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Looping and switch cases

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Looping and switch cases

  1. 1. Fundamentals of Programming ►Switch Case and Looping System Prepared by: Romeo Miguel F. Ramos
  2. 2. Programming programming is instructing a computer to do something for you with the help of a programming language. The role of a programming language can be described in two ways: • Technical: It is a means for instructing a Computer to perform Tasks • Conceptual: It is a framework within which we organize our ideas about things and processes. The word “programming”, it is a computer language programmers use to develop applications, scripts, or other set of instructions for a computer to execute.
  3. 3. • The distinction between data and procedures is not that clear cut. In many programming languages, procedures can be passed as data (to be applied to ``real'' data) and sometimes processed like ``ordinary'' data. Conversely ``ordinary'' data can be turned into procedures by an evaluation mechanism. • At first, programming is confusing because you have so much to understand about codes that will enable to run a program. Programming has applications and program development, the best example for this is the Internet browser…
  4. 4. • Programming is a creative process done by programmers to instruct a computer on how to do a task. Programming languages let you use them in different ways, e.g adding numbers, etc… or storing data on disk for later retrieval.
  5. 5. Switch Case • - A switch, case, select or inspect statement is a type of selection control mechanism that exists in most imperative programming languages such as Pascal, Ada, C/C++, C#, Java, and so on. It is also included in several other types of languages. Its purpose is to allow the value of a variable or expression to control the flow of program execution via a multiway branch (or "go to", one of several labels).
  6. 6. The Main Reason why we use the Switch Case • - To improve clarity, by reducing otherwise repetitive coding, and (if the heuristics permit) also offering the potential for faster execution through easier compiler optimization in many cases.
  7. 7. Programs that is related to switch case • The If – Else Statement - The if statement allows the programmer to make decisions within a program. - The if statement allows the programmer to make decisions within a program. • If (expression) statement - Where expression represents a relational, equality, or logical expression ( conditional expression) .
  8. 8. If statement (two alternatives) If (condition) statement; else statement; • Note: if condition evaluates to true, then statement is • executed and statement is skipped; otherwise, statement is • skipped and statement is executed If statement (One-Alternatives) If (condition) Note: if condition evaluates to true, then statement is statement; executed and statement is skipped
  9. 9. Format of the if statement • - All if statement examples in this text indent statements. The word else • Is typed without indention on a separate line. The format of the if statement • makes its meaning apparent and is used solely to improve program readability; • The format makes no difference to the computer
  10. 10. • If we know how to write a C expression that is equivalent of a question such as “Is resting the value of expression to select a course of action. In C, the statement is the primary selection control structure • A programming language is an artificial language designed to communicate instructions to a machine, particularly a computer. Programming languages can be used to create programs that control the behavior of a machine and/or to express algorithms precisely.
  11. 11. 5 Switch Cases
  12. 12. http://gd.tuwien.ac.at/languages/c /programming-bbrown/c_028.htm The above program uses a switch statement to validate and select upon the users input choice, simulating a simple menu of choices. http://eglobiotraining.com/
  13. 13. When it compiles and run, this will be it look . The C expression that was type it on Dev C++ The words are “enter in two number  24”
  14. 14. Example of Switch Case Statement , you Will see the statement on the link that you see in this slide. LINK: http://www.morrowland.co m/apron/tutorials/cpp/cpp_ switch_case/index.php
  15. 15. After I compile it and run it, the statement is now like this. As you Can see after you answer the 1st question the next question appear And after you finish all the question the box will disappear. It means finish. http://eglobiotraining.com/
  16. 16. Function and target of Programming language : A computer programming language is a language. used to write computer programs, which involve a computer performing some kind of computation or algorithm and possibly control external devices such as printers , disk drives , robots, and so on. LINK: http://www.morrowland.com/a pron/tutorials/cpp/cpp_if_else /index.php
  17. 17. When the statement was done this will it be look like. I got this from the URL . The URL was posted on the previous slide http://eglobiotraining.com/
  18. 18. Did You Know? The first programming languages predate the modern computer. The 19th century saw the invention of "programmable" looms and player piano scrolls, both of which implemented examples ofdomain- specific languages. http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/66k51h7a(v=vs.80).aspx
  19. 19. Did You Know ? All programming languages have some primitive building blocks for the description of data and the processes or transformations applied to them(like the addition of two numbers or the selection of an item from a collection). These primitives are defined by syntactic and semantic rules which describe their structure and meaning respectively.
  20. 20. LINK: http://www.cfanatic.com/topic4267/
  21. 21. http://eglobiotraining.com/
  22. 22. Looping Statements Loops execute a block of code a specified number of times, or while a specified condition is true. - in PHP, the following looping statements are used: *The while Loop * The Do… While Loop * The For Loop *The Foreach Loop *Break and continue statement
  23. 23. The While loop • While structure is another type of loop statements, • where the condition is checked at first, the iteration • will not stop even if the value changes while executing • statements. Form: While(condition) { code to be executed; }
  24. 24. The Do While Loop • Do while statement is same as the while statement , the only difference is that it evaluates the expression at the end. Form: do { code to be executed; } while (condition):
  25. 25. The For Loop • The for loop is used when you know in advance how many times the script should run. • Be for statement takes three expressions inside its parentheses separated by semi-colons. When the for loop executes, the following occurs: • The initializing expression is executed. This expression usually initializes one or more loop counter, but the syntax allow expression any degree of complexity. • The condition expression is evaluated. Of the value of condition is true, the loop statements execute. If the value of condition is false, the for loop terminates. http://eglobiotraining.com/
  26. 26. The For Loop • Form: • for {initialization; condition: increment ) • { • code to be executed • } http://eglobiotraining.com/
  27. 27. The For Each Loop • For Each structure is a loop structure used for arrays Form: foreach(array as value) { code to be executed } Foreach (array as key => value) { code to be executed } http://eglobiotraining.com/
  28. 28. The Break Statement • Break ends the execution of the for, for each, while, do-while or switch statement. • Form: * Break ( optional numeric argument) http://eglobiotraining.com/
  29. 29. The Continue Statement • “Continue” is used to skip the current loop iteration and continue with the next iteration of the loop. But “Break” is to exit from the whole loop. Form: * Break ( optional numeric argument) http://eglobiotraining.com/
  30. 30. The For Loop LINK: http://www.morrowl and.com/apron/tuto rials/cpp/cpp_for_l oop/index.php http://eglobiotraining.com/
  31. 31. LINK: http://www.morrowla nd.com/apron/tutori als/cpp/cpp_for_loo p/index.php http://eglobiotraining.com/
  32. 32. Do While Loop LINK: http://www.morrowland .com/apron/tutorials/cp p/cpp_do_while_loop/i ndex.php http://eglobiotraining.com/
  33. 33. Do While Loop http://eglobiotraining.com/
  34. 34. While Loop LINK: http://www.exfors ys.com/tutorials/c -plus- plus/looping-in- c.html http://eglobiotraining.com/
  35. 35. While Loop http://eglobiotraining.com/
  36. 36. Break and Continue LINK: http://cprogrammingl anguage.net/c- break-continue- statements.aspx http://eglobiotraining.com/
  37. 37. Break and Continue http://eglobiotraining.com/
  38. 38. For Each Loop LINK: http://www.w3schools.co m/php/php_looping_for.a sp http://eglobiotraining.com/
  39. 39. For Each Loop http://eglobiotraining.com/
  40. 40. You have to consider languages to run or write your own program, most demanded language in programming is the DEV C++ (a full-featured Integrated Development Environment (IDE)). C++ is one of the most used programming languages in the world. Also known as "C with Classes". New to programming or thinking about it? It might surprise you to know that there are many programmers who program just for fun and it can lead to a job.
  41. 41. Looping Loops are used to repeat a block of code. Being able to have your program repeatedly execute a block of code is one of the most basic but useful tasks in programming -- many programs or websites that produce extremely complex output (such as a message board) are really only executing a single task many times.
  42. 42. Looping Statement • In doing the looping statement, I noticed that sometimes if the program does not run, it is because some braces are not included and I accidentally put braces on the same line and it causes the program not to read its contents. Programming is sensitive, when there is missing variable or braces or some words it does not run.
  43. 43. Looping Statement • When I learned that programming is very sensitive and at the same time very detailed when it comes to entering codes, I make sure that it is clear means that I put everything important codes in it so that the program would run. • So much codes that should be entered that even the spaces are needed programming is very specific that whatever you have entered in to it you should specify because when the statement is false it wouldn’t let you run the program, I have experienced it before I arrived at this result.
  44. 44. Switch Cases • In programming the switch case missing out a break statement causes control to fall through to the next case label. Switches can always be replaced by nested if- else statements, but in some cases this may be more clumsy. Each break statement terminates the enclosing switch statement. The Control flow in programming continues with the first statement • Because of so many experiences I had before this program run, I found programming is also interesting for the more you are practicing to make a program run, the more questions that came up in my mind and try something that will fit to this or entering new codes to make matrix etc… that I know is possible.
  45. 45. • I thought learning programming is easy but now I think it’s not that easy because you should always check the codes you encoded before you do some programs, and if you have an error it will run in Dev C++. In programming you will learn a lot here especially if you are a computer addicts .
  46. 46. • programming is what makes a computer more than just a simple pocket calculator. In programming Everything that you can do today on a computer someone had to be programmed at one point. • The importance of programming Developing a program involves a series of steps. The programmer defines a problem, plans a solution, codes the program, tests the program and, finally, documents the program. Usually in programming , the programmer defines what he knows and the objective, selects a program to use, debugs the program in stages after completion to ensure no errors are introduced and then documents the design, development and testing of the program. With the ever-changing face of computer technology, programming is an exciting and always challenging environment that few programmers ever dream of leaving.
  47. 47. Slide Share  • ► MeoRamos • http://www.slideshare.net/MeoRamos