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Introduction to Jobs to Be Done

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Introduction to Jobs to Be Done

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An introduction to the Jobs to Be Done customer research/insights framework, with a focus on how product managers can put Jobs to Be Done into practice with key tools such as customer interviews, surveys, prototyping, and A/B testing.

An introduction to the Jobs to Be Done customer research/insights framework, with a focus on how product managers can put Jobs to Be Done into practice with key tools such as customer interviews, surveys, prototyping, and A/B testing.


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Introduction to Jobs to Be Done

  1. 1. Jobs To Be Done An Introduction Michele Hansen
  2. 2. About me Co-Founder, Geocodio Co-Organizer, DC Jobs To Be Done Meetup MBA Candidate, Virginia Tech Formerly Product Development Manager & Product Manager, The Motley Fool Technical Project Manager & Product Manager, Engage
  3. 3. About you When was the last time you spoke with a customer? - In the context of support? - Sales? - Usability? - Interviews? - Another context?
  4. 4. Key Takeaways  What is Jobs to be Done and how it’s impactful  How it fits in with other product management frameworks and tools  How you can put it in practice JTBD is as much a way of thinking as it is a set of tools.
  5. 5. People don’t want a quarter- inch drill. They want a quarter-inch hole. Theodore Levitt
  6. 6. What is JTBD?  Created by Clayton Christensen, Harvard Business School  Innovator’s Dilemma  Framework for product development, product management, and product marketing  Central idea: A customer hires a product to get a job done.
  7. 7. “Job” is shorthand for what an individual really seeks to accomplish in a given circumstance. - Clayton M. Christensen
  8. 8. Case Study: Banco Davivienda Market leader in Colombian banking market Problem: almost 50% of Colombians didn’t have a bank account Research → Testing → Solution: Streamlined, easier- to-use bank accounts ...and it failed. As team members analyzed the data, they came to realize that although they had commissioned a market study and talked to a few customers, but they hadn’t understood the jobs to be done for the unbanked. Rather, they had let their knowledge of existing customers and solutions distort their understanding of the problem. From The Innovator’s Method, page 97
  9. 9. “We decided to go out and try to understand what people wanted, not by asking directly ‘What do you want?’ but by trying to understand how people behave in real life.” – Banco Davivienda team member, quoted in The Innovator’s Method
  10. 10. Process  Enthnographic analysis  Talk to people, observe, and be a fly-on-the-wall  Created customer profiles with jobs-to-be-done, motivations, behaviors, and other characteristics  Martha, who receives government payments and sends domestic remittances, and has to stand in line for hours each day to do so Solution A mobile wallet that let people receive money (such as government subsidies) and send money without ever going to a branch  Solution was adopted by hundreds of thousands of users in Colombia  Expanded to other countries with similar user behaviors Case Study: Banco Davivienda
  11. 11. Activity-based design: the evolution of human-centered design Where they’re similar  Customer-focused  Heavily invest in customer research and insights  Iterative based on customer feedback Where they’re different  Designing for activities rather than specific humans  Human processes and situations over humans
  12. 12. Jobs are irrespective of products -- and exist throughout time.
  13. 13. Let’s talk about food Rebecca is 37, married with two children, and works as a visual designer at a non-profit. She enjoys yoga and watching The Crown, and is Vice President of the PTA at her children’s elementary school. She uses an iPhone. What will Rebecca hire for lunch today? Different situations→ different jobs → hiring different solutions It depends on the situation! Is it lunch with her boss to discuss her goals this year, a quick sandwich with coworkers that she wants to eat at her desk, or is she home sick? What will Rebecca hire for dinner? It depends on the situation! Is her husband is away for work, date night with her husband, a reunion with college girlfriends?
  14. 14. “Successful devices are those that fit gracefully into the requirements of the underlying activity, supporting them in a manner understandable by people. Understand the activity, and the device is understandable.” Don Norman
  15. 15. Different types of jobs, all working together Functional  “We need to eat dinner on Friday.”  Social  “I want to relax and have fun with my husband, without the kids around.”  Emotional  “If we could just connect more deeply in a way we can’t on a daily basis, I would be so happy.”  Intellectual  “If only there was a way for us to just have more time to talk as adults.”  Physical  “I wish we could take away all of the things that normally get between us at dinner.”  Sensory
  16. 16. When do you use JTBD?  During the discovery or ideation stage  During the design process to shape and test designs  In development to inform decisions  When creating user personas  Continually to ensure the product is helping customers accomplish their desired outcomes  And so forth... Jobs to be Done should be used continually and alongside other tools, like customer journey mapping, surveying, prototyping, and usability testing
  17. 17. The JTBD Toolbox  Interviews  The Timeline  Forces Diagram  Job Stories  Desired Outcome Statements  Surveys  Prototyping  A/B Testing  Customer Journey Maps  User Personas (sort of)
  18. 18. JTBD Interviews  Why? Learn a customer’s timeline, and learn the words they use to describe their experience  This will help you in creating surveys to see how insights learned from interviews scale  Who? Prospective, current, or past customers  How many? Stop when you start hearing the same things over and over again  In my experience, ranges from 5-15 for a discrete research project  For ongoing, 1-3 per week
  19. 19. What a JTBD interview is not  A usability session  Make it clear they don’t need the product in front of them, and don’t ask them to go through the product/service  An onboarding session  Avoid talking to people who’ve just bought the product  An upsell or sales opportunity  Can be tempting if they express a need you know the company solves! You can always follow up later. (If this happens, dig into solutions they’ve looked at. This is good data for improving customer awareness strategies.)  A venue for soliciting or responding product or service feedback  They might bring it up. Capture it and move on, do not reply (even if they say something you know the answer to). Say “I’ll have to follow up on
  20. 20. There are only two people you should listen to: someone who has just paid for your product or someone who has just canceled. Jason Fried
  21. 21. Key Questions to Answer in a JTBD Interview1. Where are they now? 2. How do they want their life to be better? 3. What obstacles stand in their way? 4. What have they already tried?
  22. 22. The Timeline
  23. 23. Forces Diagram
  24. 24. Conducting an Interview: Tips  Create an environment of safety. Never correct them, and play dumb if you need to. You want them to be comfortable with you and open up.  Use their words. If they say your product name wrong, go with it. Get in their head and exercise practical empathy.  Remember to pause. Give them space to speak -- more than you think they need. They will fill the space.  Don’t be afraid to dig in. Ask them to repeat, or purposefully repeat what they’ve said in a way that’s slightly wrong. When they correct you, it will be enlightening.  Ask a reaching-for-the-door question. “Is there anything else you want me to know?” Ask this question halfway through the interview
  25. 25. Interview Logistics  Plan for 30-60 minutes  Use a script  Have a partner if you can  Record the interview (always ask permission)  And have transcripts made  Compensate them for their time  Such as a $25 Amazon gift card  Free stuff from your company can be nice but delicate and depend on your brand (such as a 1-year free subscription extension or mailing them a branded hat)
  26. 26. Who should do customer research?
  27. 27. Doing interviews 🔥 Sharing your interview results with others 🔥 🔥 Having team members join you in interviews🔥 🔥 🔥 Having every member of the team join interviews regularly 🔥🔥🔥🔥🔥🔥🔥🔥🔥
  28. 28. Surveys  Pain + Frequency  Satisfaction + Importance  (Top Task)
  29. 29. Surveys: Pain and Frequency Given the activities expressed in interviews, how do those experiences scale across a larger user segment? 1. How frequently do they do the activities? 2. How painful do they find them?BIG SMALL FREQUENT RARE ✔✔ ✔ ✔ ❌
  30. 30. Not all good products make good businesses1. Beware of small, rare problems 2. Beware of offering a cheap, complex product • And a cheap one with high-touch onboarding 3. Beware of solving problems people don’t know about or don’t care about 4. Beware of solving problems you can’t experience yourself • Caveat: Practical Empathy
  31. 31. Surveys: Satisfaction and Importance (Gap Analysis) After you have a functioning prototype/MVP/product  Can be done before or after a Top Task analysis  Key questions  Are they happy with how they can accomplish key tasks?  How important are those tasks to them?
  32. 32. Desired Outcome Statements ➔ High-level vision for what you help users accomplish ➔ Ideally, shared and consistent throughout the entire organization ➔ Informs tactical outcomes but does not dictate them ➔ High level of a job story
  33. 33. A desired outcome statement should be “devoid of solutions, measurable, controllable, unambiguous and guides the creation of customer value.” Tony Ulwick Author, Jobs to Be Done: From Theory to Practice and JTBD Consultant
  34. 34. Job Stories
  35. 35. Job Stories vs User Stories Job Stories are…  Situation and activity based  Include the expected outcome “When I put money in my checking account, I want to earn interest, so I can have more financial security.” User Stories are…  Based around a specific type of user  But do other users also engage in that activity or share that Job? “As a middle-aged housewife, I want to save money, so that I can have more financial security.”
  36. 36. User Personas: The Controversy ➔ There’s controversy in the JTBD world about the role and use of user personas ➔ Some practitioners (Ulwick) prefer to only create Job Maps Jobs To Be Done is a valuable exercise for product and service teams. Persona creation and validation is equally as valuable. Together, they make for a combined activity that paints a clear picture for our teams of who is using our product and what they’re trying to achieve. Jeff Gothelf Author, Sense and Respond ➡️ Use them to give context to needs of a segment ⬅️
  37. 37. Prototyping  Prototype first, then A/B test  Create a simple prototype  Doesn’t have to be fully functional but should be clickable  “What would you expect to happen if you clicked that?”  Remote sessions  UserTesting.com  Can filter for specific types of users, such as income, products used, etc  In-person sessions
  38. 38. A/B Testing  Use your understanding of customers’ jobs to inform A/B tests  If they don’t work, dig in and ask why  For live feedback in addition to traffic/event analytics, insert a poll that pops up when the user navigates away (Hotjar)
  39. 39. Summary  We learned what Jobs to be Done is  How it fits in with other product management tools  How you can put it in practice  Interviews  The Timeline  Forces Diagram  Surveys  Prototyping & Testing
  40. 40. Further reading 1. The Innovator’s Method 2. Jobs to be Done: Theory to Practice 3. Sense and Respond (authors of Lean UX)
  41. 41. Thanks! @mjwhansen michele@geocod.io DC Jobs To Be Done Meetup

Notas do Editor

  • Suggested Questions
  • Source: https://hbr.org/2016/09/know-your-customers-jobs-to-be-done
  • Video link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QEFAHIulWw4
  • Source: https://colombiareports.com/colombias-poorest-region-got-even-poorer-contrary-to-the-rest-of-the-country/
  • Source: http://www.jnd.org/dn.mss/human-centered_design_considered_harmful.html
  • Source: https://jasonevanish.com/2014/04/23/how-to-do-a-jobs-to-be-done-interview/
  • Spoiler: Everyone!
  • Saw India in photos...
    Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eZi481rMOm4
  • ...didn’t appreciate the noise, chaos, smells, volume of people, history until I was there, in a rickshaw, experiencing it for myself. (You don’t get the full appreciation for something until you experience it yourself.)
    Source: friend of the presenter
  • Source: https://blog.intercom.com/good-products-bad-businesses/
  • Source: https://blog.intercom.com/good-products-bad-businesses/
  • Source: https://blog.intercom.com/good-products-bad-businesses/
    Source: https://rosenfeldmedia.com/books/practical-empathy/
  • Sources:
    Chart: http://www.amplituderesearch.com/statistical-consulting/gap-analysis.shtml
  • Source: https://jobs-to-be-done.com/inventing-the-perfect-customer-need-statement-4fb7de6ba999
  • Sources:
  • Source: https://medium.com/@jboogie/reconciling-jobs-to-be-done-personas-8aa96b94315b
  • https://www.usertesting.com/
  • https://www.hotjar.com/
  • https://www.amazon.com/Innovators-Method-Bringing-Start-up-Organization/dp/1625271468
  • https://www.meetup.com/meetup-group-DhfBlmLV/