written exchange/write independently
  4. 4.  Sub-lexical and lexical routes  Logographic and alphabetic stage  Explicit classroom instruction and automaticity  Ortographic stage  Reduced level of syllabic awarenesss  Manifests itself differently in different languages (transparent ortography)
  5. 5.  Pre-reading/activating schemata/raising interest  Providing a glossary  Font size  Uncluttered page – reading frame  Visuals  Audio recording  Wh- comprehension questions  Constructing mental images
  6. 6.  Problems in segmenting words into phonological units  Problems with phoneme-grapheme correspondences  Problems in word recognition  Slow reading speed  Difficulties in spelling  Smaller range of vocabulary  Slow word retrieval  Slow speech  Articulation problems  Problems keeping verbal material in phonological short-term memory
  7. 7.  Difficulties in time management, keeping deadlines and organizing academic work  Fine motor skills problems (poor handwriting)  Slow in automatization when acquiring new skills
  8. 8.  Early identification and remediation of literacy problems is of key importance for dyslexic learners not only to ensure their academic success but also to avoid the negative emotional experiences of failure
  9. 9.  Repetition, revisiting  Mindmaps, diagrams, bullet points, pictures, role plays  Setting tasks that the learner is already capable of  Study skills (notebooks, colour coding), inner self- correction dialogue  Instructions and feedback (honest feedback and constructive advice – 1-2 things to improve)  Communication with the learner and parents
  10. 10.  Encouragement – boosting self-esteem  Whatever the learner produces doesn’t have to be 100% perfect  Layered correction  Task differentiation  Recording texts  Recording reminders, study timetables  Don’t give up on them
  11. 11. http://eida.orhttps://www.futurelearn.com https://www.pinterest.com/Mistyhanson/dyslexia-activities-tea Crombie, M. A. (1995) The Effects of Specific Learning difficulties on the Learning of a Foreign language in School. Dyslexia: An International Journal of Research and Practice Nijakowska, J. (2010). Dyslexia in the Foreign language Classroom, Bristol: Multilingual Matters
  12. 12.  Automaticity is essential for efficient, quick, effortless and accurate performance in a number of skills because our attentional resources are limited. When carrying out complex activities such as reading a text, we cannot pay attention to all the processes involved at the same time.  Most human activity involves a combination of automatic and controlled performance. For example, when we read in our first language we automatically decode the words, retrieve the meaning associated with them and process the sentence structure, but in order to interpret the meaning of the text, we need to consciously draw on our background knowledge and remember previously read pieces of information. This later process is an example of conscious controlled processing. Automatic processes are generally fast, can run parallel, and are effortless, capacity-free and unintentional. They are the result of consistent practice and are not prone to interference from processes. On the other hand, controlled processing is often slow and inefficient, is limited by the capacity of the working memory and requires effort.   
  13. 13.  How to develop automaticity?  e. g. teaching a word:  ‘Jablko’ (‘apple’ in Czech)  1. oral exposure/visual aid -saying/repeating it  2. kinestehetic -throw and say  3. pronunciation - elicit how many syllables, clap hands/taps fingers  4. tactile experience -hand out a piece of apple, offer a piece of fruit  5. recognizing the word among other words - a pic of other fruits, count how many (three apples, two bananas, five limes)  6. getting used to written form - display words – which says jablko?  7. practice of the written form - match words and pics  8. first production of the written word -unscramble letters to write jablko  9. practise writing - invite students to write the word ( provide slips of paper)   There are several theories of automaticity development – rule-based approaches view the transformation of factual knowledge into production rules, which is called procedural knowledge e.g. ‘sh’ – a child hears examples that the sound /ʃ / is written as ‘sh’ – and stores the information as declarative knowledge. With practice, this will be transformed into a production rule and eventually become procedural knowledge and then automatic skill.
  14. 14.  Therefore, students need frequent practice and revision – the best is through playful activities.     Repetition, revisiting  Presenting language in context  Drills  Oral practice should always come first to avoid students’ attention being divided between the grammatical structure to be practiced and reading and writing  Mindmaps, diagrams, bullet points, pictures, role plays  Setting tasks that the learner is already capable of  Study skills (notebooks, colour coding), inner self-correction dialogue  Simple instructions broken into steps/demonstration/modelling  Feedback (honest feedback and constructive advice)  Communication with the learner and parents  Practice at home – 10-15 minutes a day  Some useful sites:  http://www.bbc.co.uk/skillswise/topic/memory-aids  http://resources.woodlands-junior.kent.sch.uk/interactive/literacy.html#7  http://www.cambridgeenglishonline.com/Phonetics_Focus/  http://www.spellingcity.com/ (type the words YOUR student needs)  http://eduapps.org/  http://bubbl.us  http://www.englishcentral.com/videos  https://www.facebook.com/Dyslexia-Association-of-Ireland-92772324361/timeline/  http://eida.org/            
  15. 15. milanavarro@yahoo.com.br miloslava.silva@culturainglesa