Prostate Cancer: Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatment Options Bruce B ... Prostate Cancer: Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatment Options Bruce B ...
1. Prostate Cancer: Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatment Options Bruce B. Garber, MD, FACS Clinical Associate Professor Drexel University College of Medicine Graduate Hospital Philadelphia, PA
3. -Urine flows from the bladder through the urethra, which is surrounded by the prostate -An enlarged prostate can cause difficulty passing urine -The prostate is not in the rectum, but can be palpated during a digital rectal exam
5. Prostate Cancer: US Mortality and Incidence, 1973–1997 SEER Cancer Statistics Review 1973-1997. National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD.
8. Gleason Pathologic Scoring System for Prostate Cancer Gleason DF. In: Tannenbaum M, ed. Urologic Pathology: The Prostate. Philadelphia, Pa: Lea & Febiger; 1977:171-197.
10. Whitmore-Jewett Classification Stage A Microscopic cancer confined to the prostate and too small to be felt by digital rectal exam A1 Cancer well differentiated and confined to one site A2 Cancer moderately or poorly differentiated or present in more than one site
11. Whitmore-Jewett Classification Stage B Cancer large enough to be felt on DRE B1 Small nodule on one lobe of prostate B2 Large nodule, several small nodules, or a nodule containing poorly differentiated cells
12. Whitmore-Jewett Classification Stage C A large cancer involving nearly the entire gland C1 Cancer may have spread a small distance beyond the gland C2 Cancer has invaded the neighboring tissue