3. Hence management is the art of
getting things done through
others in systematic and effective
Management is the process of getting things
done through others with the help of some basic
activities like planning ,organizing ,directing ,
coordinating and controlling
4. As activity
The activities of managers,
like communicating information
decision making and
relation to achieve goal is
5. Management concept
As a noun
• Management is a multipurpose
organ that manages a business,
manages a manager and manages
workers and works- Peter
• All the managers from the chief
executive to the first line
supervisors and their functions
collectively known as
• Management is a branch of
human knowledge drawn from
various sectors like psychology ,
social science, economics and
other professional disciplines.
• The term management is
considered as separate subject as
a specialized knowledge giving
idea principles laid down by the
• Management is the distinct
process consisting of planning, ,
actuating and controlling to
determine and to accomplish the
objectives by the use of people
and resources-George R. terry
• Management is the process of
converting inputs into outputs
through series of inter related
functions consisting planning,
organizing, staffing, directing
6. Features of management
Both science and art
Multidisciplinary in nature
Both tangible and intangible
7. Management as science
science is the systematized body of
knowledge,princ iple and truth which is
experimentally proved. The basic principles
of management are based on obserbation
and experiment and are applied in all types
of organizations,so it is a social science as it
deals with the people and their behaviour.
8. Management as a science
Existence of systematized body of knowledge
Basic principles and truth of universally
Use of scientific methods of observation
Principles based on experiment and research
Establised cause and effect relationship
9. Management as an art
“Management is the art of getting
things done through and with people
in formally organized group”.
Koontz and Donnel
Management is the art of getting things
done through others. For this manager
has to play the role of artist.
10. Management as an art
Existence of practical
Result oriented approach
11. Management as a profession
“A profession may be defined as an occupation
of a specialized and personal nature of
service for which there is a fee called a
professional charge is to be paid.”
In corporate sectors ,where the
management and ownership are
different, it is necessary to appoint
16. Difference between management and
Points of diffrence Management Administration
Nature of functions Operational and executive Thinking and decision making
Types of function Planning,Organizing,Staffing.
Determination of obj.
..formulation of policies
Level of authority Operational level Top level
Applicable Business and social
Government, cultural and religious
Ability Administrative /technical Administrative
Decision making Influence by opinion ,value
Government policies, public
opinion, tradition , and culture
Status Employee for salary Investor for profit
Area of importance Supervisory or operational
Higher or thinking level
17. Functions of management
The major functions of management involve planing,
organizing, staffing, direcing and controlling.
Planning is the process of thinking before doing any activity.
- Determination of organizational goal
- Making forecast for future activity and events
- Formulation of policies and procedures
- Preparation of schedule , programme ,
budget of work.
Organizing is the process of identification of major
activities, grouping them on the basis of nature, and
assigning them to different departments.
….Identifications of major activities
-grouping them to manageable units
-assignment of work to different departments and
-development of rules and regulation and procedures
-delegation of necessary authority
20. Staffing is the recruitment, selection, appointment and
placement of right person to the right job.
-Determination of manpower required in department
-Recruitment, selection ,appointment of right person
-Management of developmental programme eg. Training
-Development of evaluation , promotion and transfer
-Providing proper remuneration
Directing is concerned with
providing instruction , guidance
and inspiration to workers for
achieving common goals. it also
involve activities like supervision
, coordinating , motivation
,leadership and communication.
Supervision refers to the direct and
immediate guidance to the
subordinates to ensure the execution
of assigned works.
Optimum utilization human and
To provide guidance to subordinate
To increase efficiency
To reduce the cost
24. II. motivation
Motivation is the process of developing
feeling among workers to do their work in
To stimulate subordinates
To fulfill their basic and social needs
To achieve organizational goals
They are either financial or non financial
25. iii. leadership
Leadership is the art of influencing on the
behaviour and performance of the
-to persuade subordinates to work
-to achieve the organizational goal
-to influence the attitude of worker
-to increase the beliefs
26. IV communication
Communication is the transmission of
information from one person to another or
from one place to another place to achieve
To exchange idea, facts opinion
To follow the information
To achieve organizational goal
27. v. Coordination
Coordination is the process of orderly
arrangement of group efforts to provide
unity of action for the attainment of
To integrate all the units
To bring uniformity of performance
To achieve the objective of organization
To build the team spirit
Controlling is the process of comparing actual
performance achieved with that of planned
performance and taking corrective measure if
there is deviation.
Setting standard for the designed work
Measuring actual performance with the
Locating deviation between actual and planned
Analyzing the causes of deviation
Taking corrective action to achieve goals
29. Levels of management
The management hierarchy is divided into different
level to bring smoothness and uniformity in different
branches of organizational is called level of
management. They are :-
The upper level/top level management
The middle level/intermediate level
The first/lower level management
30. Levels of management
33. Top Level of Management
The Top Level Management consists of the
Board of Directors (BOD) and the Chief
Executive Officer (CEO). The Chief Executive
Officer is also called General Manager (GM)
or Managing Director (MD) or President. The
Board of Directors are the representatives of
the Shareholders, i.e. they are selected by the
Shareholders of the company. Similarly, the
Chief Executive Officer is selected by the
Board of Directors of an organization.
34. The main role of the top level
management is summarized as
The top level management determines the objectives, policies and
plans of the organisation.
They mobilises (assemble and bring together) available resources.
The top level management does mostly the work of thinking,
planning and deciding. Therefore, they are also called as the
Administrators and the Brain of the organisation.
They spend more time in planning and organising.
They prepare long-term plans of the organisation which are
generally made for 5 to 20 years.
The top level management has maximum authority and
responsibility. They are the top or final authority in the
organisation. They are directly responsible to the Shareholders,
Government and the General Public. The success or failure of the
organisation largely depends on their efficiency and decision
35. Middle Level of Management
The Middle Level Management consists of the
Departmental Heads (HOD), Branch Managers, and the
Junior Executives. The Departmental heads are Finance
Managers, Purchase Managers, etc. The Branch
Managers are the head of a branch or local unit. The
Junior Executives are Assistant Finance Managers,
Assistant Purchase Managers, etc. The Middle level
Management is selected by the Top Level Management.
36. The middle level management
emphasize more on following
Middle level management gives recommendations (advice)
to the top level management.
It executes (implements) the policies and plans which are
made by the top level management.
It co-ordinate the activities of all the departments.
They also have to communicate with the top level
Management and the lower level management.
They spend more time in co-ordinating and communicating.
They prepare short-term plans of their departments which
are generally made for 1 to 5 years.
The middle Level Management has limited authority and
responsibility. They are intermediary between top and lower
management. They are directly responsible to the chief
executive officer and board of directors.
37. Lower Level of Management
The lower level management consists
of the Foremen and the Supervisors.
They are selected by the middle
level management. It is also called
Operative / Supervisory level or
First Line of Management
38. The lower level management
performs following activities
Lower level management directs the workers / employees.
They develops morale in the workers.
It maintains a link between workers and the middle level
The lower level management informs the workers about the
decisions which are taken by the management. They also inform
the management about the performance, difficulties, feelings,
demands, etc., of the workers.
They spend more time in directing and controlling.
The lower level managers make daily, weekly and monthly plans.
They have limited authority but important responsibility of
getting the work done from the workers. They regularly report and
are directly responsible to the middle level management.
Along with the experience and basic management skills, they also
require more technical and communication skills.