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Introduction to Azure Data Lake and U-SQL for SQL users (SQL Saturday 635)

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Data Lakes have become a new tool in building modern data warehouse architectures. In this presentation we will introduce Microsoft's Azure Data Lake offering and its new big data processing language called U-SQL that makes Big Data Processing easy by combining the declarativity of SQL with the extensibility of C#. We will give you an initial introduction to U-SQL by explaining why we introduced U-SQL and showing with an example of how to analyze some tweet data with U-SQL and its extensibility capabilities and take you on an introductory tour of U-SQL that is geared towards existing SQL users.

slides for SQL Saturday 635, Vancouver BC, Aug 2017

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Introduction to Azure Data Lake and U-SQL for SQL users (SQL Saturday 635)

  1. 1. Introduction to Azure Data Lake and U-SQL for SQL users Michael Rys (@MikeDoesBigData) John Morcos Microsoft Corp
  2. 2. The Traditional Data Warehouse 2 Data sourcesNon-relational data
  3. 3. The Data Lake approach Ingest all data regardless of requirements Store all data in native format without schema definition Do analysis Using analytic engines like Hadoop Interactive queries Batch queries Machine Learning Data warehouse Real-time analytics Devices
  4. 4. WebHDFS .NET, SQL, Python, R scaled out by U-SQL ADL Analytics HDInsight ADL Store HiveAnalytics Storage Azure Data Lake (Store, HDInsight, Analytics)
  5. 5. Why U-SQL?
  6. 6. Some sample use cases Digital Crime Unit – Analyze complex attack patterns to understand BotNets and to predict and mitigate future attacks by analyzing log records with complex custom algorithms Image Processing – Large-scale image feature extraction and classification using custom code Shopping Recommendation – Complex pattern analysis and prediction over shopping records using proprietary algorithms Characteristics of Big Data Analytics Requires processing of any type of data Allow use of custom algorithms Scale to any size and be efficient
  7. 7. Status Quo: SQL for Big Data  Declarativity does scaling and parallelization for you  Extensibility is bolted on and not “native”  hard to work with anything other than structured data  difficult to extend with custom code
  8. 8. Status Quo: Programming Languages for Big Data  Extensibility through custom code is “native”  Declarativity is bolted on and not “native”  User often has to care about scale and performance  SQL is 2nd class within string  Often no code reuse/ sharing across queries
  9. 9. Why U-SQL?  Declarativity and Extensibility are equally native to the language! Get benefits of both! Makes it easy for you by unifying: • Declarative and imperative • Unstructured and structured data processing • Local and remote Queries • Increase productivity and agility from Day 1 and at Day 100 for YOU! Scales out your custom imperative Code (written in .NET, Python, R, and more to come) in a declarative SQL- based framework
  10. 10. The origins of U-SQL SCOPE – Microsoft’s internal Big Data language • SQL and C# integration model • Optimization and Scaling model • Runs 100’000s of jobs daily Hive • Complex data types (Maps, Arrays) • Data format alignment for text files T-SQL/ANSI SQL • Many of the SQL capabilities (windowing functions, meta data model etc.)
  11. 11. Query data where it lives Easily query data in multiple Azure data stores without moving it to a single store Benefits • Avoid moving large amounts of data across the network between stores • Single view of data irrespective of physical location • Minimize data proliferation issues caused by maintaining multiple copies • Single query language for all data • Each data store maintains its own sovereignty • Design choices based on the need • Push SQL expressions to remote SQL sources • Projections • Filters • Joins U-SQL Query Query Azure Storage Blobs Azure SQL in VMs Azure SQL DB Azure Data Lake Analytics Azure SQL Data Warehouse Azure Data Lake Storage
  12. 12. U-SQL offers Advanced Analytics Extensions for Massively Parallel processing • Python • R Built-in Cognitive capabilities • Imaging • Detecting Objects • Detecting Emotion in Faces • Detecting Text (OCR) • Text Analysis • Key Phrase Extraction • Sentiment Analysis
  13. 13. Demo Show me U-SQL! https://github.com/Azure/usql/tree/master/Examples/TweetAnalysis
  14. 14. Expression-flow Programming Style Automatic "in-lining" of U-SQL expressions – whole script leads to a single execution model. Execution plan that is optimized out-of-the- box and w/o user intervention. Per job and user driven level of parallelization. Detail visibility into execution steps, for debugging. Heatmap like functionality to identify performance bottlenecks.
  15. 15. U-SQL extensibility Extend U-SQL with C#/.NET, Python, R Built-in operators, function, aggregates C# expressions (in SELECT expressions) User-defined aggregates (UDAGGs) User-defined functions (UDFs) User-defined operators (UDOs)
  16. 16. • Schema on Read • Write to File • Built-in and custom Extractors and Outputters • ADL Storage and Azure Blob Storage “Unstructured” Files EXTRACT Expression @s = EXTRACT a string, b int FROM "filepath/file.csv" USING Extractors.Csv(encoding: Encoding.Unicode); • Built-in Extractors: Csv, Tsv, Text with lots of options • Custom Extractors: e.g., JSON, XML, etc. (see http://usql.io) OUTPUT Expression OUTPUT @s TO "filepath/file.csv" USING Outputters.Csv(); • Built-in Outputters: Csv, Tsv, Text • Custom Outputters: e.g., JSON, XML, etc. (see http://usql.io) Filepath URIs • Relative URI to default ADL Storage account: "filepath/file.csv" • Absolute URIs: • ADLS: "adl://account.azuredatalakestore.net/filepath/file.csv" • WASB: "wasb://container@account/filepath/file.csv"
  17. 17. Show me File Sets! https://github.com/Azure/usql/tree/master/Examples/TweetAnalysis
  18. 18. • Simple Patterns • Virtual Columns • Only on EXTRACT for now File Sets Simple pattern language on filename and path @pattern string = "/input/{date:yyyy}/{date:MM}/{date:dd}/{*}.{suffix}"; • Binds two columns date and suffix • Wildcards the filename • Limits on number of files (Current limit 800-3000 is increased in special preview) Virtual columns EXTRACT name string , suffix string // virtual column , date DateTime // virtual column FROM @pattern USING Extractors.Csv(); • Refer to virtual columns in query predicates to get partition elimination • Warning gets raised if no partition elimination was found
  19. 19. Create shareable data and code https://github.com/Azure/usql/tree/master/Examples/TweetAnalysis
  20. 20. Meta Data Object Model ADLA Account/Catalog Database Schema [1,n] [1,n] [0,n] tables views TVFs C# Fns C# UDAgg Clustered Index partitions C# Assemblies C# Extractors Data Source C# Reducers C# Processors C# Combiners C# Outputters Ext. tables User objects Refers toContains Implemented and named by Procedures Creden- tials MD Name C# Name C# Applier Table Types Legend Statistics C# UDTs Packages
  21. 21. • Naming • Discovery • Sharing • Securing U-SQL Catalog Naming • Default Database and Schema context: master.dbo • Quote identifiers with []: [my table] • Stores data in ADL Storage /catalog folder Discovery • Visual Studio Server Explorer • Azure Data Lake Analytics Portal • SDKs and Azure Powershell commands Sharing • Within an Azure Data Lake Analytics account • Across ADLA accounts that share same Azure Active Directory: • Referencing Assemblies • Calling TVFs and referencing tables and views • Inserting into Tables Securing • Secured with AAD principals at catalog and Database level
  22. 22. • Views for simple cases • TVFs for parameterization and most cases VIEWs and TVFs Views CREATE VIEW V AS EXTRACT… CREATE VIEW V AS SELECT … • Cannot contain user-defined objects (e.g. UDF or UDOs)! • Will be inlined Table-Valued Functions (TVFs) CREATE FUNCTION F (@arg string = "default") RETURNS @res [TABLE ( … )] AS BEGIN … @res = … END; • Provides parameterization • One or more results • Can contain multiple statements • Can contain user-code (needs assembly reference) • Will always be inlined • Infers schema or checks against specified return schema
  23. 23. Procedures CREATE PROCEDURE P (@arg string = "default“) AS BEGIN …; CREATE TABLE T …; OUTPUT @res TO …; INSERT INTO T …; END; • Provides parameterization • No result but writes into file or table • Can contain multiple statements • Can contain user-code (needs assembly reference) • Will always be inlined • Can contain DDL (but no CREATE, DROP FUNCTION/PROCEDURE)
  24. 24. • CREATE TABLE • CREATE TABLE AS SELECT Tables CREATE TABLE T (col1 int , col2 string , col3 SQL.MAP<string,string> , INDEX idx CLUSTERED (col2 ASC) PARTITION BY (col1) DISTRIBUTED BY HASH (driver_id) ); • Structured Data, built-in Data types only (no UDTs) • Clustered Index (needs to be specified): row-oriented • Fine-grained distribution (needs to be specified): • HASH, DIRECT HASH, RANGE, ROUND ROBIN • Addressable Partitions (optional) CREATE TABLE T (INDEX idx CLUSTERED …) AS SELECT …; CREATE TABLE T (INDEX idx CLUSTERED …) AS EXTRACT…; CREATE TABLE T (INDEX idx CLUSTERED …) AS myTVF(DEFAULT); • Infer the schema from the query • Still requires index and distribution (does not support partitioning)
  25. 25. When to use Tables Benefits of Table clustering and distribution • Faster lookup of data provided by distribution and clustering when right distribution/cluster is chosen • Data distribution provides better localized scale out • Used for filters, joins and grouping Benefits of Table partitioning • Provides data life cycle management (“expire” old partitions) • Partial re-computation of data at partition level • Query predicates can provide partition elimination Do not use when… • No filters, joins and grouping • No reuse of the data for future queries If in doubt: use sampling (e.g., SAMPLE ANY(x)) and test.
  26. 26. • ALTER TABLE ADD/DROP COLUMN Evolving Tables ALTER TABLE T ADD COLUMN eventName string; ALTER TABLE T DROP COLUMN col3; ALTER TABLE T ADD COLUMN result string, clientId string, payload int?; ALTER TABLE T DROP COLUMN clientId, result; • Meta-data only operation • Existing rows will get • Non-nullable types: C# data type default value (e.g., int will be 0) • Nullable types: null
  27. 27. Let’s do some SQL with U-SQL! https://github.com/Azure/usql/tree/master/Examples/TweetAnalysis
  28. 28. U-SQL Joins Join operators • INNER JOIN • LEFT or RIGHT or FULL OUTER JOIN • CROSS JOIN • SEMIJOIN • equivalent to IN subquery • ANTISEMIJOIN • Equivalent to NOT IN subquery Notes • ON clause comparisons need to be of the simple form: rowset.column == rowset.column or AND conjunctions of the simple equality comparison • If a comparand is not a column, wrap it into a column in a previous SELECT • If the comparison operation is not ==, put it into the WHERE clause • turn the join into a CROSS JOIN if no equality comparison Reason: Syntax calls out which joins are efficient
  29. 29. U-SQL Analytics Windowing Expression Window_Function_Call 'OVER' '(' [ Over_Partition_By_Clause ] [ Order_By_Clause ] [ Row _Clause ] ')'. Window_Function_Call := Aggregate_Function_Call | Analytic_Function_Call | Ranking_Function_Call. Windowing Aggregate Functions ANY_VALUE, AVG, COUNT, MAX, MIN, SUM, STDEV, STDEVP, VAR, VARP Analytics Functions CUME_DIST, FIRST_VALUE, LAST_VALUE, PERCENTILE_CONT, PERCENTILE_DISC, PERCENT_RANK, LEAD, LAG Ranking Functions DENSE_RANK, NTILE, RANK, ROW_NUMBER
  30. 30. “Top 5”s Surprises for SQL Users • AS is not as • C# keywords and SQL keywords overlap • Costly to make case-insensitive -> Better build capabilities than tinker with syntax • = != == • Remember: C# expression language • null IS NOT NULL • C# nulls are two-valued • PROCEDURES but no WHILE • No UPDATE, DELETE, nor MERGE (yet)
  31. 31. U-SQL Language Philosophy Declarative Query and Transformation Language: • Uses SQL’s SELECT FROM WHERE with GROUP BY/Aggregation, Joins, SQL Analytics functions • Optimizable, Scalable Expression-flow programming style: • Easy to use functional lambda composition • Composable, globally optimizable Operates on Unstructured & Structured Data • Schema on read over files • Relational metadata objects (e.g. database, table) Extensible from ground up: • Type system is based on .NET • Expression language IS C# • User-defined functions (U-SQL and C#) • User-defined Aggregators (C#) • User-defined Operators (UDO) (C#, Python, R) U-SQL provides the Parallelization and Scale-out Framework for Usercode • EXTRACTOR, OUTPUTTER, PROCESSOR, REDUCER, COMBINER, APPLIER Federated query across distributed data sources REFERENCE MyDB.MyAssembly; CREATE TABLE T( cid int, first_order DateTime , last_order DateTime, order_count int , order_amount float, ... ); @o = EXTRACT oid int, cid int, odate DateTime, amount float FROM "/input/orders.txt" USING Extractors.Csv(); @c = EXTRACT cid int, name string, city string FROM "/input/customers.txt" USING Extractors.Csv(); @j = SELECT c.cid, MIN(o.odate) AS firstorder , MAX(o.date) AS lastorder, COUNT(o.oid) AS ordercnt , AGG<MyAgg.MySum>(c.amount) AS totalamount FROM @c AS c LEFT OUTER JOIN @o AS o ON c.cid == o.cid WHERE c.city.StartsWith("New") && MyNamespace.MyFunction(o.odate) > 10 GROUP BY c.cid; OUTPUT @j TO "/output/result.txt" USING new MyData.Write(); INSERT INTO T SELECT * FROM @j;
  32. 32. Scales out your data processing over large amount of data Unifies natively SQL’s declarativity and PL’s extensibility Unifies querying structured and unstructured data Unifies querying Data Lake and SQL Server (in Azure) data Increase productivity & agility on Day 1 & 100 for YOU! Sign up for an Azure Data Lake account at http://www.azure.com/datalake and give us your feedback via http://aka.ms/adlfeedback! This is why U-SQL!
  33. 33. Additional Resources Blogs, presentations and community pages: http://aka.ms/AzureDataLake http://usql.io (U-SQL Github) http://blogs.msdn.microsoft.com/mrys/ http://blogs.msdn.microsoft.com/azuredatalake/ http://www.slideshare.net/MichaelRys Documentation, articles, and videos: http://aka.ms/usql_reference https://azure.microsoft.com/en- us/documentation/services/data-lake-analytics/ https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/magazine/mt614251 https://channel9.msdn.com/Search?term=U-SQL#ch9Search https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=U-SQL ADL forums and feedback http://aka.ms/adlfeedback https://social.msdn.microsoft.com/Forums/azure/en- US/home?forum=AzureDataLake http://stackoverflow.com/questions/tagged/u-sql • Continue your education at Microsoft Virtual Academy online.
  34. 34. SQLSaturday Sponsors! Titanium & Global Partner Gold Silver Bronze Without the generosity of these sponsors, this event would not be possible! Please, stop by the vendor booths and thank them.

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