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One of the first proponent of
Learning is an active process
in which learners construct
new ideas or concepts based
upon their current/past
Bruner’s Main Concepts
a.Enactive representation – at the earliest
ages, children learn about the world through
actions on physical objects and the outcome
of these objects.
b.Iconic representation- learning can be
obtained through using models and pictures.
c. Symbolic representation – the learner has
developed the ability to think in abstract
2. Spiral Curriculum
Teaching should always lead to
boosting cognitive development.
Student will not understand the
concept if teacher plans to teach it
using only the teacher’s level of
Instruction needs to be anchored on
the learner’s cognitive capabilities.
In a Spiral Curriculum,
TEACHER MUST REVISIT THE
CURRICULUM BY TEACHING
THE SAME CONTENT IN
DEPENDING ON STUDENTS’
Principles of Instruction stated by Bruner
1. Instruction must be concerned w/ the
experiences and context that makes the
student willing and able to learn (READINESS).
2. Instruction must be structured so that it can
be easily grasped by the student (SPIRAL
3. Instruction should be designed to facilitate
extrapolation and or fill in the gaps (GOING
BEYOND THE INFORMATION GIVEN).
3. Discovery Learning
Refers to obtaining knowledge
Learning becomes more
meaningful when students
explore their learning
environment rather than listen
passively to teacher.
Four major aspects of Theory of Instruction
1. PREDISPOSITION TO LEARN
* he introduced the idea of “readiness for learning”
* He believed that any subject could be taught at
any stage of development in a way that fits the child
2. STRUCTURE OF KNOWLEDGE
* refers to the ways in which a body of knowledge
can be structured so that it can be most readily
grasped by their learner.
3. EFFECTIVE SEQUENCING
* No one sequencing will fit every learner, but in
general, the lesson can be presented in increasing
* rewards and punishments should be selected and
* interest in the subject matter is the best stimulus for
* Bruner did not like external competitive goals such
as grades or class ranking.
Bruner’s gave much attention to
categorization of information in the
construction of internal COGNITIVE
MAPS. He believed that perception,
conceptualization, learning, decision
making and making inferences all
Kinds of Categories
1. Identity Categories = categories include
objects based on their attributes or features.
2. Equivalent Categories = Equivalence can
be determined by affective criteria, which
render objects equivalent by emotional
reactions, functional criteria, based on
3. Coding systems = categories that serve to
recognize sensory input.
encouraged to discover
facts and relationships
Information Processing is a
cognitive theoretical framework
that focuses on how knowledge
enters and is stored in and is
retrieved from our memory. It is
one of the most significant
cognitive theories in the last
century and it has strong
implications on the teaching
Information Processing Theory
IPT described how the learner
receives information (stimuli) from the
environment through the senses and
what takes place in between
determines whether the information
will continue to pass through the
sensory register, then the short term
memory and the long term memory.
TYPES OF KNOWLEDGE
GENERAL VS. SPECIFIC: This involves
whether the knowledge is useful in many
tasks, or only in one.
DECLARATIVE : Refers to factual
knowledge. They relate to the nature of
how things are. Can be in the form of
word or image.
PROCEDURAL = includes
knowledge on how to do things.
EPISODIC = this includes
memories of life events.
CONDITIONAL = this is about
“knowing when and why” to
apply declarative or procedural
Three Main Stage in the
1. SENSORY REGISTER is the first step in the IP
model holds all sensory information for a very
CAPACITY: Our mind receives a great amount of
information but it is more than what our mind
can hold or perceive.
DURATION: 1 to 3 seconds only.
* The Role of Attention
To bring information into Consciousness. We can only perceive
and remember later those things that pass through our
Getting through this attentional filter is done when the learner
is interested in the material; when there is conscious control
over attention, or when information involves novelty, surprise
Before information is perceived it is known as “precategorical”
information. Once it is perceived we can categorize, judge
,interpret and place meaning to the stimuli. If we fail to
perceived, we have no means by which to recognize that the
stimulus was ever encountered.
* Short-Term Memory
(STM or Working Memory)
CAPACITY: The STM can hold only 5 to 9 chunks
of information. It is called working memory
because it is where new information is
temporarily placed while it is mentally
DURATION: Around 18 seconds or less
To reduce the loss of information you need to
do MAINTENANCE REHEARSAL.
* Long- Term Memory (LTM)
The LTM is the final or permanent storing
house for memory information. It hold
the stored information until needed
CAPACITY: LTM has unlimited capacity
DURATION: duration in the LTM is
2. EXECUTIVE CONTROL PROCESSES
The ECP involve the executive processor
or what is refered to as metacognitive
This process guide the flow of information
through the system, help the learner make
informed decisions about how to
categorize, organize or interpret
It is the inability to retrieve or access
information when needed.
TWO MAIN WAYS IN WHICH FORGETTING
a. DECAY: Information is not attended to, and
eventually ‘fades’ away.
b. INTERFERENCE : new or old information
‘blocks’ access to the information in question.
METHODS FOR INCREASING
RETRIEVAL OF INFORMATION
•Making connection between new
information and prior knowledge.
• Making connection among
various pieces of informationOrganization
• Connecting new info with old to
•Forming a picture of the
•Things we ‘produce’ are easier to
remember than things we ‘hear’Generation
• Remembering the situationContext
•Making the info relevant to the
Other Memory Methods
• remember the beginning and end of a ‘list’ more readily
Serial position Effect-
• Chunk Information
Part Learning –
•breaking up learning session than cramming all the info
• memory techniques
Mnemonic Aids –
Maintenance Rehearsal Rehearsal, Elaboration,
Executive Control Processes (including Metacognition)
The Information Processing Model
and Their Application
to Classroom and
In the classroom settings, teachers are
said to reinforce the kind of behavior
they want see through praise, smiles
marks, rewards and the like. Since in
the typical classroom situation, a
teacher cannot supply reinforcement
quickly enough or often enough,
Skinner introduced programmed
Is a system of learning in which pre-established subject
matter is broken down into sequential steps, the learner is
immediately reinforced after each step as soon as he
makes the correct response.
The emphasis on cognition and insight by cognitive-field
theories has far-reaching implications for the present day
classroom and school practices. It implies that the teacher
has to select and provide appropriate learning experience
whereby the learners can discover relationships between
elements in various situations and understand them as a
whole in an organized, unified pattern.
Applied to classroom situation in generals
the filed theories implied the need for
emphasis on looking at the total situation
at the beginning. This is accomplished by
having learners discuss both the
immediate and ultimate goals of
learning. The teacher has to preview the
activities involved in the problems to be
For Example in primary readings the
teacher should tell briefly what the story is
about describe the characters and relate
the story to the pupils experience.
At the high school level instead of
introducing the study of chemistry by
detailed analysis, of a given element, the
teacher must first discuss the operation of
chemistry in daily living, the overall field,
and the problems to be encountered.
Although this theories emphasize the place of
generalities in introducing any subject area,
emphasis is also make on the details which are
aspects of the larger area.
Example: the teaching of world analysis and
phonetics is subsidiary to the importance of
getting the idea. Word analysis and phonetics
are significant as they contribute to better
understanding. Teachers know that there are
many pupils who can read the words but fail to
grasp their meaning.
The interest of cognitive-field theories in developing
reflective thinking implies setting up school program
that are focused on teaching students to think
effectively in a wide variety of situation.
It implies teaching approaches which are child-
centered as well as problem- centered.
This calls for a teacher who understands the nature of
the learner and perceives the learner’s life space,
one who advocate greater learner participation;
one who plans, executes and evaluates learning
tasks in a problem-centered matter.
Transfer of Learning
happens when learning in one
context or with one set of materials
affects performance in another
context or with other related
Simply put, it is applying to another
situation what was previously learned.
Types of Transfer
A. POSITIVE TRANSFER = occurs when learning in one
context improves performance in some other context.
B. NEGATIVE TRANSFER = occurs when learning in one
context impacts negatively on performance in
C. NEAR TRANSFER = refer to transfer between very
similar context. Referred to as SPECIFIC TRANSFER
D. FAR TRANSFER = also called GENERAL TRANSFER,
refers to transfer between context that on
appearance, seem remote and alien to one another.
Conditions and Principles of Transfer
Affecting transfer of
Principles Of Transfer Implication
The more similar the two
situations are, the greater
the chances that learning
from one situation will be
transferred to the other
Involve students in learning
situations and tasks that are
similar as possible to the
situations where they would
apply the tasks.
vance of learning
Meaningful learning leads
to greater transfer than rote
Remember to provide
opportunities for learners to link
new material to what they
learned in the past.
The longer the time spent in
instruction, the greater the
probability of transfer.
To ensure transfer, teach a few
topics in depth rather than
many topics tackled in a
Exposure to many and
varied examples and
opportunities for practice
Illustrate a new concepts
and principles with a variety
of examples. Plan
Transfer of learning is most
likely to happen when
learners discover that what
they learned is applicable
to various context.
Relate a topic in one subject
to topics in other subjects or
disciplines. Relate it also to
real life situations.
Principles transfer easier
Zero in on principles related
to each topic together with
strategies based on those
improves transfer of
Encourage students to take
responsibility for their own
learning, and to reflect on
what they learned.