1. ANALYTICAL PSYCHOLGY
Theory of Personality by Carl Gustav Jung
Coverage: Overview || Biography of Carl Jung
Levels of Psyche || Dynamics of Personality
Reported by: MELVIN R. JACINTO
2. Overview of Analytical Psychology
An early colleague of Freud, Carl Gustav Jung broke from orthodox psychoanalysis
to establish a separate theory of personality called Analytical Psychology, which rest
on the assumption that occult phenomena can and do influence the lives of everyone.
Jung believed that each of us is motivated not only by repressed experienced but also
by certain emotionally toned experiences inherited from our ancestors. These inherited
images make up what Jung called the collective unconscious. The collective
unconscious includes those elements that we have never experienced individually but
which have come down to us from our ancestors.
3. Overview of Analytical Psychology
Some elements of the collective unconscious become highly developed and are
called archetypes. The most inclusive archetype is the notion of self-realization, which
can be achieved only by attaining a balance between various opposing forces of
personality. Thus, Jung’s theory is a compendium of opposites. People are both
introverted and extraverted; rational and irrational; male and female; conscious and
unconscious; and pushed by past events while being pulled by future expectations (Feist
& Feist, 2010).
4. Carl Gustav Jung
• Born on July 26, 1875, in Lake Constance, Kesswil,
• Father, Johann Paul Jung, was a minister
• Mother, Emilie Preiswerk Jung, was the daughter of a
• Religious upbringing (10 pastors)
• Occult background on mothers side
• Middle of three children; oldest died after 3 days; sister
was 9 years younger
5. Carl Gustav Jung
• Experienced an early separation from his mother; had
positive/negative feelings toward mother
• Became interested early in dreams, during childhood
• Experienced séances as a child
• Identified separate personalities early on in his life (#1
• Interested in archaeology as a young student but settled
for medicine. Completed his medical degree from Basel
University in 1900.
6. Carl Gustav Jung
• Psychiatric assistant of Eugene Bleuler at Burghöltzli
• Studied for 6 months in Paris with Pierre Janet during
• Return in Switzerland in 1903 and married Emma
• Continue his hospital duties and began teaching at
University of Zürich in 1905
• Became the first president of the newly founded
International Psychoanalytic Society
7. Carl Gustav Jung
• Dissatisfied with relationship with Freud and they went
their separate ways
• Had an apparent mother complex which was based on
his volatile relationship with his mother.
• Spilled over into his relationships with women in his
• Had multiple relationships with women while married
and with the knowledge of his wife
• Had erotic feelings toward Freud which may have been
a factor in the termination of their relationship.
8. Carl Gustav Jung
• Was also sexually assaulted by an older man who was
his confidant as a young man.
• Went through a deep period of isolation and searching
which ultimately helped him better understand himself
and help his theory develop
• Taught medical psychology at the University of Basel
• Died on June 6, 1961 at the age of 85
9. The Psyche
• Psyche refers to all psychological process: thought, feelings, sensations, wishes, and
so forth. By psyche, I understand the totality of all psychic processes, conscious as
well as unconscious. Jung wrote, “By soul, on the other hand, I understand a clearly
demarcated functional complex that can best be described as a ‘personality’.” (Jung,
• Jung used the terms psyche and psychic, rather than mind and mental, to avoid
the implications of consciousness in the latter and to emphasize that the psyche
embraces both conscious and unconscious process (Engle, 2012).
10. The Psyche
• Self-realization or individuation – Jung believed that a human being is inwardly
whole, but that most of us have lost touch with important parts of our selves.
Through listening to the messages of our dreams and waking imagination, we can
contact and reintegrate our different parts.
• The goal of life is individuation, the process of coming to know, giving expression
to, and harmonizing the various components of the psyche. If we realize our
uniqueness, we can undertake a process of individuation and tap into our true self.
Each human being has a specific nature and calling which is uniquely his or her own,
and unless these are fulfilled through a union of conscious and unconscious, the
person can become sick (Daniels, 2011).
11. The Psyche
• Libido (or Psychic energy) is an appetite that may refer to sexuality and to other
hungers as well. It manifests itself as striving, desiring, and willing. Psychic energy
operates according to the principles of equivalence and entropy; it seeks a balance
and moves the person forward in a process of self-realization (Engle, 2012).
• The symbol refers to a name, term, or picture that is familiar in daily life, yet has
other connotations besides its conventional and obvious meaning. It is a key to
discovering feelings or preferences of which we are unaware. It implies something
vague and partially unknown or hidden. Many different symbols may be essentially
equivalent and reflect the same reality. Dream symbols bring messages from the
unconscious to the rational mind (Daniels, 2011).
12. Levels of Psyche
Jung, like Freud, based his personality theory on the assumption that mind, or
psyche, has both a conscious and an unconscious level. Unlike Freud, however, Jung
strongly asserted that the most important portion of the unconscious springs not from
personal experiences of the individual but from the distant past of human existence, a
concept Jung called the collective unconscious. Of lesser importance to Jungian
theory are the conscious and the personal unconscious (Feist & Feist, 2010).
13. Levels of Psyche
1. Conscious Ego
• Conscious images are those that are sensed by the ego,
whereas unconscious elements have no relationship
with the ego.
• Ego as the center of consciousness, but not the core
of personality. Ego is not the whole personality, but
must be completed by the more comprehensive self,
the center of personality that is largely unconscious
(Feist & Feist, 2010)
14. Levels of Psyche
1. Conscious Ego
• A psychologically healthy person, the ego takes a
secondary position to the unconscious self (Jung,
15. Levels of Psyche
2. Personal Unconscious
• Embraces all repressed, forgotten, or subliminally
perceived experiences of one particular individual.
• Contains repressed infantile memories and impulses,
forgotten events, and experiences originally perceived
below the threshold of our consciousness.
• Formed by our individual experiences and is therefore
unique to each of us.
• Containing complexes.
16. Levels of Psyche
2. Personal Unconscious
• A complex is an emotionally toned conglomeration
of associated ideas.
• Complexes are largely personal, but they may also be
partly derived from humanity’s collective experience.
17. Levels of Psyche
3. Collective Unconscious
• Has roots in the ancestral past of the entire species.
• The physical contents of the collective unconscious
are inherited and pass from one generation to the next
as psychic potential.
• The contents of the collective unconscious do not
lie dormant but are active and influence a person’s
thought’s emotions, and actions.
• The collective unconscious is responsible for
people’s many myths, legends, and religious beliefs.
18. Levels of Psyche
3. Collective Unconscious
• The collective unconscious does not refer to
inherited ideas but rather to human’s innate tendency
to react in a particular way whenever their experiences
stimulate a biologically inherited response tendency.
• Humans, like other animals, come into the world with
inherited predispositions to act or react in certain ways
if their present experiences touch on these biologically
19. Levels of Psyche
3. Collective Unconscious
• Jung said that people have as many of these inherited
tendencies as they have typical situations in life.
Countless repetitions of these typical situations have
made them part of the human biological constitution.
20. Levels of Psyche
• Are ancient or archaic images that derive from the
• They are similar to complexes in that they are
emotionally toned collections of associated images.
But whereas complexes are individualized components
of personal unconscious, archetypes are generalized
and derive from the components of the collective
• Also be distinguished from instinct.
21. Levels of Psyche
• Archetypes have a biological basis but originated
through the repeated experiences of human’s early
• Dreams are main the source of archetypal material,
and certain dreams offer what Jung considered proof
for the existence of the archetype. These dreams
produce motifs that could not have been known to the
dreamer through personal experience.
22. The Archetypes
• The side of personality that people show to the world is
designated as the persona.
• The term is well chosen because it refers to the mask
worn by actors in the early theater.
• Although the persona is a necessary side of our
personality, we should not confuse our public face with
our complete self. If we identify too closely with our
persona, we remain unconscious of our individuality and
are blocked from attaining self-realization.
23. The Archetypes
• True, we must acknowledge society, but if we over
identify with our persona, we lose touch with our inner
self and remain dependent on society’s expectation of
us. To become psychologically healthy, we must strike
balance between the demands of society and what truly
are (Feist & Feist, 2010).
• To be oblivious of one’s persona is to underestimate the
importance of society, but to be unaware of one’s deep
individuality is to become society’s puppet (Jung, 1950).
24. The Archetypes
• The archetype of darkness and repression, represents
those qualities we do not wish to acknowledge but
attempt to hide from ourselves and others.
• Consists of morally objectionable tendencies as well as
number of constructive and creative qualities that we,
nevertheless, are reluctant to face (Jung, 1959)
• Jung contented that, to be whole, we must continually
strive to know our shadow and that this is our first test
of courage (Feist & Feist 2010).
25. The Archetypes
• To come to grips with the darkness within ourselves is to
achieve the “realization of the shadow”.
• People who never realize their shadow may, nevertheless,
come under its power and lead tragic lives, constantly
running into “bad luck” and reaping harvest of defeat
and discouragement for themselves (Jung, 1954).
26. The Archetypes
• The feminine side of men originates in the collective
unconscious as an archetype and remains extremely
resistant to consciousness.
• To master the projections of the anima, men must
overcome intellectual barriers, delve into the far recesses
of their unconscious, and realize the feminine side of
their personality (Feist & Feist, 2010).
27. The Archetypes
• Originated from early men’s experiences with women –
mothers, sisters, and lovers – that combined to form a
generalized picture of woman (Hayman, 2001).
• Can be the source of much misunderstanding in male-
female relationships, but it may also be responsible for
the alluring mystique woman has in the psyche of men
28. The Archetypes
• A man may dream about a woman with no definite
image and no particular identity. The woman represents
no one from his personal experience, but enters his
dream from the depths of his collective unconscious.
The anima need not appear in dreams as a woman, but
can be represented by a feeling or mood (Jung, 1945).
• It influences the feeling side in man and is the
explanation for certain irrational mood and feelings.
29. The Archetypes
• The masculine archetype in women.
• The symbolic of thinking and reasoning.
• It is capable of influencing the thinking of a woman, yet
it does not actually belong to her. In every female-male
relationship, the woman runs a risk of projecting her
distant ancestors’ experiences with fathers, brothers,
lovers, and sons onto the unsuspecting man.
• Like the anima, the animus appears in dreams, visions,
and fantasies in a personified form.
30. The Archetypes
• Jung believes that the animus is responsible for thinking
and opinion in women just as the anima produces
feelings and moods in men.
• The animus is also the explanation for the irrational
thinking and illogical opinions often attributed to
• If a woman is dominated by her animus, no logical or
emotional appeal can shake her from her prefabricated
beliefs (Jung, 1959).
31. The Archetypes
5. Great Mother
• This preexisting concept of mother is always associated
with both positive and negative feelings.
• Represents two opposing forces – fertility and
nourishment on the one hand and power and
destruction on the other. She is capable of producing
and sustaining life (fertility and nourishment), but she
may also devour or neglect her offspring (destruction).
32. The Archetypes
5. Great Mother
• The fertility and nourishment dimension of the great
mother archetype is symbolized by a tree, garden,
plowed field, sea, heaven, home, country, church, and
hollow objects such as ovens and cooking utensils.
• The power and destruction symbolized by a godmother,
the Mother of God, Mother Nature, Mother Earth, a
stepmother, or a witch.
33. The Archetypes
6. Wise Old Man
• Archetype of wisdom and meaning, symbolizes humans’
pre-existing knowledge of the mysteries of life.
• A man or woman dominated by the wise old man
archetype may gather a large following of disciples by
using verbiage that sounds profound but that really
makes little sense because the collective unconscious
cannot directly impart its wisdom to an individual.
• Personified in dreams as father, grandfather, teacher,
philosopher, guru, doctor or priest.
34. The Archetypes
6. Wise Old Man
• He appears in fairy tales as the king, the sage, or the
magician who comes to the aid of the troubled
protagonist and, through superior wisdom, he helps the
protagonist escape from myriad misadventures.
• The wise old man is also symbolized by the life itself.
35. The Archetypes
• Represented in mythology and legends as a powerful
person, sometimes part god, who fights against great
odds to conquer or vanquish evil in the form of
dragons, monster, serpents, or demons. In the end,
however, the hero often is undone by some seemingly
insignificant person or event (Jung, 1951).
• An immortal person with no weakness cannot be a hero.
36. The Archetypes
• The image of the hero touches an archetype within us,
as demonstrated by our fascination with the heroes of
movies, novels, plays, and television programs. When the
hero conquers the villain, he or she frees us from being
feelings of impotence and misery; at the same time,
serving as our model for the ideal personality (Jung,
37. The Archetypes
• Jung believed that each person possesses an inherited
tendency to move toward growth, perfection, and
completion, and he called this innate disposition the self.
• The most comprehensive of all archetypes, the self is
the archetype of archetypes because it pulls together
the other archetypes and unites them in the process of
38. The Archetypes
• It also possesses conscious and personal unconscious
components, but it is mostly formed by collective
• As an archetype, the self is symbolized by a person’s
ideas of perfection, completion, and wholeness, but its
ultimate symbol is the mandala. It represents the
strivings of the collective unconscious for unity, balance,
40. The Yang and the Yin
In summary, the self includes both the conscious
and unconscious mind, and it unites the opposing
elements of psyche – male and female, good and evil,
light and dark forces. These opposing elements are
often represented by the yang and the yin, whereas the
self is usually symbolized by the mandala. This latter
motif stand for unity, totality, and order – that is, self-
realization. Complete self-realization is seldom if ever
achieved, but as an ideal it exists within the collective
unconscious of everyone. To actualize or fully
experience the self, people must overcome their fear of
the unconscious; prevent their persona from
dominating their personality; recognized the dark side
of themselves (their shadow); and then muster even
greater courage to face their anima or animus.
41. Dynamics of Personality
Causality and Teleology
• Causality holds that present events have their origin in previous experiences.
• Teleology holds that present events are motivated by goals and aspirations for the
future that direct a person’s destiny.
• Freud relied heavily on a causal viewpoint in his explanations of adult behavior in
terms of early childhood experiences. Jung criticized Freud for being one-sided in his
emphasis on causality and insisted that a causal view could not explain all motivation.
• Jung also insisted that human behavior is shaped by both causal and teleological
forces and that causal explanations must be balanced with teleological ones.
42. Dynamics of Personality
Causality and Teleology
• Jung’s insistence on balance is seen in his conception of dreams. He agreed with
Freud that many dreams spring from the past events; that is, they are caused by
earlier experiences. On the other hand, Jung claimed that some dreams can help a
person make decisions about the future, just as dreams of making important
discoveries in the natural sciences eventually led to his own career choice.
43. Dynamics of Personality
Progression and Regression
• To achieve self-realization, people must adapt not only to their outside environment
but their inner world as well. Adaptation to the outside world involves the forward
flow of psychic energy and is called progression, whereas adaptation to the inner
world relies on a backward flow of psychic energy and is called regression.
• Both progression and regression are essential if people are to achieve individual
growth of self-realization.
44. Dynamics of Personality
Progression and Regression
• Progression inclines a person to react consistently to a given set of environmental
conditions, whereas regression is necessary backward step in the successful
attainment of a goal.
• Regression activates the unconscious psyche, an essential aid in the solution of most
problems. Alone, neither progression nor regression leads to development. Either
can bring about too much one-sidedness and failure in adaptation; but the two,
working together, can activate the process of healthy personality development (Jung,