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Turbine and pump.pptx

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Turbine and pump.pptx

  1. 1. Name : Md Toukir Shah ID : 1802044 Section : A Dept. : EEE Prepared By Turbines & Pumps
  2. 2. Contents  Definition of Turbine  Working principle  Classification of turbine :According to the action of water on moving blades:  Impulse turbine (i) PELTON TURBINE  Reaction turbine (i) KAPLAN TURBINE (ii)FRANCIS TURBINE Turbines
  3. 3. What is a Turbine?  A turbine is a rotary mechanical device that extracts energy from a fast moving flow of water, steam, gas, air, or other fluid and converts it into useful work. A turbine is a turbo-machine with at least one moving part called a rotor assembly, which is a shaft or drum with blades attached. Turbine converts fluid energy into mechanical energy in rotor. Moving fluid acts on the blades so that they move and impart rotational energy to the rotor. Turbine
  4. 4. Working Principle A hydraulic turbine converts the potential energy of a flowing liquid to rotational energy for further use. The working principle of the hydraulic turbine is, according to Newton’s law- if there is any change in momentum of fluid then a force is generated. “A row of blades is fitted to some rotating shaft or plate in the turbines. Water is then passed through the turbine over the blades, causing the inner shaft to rotate. This rotational motion is then transferred to a generator where electricity is generated.”
  5. 5. Classification of Turbines  According to the action of water on moving blades:
  6. 6. What is Impulse Turbine?  The impulse turbine is the simplest type of turbine. It consists of a row of nozzles followed by a row of blades. The gas is expanded in the nozzle, converting the high thermal energy into kinetic energy. In an impulse turbine, the fluid is forced to hit the turbine at high speed. In an impulse turbine, fast moving fluid is fired through a narrow nozzle at the turbine blades to make them spin around. The transfer of energy in impulse turbines is described by Newton’s second law of motion Impulse Turbine
  7. 7. Main Parts of Impulse Turbine
  8. 8. 1.) Runner:  It is a solid circular-disc with cylindrical shaft in the center.  The shaft and the runner both are made from high strength stainless steel where load on the turbine is considerably high.  Runners are also made from cast iron where available water head is a bit low, thus force on turbine is not that high. 2.) Buckets:  Buckets are cup type hollow hemispherical structures, bolted on the periphery of the runner.  Jet strikes these buckets to rotate the runner.  These are made either from stainless-steel or cast iron.
  9. 9. 3.) Nozzle and Spear:  Nozzle directs the flow of water to the buckets, with an increased velocity coming from a high head. Spear is a conical structure which is moved in and out of nozzle to regulate the flow of water striking the buckets. 4.) Casing:  Casing of an impulse turbine is a preventive shielding over the turbine, usually made of cast iron.  It also prevents the water from splashing, and also guides it to the spill way.
  10. 10. Working Principle Impulse Turbine  Impulse turbine works on the basic principle of impulse.  When the jet of water strikes at the turbine blade with full of its speed, it generates a large force which used to rotate the turbine.  The force depends on the time interval and velocity of jet strikes the blades.  This turbine used to rotate the generator, which produces electric power.
  11. 11. Different Types of Impulse Turbine (1) Pelton Wheel Turbine  Pelton wheel turbine is the most efficient turbine and widely used turbine in the family of impulse turbines.  It is best suitable when the available water head is too high.  The buckets of pelton wheel have two hemispherical cups attached to each other, in such a way that their attachment point is a common edge (sharp) called splitter.  Splitter splits the water jet into two parts, thus making it to flow along the curved path of both the buckets, and transfer the momentum of water to the runner.  Pelton wheel turbine also has a breaking jet and a deflector mechanism.
  12. 12. Different Types of Impulse Turbine (2) Turgo Water Turbine Turgo is another efficient turbine, it is almost similar to Pelton wheel turbine the only difference is that it has one hemispherical bucket instead of two. So water jets strikes this bucket at its center and thus transfer the momentum of water to the turbine. Turgo water turbine is efficient for both medium and high water head
  13. 13. Different Types of Impulse Turbine (3.) Cross-flow Turbine  This impulse turbine has cylindrical runner with guide blades at its periphery.  These blades are shaped like an arc of a circle and extend along the length of a runner. Water flows transversely through the runner.  As water runs through the runner, it passes over the blades twice, thus increasing the turbines efficiency.
  14. 14. Applications of Impulse Turbine It is used worldwide to produce electrical energy in a number of hydro-power plants.  It uses in the drinking water supply system.  Turbochargers in automobiles use the pressure energy of exhaust gases through impulse turbine. Here, hot and pressurized gases coming out of exhaust are converted into high velocity jet by passing them through nozzle. It is also used in reverse osmosis plant, where waste water jet velocity is used to run turbine, thus acts as an energy recovery system.
  15. 15. Reaction Turbines What is Reaction Turbine?  A reaction turbine generates torque in response to the fluid’s pressure and weight.  A reaction turbine has fixed rotor blades and a rotating nozzle.  Newton’s third law of motion (actions and reactions are equal but opposite in direction) describes the working of reaction turbine.  It produces force due to the water movement on the fixed blades.
  16. 16. Reaction Turbine’s Construction  A reaction turbine is constructed of rows of fixed blades and rows of moving blades.  The fixed blades act as nozzles.  The moving blades move as a result of the impulse of steam and also as a result of expansion and acceleration of the steam relative to them.  Main Components: 1. Spiral Casing 2. Guide Vanes 3. Runner Blades 4. Draft Tube
  17. 17. Main Components of Reaction Turbine 1. Spiral Casing  It is a spiral casing, with uniformly decreasing cross-section area, along the circumference.  Its decreasing cross-section area ensures of having a uniform velocity of the water striking the runner blades since we have openings for water flow in-to the runner blades from the very starting of the casing.  As a result, pressure would decrease and velocity would increase as it travels along the casing.
  18. 18. Main Components of Reaction Turbine 2. Guide Vanes  Guide vanes are installed in the spiral casing.  Their most important function is- to make sure that water striking the runner blades must have a direction along length of the axis of turbine otherwise the flow would be highly swirling when it moves through spiral casing. 3. Runner Blades  Runner blades are said to be heart of a reaction turbine.  It is the shape of the runner blades which uses the pressure energy of water to run turbine.  Their design plays a major role in deciding the efficiency of a turbine.
  19. 19. 4. Draft Tube  Draft tube connects the runner exit to the tail race.  Its cross-section area increases along its length as the water coming out of runner blades at considerably low pressure.  Therefore, its expanding cross-section area helps it to recover the pressure as it flows towards tail race. Main Components of Reaction Turbine
  20. 20. The working methods of the reaction turbine can be described by- taking a rotor having moving nozzles and water of high pressure is coming out of the nozzle. As the water leaves the nozzle, a reaction force is experienced by the nozzle. This reaction force rotates the rotor at very high speed. In the same way in turbine, a reaction force is also generated by the fluid moving on the runner blades. The reaction force produced on the runner blades makes the runner to rotate. Fluid after moving over the runner blades enters into draft tube and finally to the trail race. Working Principle of Reaction Turbine
  21. 21. Various Types of Reaction Turbine There are two types of Reaction Turbines: 1) Francis Turbine 2) Kaplan Turbine
  22. 22. Francis Turbine Francis turbine is a combination of both impulse and reaction turbine, where the blades rotate using both reaction and impulse force of water flowing through them producing electricity more efficiently.  Francis turbine is used for the production of electricity most frequently in medium or large- scale hydropower stations.  Francis turbines are the most favored hydraulic turbines. These turbines are the most stable workhorse of hydroelectric power stations because it can work efficiently under a wide range of working conditions. What is Francis Turbine?
  23. 23. Main Components of Francis Turbine Major Components are: 1) Spiral Casing 2) Stay Vanes 3) Guide Vanes 4) Runner Blades 5) Draft Tube
  24. 24. Main Components of Francis Turbine 1) Spiral Casing  The spiral casing is the inlet medium of water to the turbine.  The water flowing from the reservoir or dam is made to pass through this pipe with high pressure.  The spiral casing is used due to the circular movement of the water so that it can lose its pressure. 2) Stay Vanes  Stay and guide vanes guide the water to the runner blades.  Stay vanes remain stationary at their position and reduces the swirling of water due to radial flow, as it enters the runner blades, thus, making the turbine more efficient.
  25. 25. Main Components of Francis Turbine 3) Guide Vanes  Guide vanes are not stationary, they change their angle as per the requirement to control the angle of striking of water to turbine blades to increase the efficiency.  They also regulate the flow rate of water into the runner blades thus controlling the power output of a turbine according to the load on the turbine
  26. 26. Main Components of Francis Turbine 4) Runner Blades  Runner blades are the heart of any Francis turbine.  These are the centers where the fluid strikes and the tangential force of the impact causes the shaft of the turbine to rotate, producing torque.  The runner blades have two parts. The lower half is made in the shape of a small bucket to rotate the turbine by using the impulse action of water. While the upper part of blades uses the reaction force of water flowing through it. 5) Draft Tube  The water at the exit, cannot be directly discharged to the tailrace. A tube or pipe of the gradually increasing area is used for discharging water from the exit of the turbine to the tailrace. This tube of the increasing area is called Draft Tube.
  27. 27. Main Components of Francis Turbine 5.) Draft Tube  One end of the tube is connected to the outlet of the runner. However, the other end is submerged below the level of water in the tail-race. Runner Blades
  28. 28. Working Principle of Francis Turbine  The water is admitted to the runner through guide vanes. The opening between the vanes can be adjusted to vary the quantity of water admitted to the turbine. This is done to suit the load conditions.  The water enters the runner with a low velocity but with an almost considerable pressure. As the water flows over the vanes the pressure head is gradually converted into velocity head.
  29. 29. Working Principle of Francis Turbine  This kinetic energy is utilized in rotating the wheel. Thus the hydraulic energy is converted into mechanical energy.  The outgoing water enters the tailrace after passing through the draft tube. The draft tube enlarges gradually and the enlarged end is submerged deeply in the tailrace water.  Due to this arrangement a suction head is created at the exit of the runner.
  30. 30. Applications of Francis Turbine  Francis turbine is the most widely used turbine in hydro-power plants to generate electricity.  It is efficient over a wide range of water head and flow rate.  It is most efficient hydro-turbine we have till date.  Large Francis turbine is distinctively designed for the site to operate at the highest achievable efficiency, typically more than 90%.  Mixed flow turbine is also used in irrigation water pumping sets to pump water from ground for irrigation.
  31. 31.  Kaplan Turbine is an axial flow reaction turbine with adjustable blades. This turbine was developed in the year 1913 by an Austrian Professor Viktor Kaplan.  It is also called as propeller turbine and evolved from the Francis Turbine.  It is capable of working at low head and high flow rates very efficiently which is impossible with Francis turbine.  The working range of head at which the Kaplan turbine works more efficiently is 10 to 70 m. Kaplan Turbine What is Kaplan Turbine?
  32. 32. Main Components of Kaplan Turbine Major Parts are: 1) Scroll Casing 2) Guide Vanes & Guide Mechanism 3) Runner & Runner Blades 4) Draft Tube
  33. 33. Main Components of Kaplan Turbine 1.) Scroll Casing  It is a spiral type of casing that has decreasing cross section area.  The water first enters into the scroll casing and then it moves through it to the guide vanes and finally to the runner blades.  It protects the runner, runner blades, guide vanes and other internal parts of the turbine from an external damage. 2.) Guide Vanes & Guide Mechanism  Guide vanes are used to direct the water to the runner blades smoothly by decreasing its swirl velocity.  If guide vanes is absent than the turbine can not work efficiently and its efficiency decreases.  The guides are adjustable in Kaplan turbine. Its opening and closing depends upon the demand of power requirement.
  34. 34. Main Components of Kaplan Turbine 4) Runner & Runner Blades  Runner is the rotating part of the turbine or we can say that it is the heart of the Kaplan turbine.  The runner of the this turbine has a large nose on which its blades are attached and blades of the runner is adjustable to an optimum angle of attack for maximum power output.  The blades of the Kaplan turbine has twist along its length. 5) Draft Tube  It is a tube which is used to increase the pressure of the fluid or water that exits the turbine. It has increasing cross section area.  It converts the kinetic energy of the water into pressure energy as it passes through draft tube and the pressure of the water increases.
  35. 35. Working Principle of Kaplan Turbine
  36. 36. Working Principle of Kaplan Turbine  Firstly, the water from the pen-stock enters into the scroll casing.  The water moves into the scroll casing and the guide vanes directs the water from the casing to the blades of the runner.  The vanes are adjustable and can adjust itself according to the requirement of flow rate. As the water moves over the blades it starts rotating due to reaction force of the water.  From the runner blades, the water enters into the draft tube where its pressure energy and kinetic energy decreases. Actually here the K.E. is gets converted into pressure energy results in increased pressure of the water.  Finally the water discharged to the trail race.  The rotation of the turbine is used to rotate the shaft of generator for electricity production and for some other mechanical work.
  37. 37. Applications of Kaplan Turbine  Kaplan turbines are widely used throughout the world for electrical power production where water is available at low head and at higher flow rates.  It can work more efficiently at low water head and high flow rates as compared with other types of turbines
  38. 38. Limitations of Kaplan Turbine The only disadvantage of Kaplan turbine is cavitation, which occurs due to pressure drop in draft tube. Use of draft tube and proper material generally stainless steel for the runner blades may reduce the cavitation problem to a greater extent. What is Cavitation? Difference in the pressure of water entering the turbine and that exists after striking the runner blades is too high. Due to this pressure difference the air molecules which are relatively at high pressure then water coming out, enters the turbine casing in the form of bubbles. These bubble keeps on exploding near the surface of the runner blades continuously causing a shock wave, which producesa kind of defect at runners surface called cavitation
  39. 39. Pumps Contents Centrifugal Pump Submersible Pump
  40. 40. Centrifugal Pump  Centrifugal pump is a hydraulic machine which converts mechanical energy into hydraulic energy (i.e. pressure energy) by the use of centrifugal force acting on the fluid.  The centrifugal pump flows in a radial outward direction. Therefore, the pump acts like a reverse reaction turbine. What is Centrifugal Pump?
  41. 41. Main Parts of a Centrifugal Pump
  42. 42. Main Parts of a Centrifugal Pump The major parts of a centrifugal pump are: 1. Shaft 2. Impeller 3. Casing 4. Suction Pipe 5. DeliveryPipe 1) Shaft  It is a central part of the pump which is rotating with the impeller is connected.  The shaft is coupled to the prime mover to get the power.  The shaft fits with the ball bearing. The major parts of a centrifugal pump are: 1. Shaft 2. Impeller 3. Casing 4. Suction Pipe 5. DeliveryPipe 1) Shaft  It is a central part of the pump which is rotating with the impeller is connected.  The shaft is coupled to the prime mover to get the power.  The shaft fits with the ball bearing.
  43. 43. Main Parts of a Centrifugal Pump 2) Impeller  It consists of a series of backward curved vanes.  It is mounted to the shaft of an electric motor.  An impeller is a rotating part of the centrifugal pump.  It enclosed in a watertight casing. 3) Casing  It is an airtight passage surrounding the impeller.  It is designed in such a way that the kinetic energy of the water discharged at the outlet is converted into pressure energy before the water leaves the casing and enters the delivery pipe.  The casing works as a cover to protect the system.
  44. 44. Main Parts of a Centrifugal Pump 4) Suction Pipe  The suction pipe has two ends.  One end is connected to the inlet of the pump and the other dips into the water in a sump.  A foot valve fits at the lower end of the suction pipe.  The foot valve is one-way type of valve that only opens in an upward direction.  A strainer is also fitted at the end of the suction pipe to prevent the entry of foreign bodies into the suction pipe. 5) Delivery Pipe  The delivery pipe has two ends.  One end is connected to the outlet of the pump and the other end delivers the water at a required height.
  45. 45. Working Principle of Centrifugal Pump
  46. 46. Working Principle of Centrifugal Pump  The pump works on the principle of the forced vortex flow.  The forced vortex flow means when a mass of liquid is rotating by an external torque, the rise in pressure head of the rotating liquid takes place.  The rises in pressure head at any point is directly proportional to the square of the tangential velocity of the liquid at that point.  Therefore, the rise in pressure head is more at the outlet of the impeller and the liquid will discharge with a high-pressure head at the outlet.  Due to this, the high-pressure head of the liquid can be lifted to a high level.
  47. 47. How Liquid is Lifted to High Level?  At the outlet of the impeller, radius is more and because of this the rise in the pressure head also becomes more.  Hence, the liquid at the outlet discharged with a high pressure head.  And because of this high pressure head, the liquid can be lifted to a very high level.
  48. 48. Applications of Centrifugal Pump Agricultural and Irrigation purpose.  In Petroleum Installation to pump oil.  Hydraulic Control system.  Transferring new material.  Pumping of water in building.  Fire Fighting.
  49. 49. Submersible Pump  A submersible pump is a mechanical equipment that works by pushing the water toward the surface instead of pulling it.  It has a hermetically sealed motor connected to the pump body that helps to push the fluid toward the surface.  It is a most famous type of the centrifugal pump.  A submersible pump mainly uses to pump the water from the wells. What is a Submersible Pump?
  50. 50. Construction of a Submersible Pump
  51. 51. Main Parts of a Submersible Pump The main parts are:  Head  Shaft  Upper bearing  Casing  Impeller  Diffuser  Lower bearing
  52. 52. Working Principle of Submersible Pump
  53. 53. Working Principle of Submersible Pump  A submersible water pump is a machine that is linked with a completely sealed motor.  It is a type of centrifugal pump and so its working is very similar to other types of centrifugal pumps.  Submersible pumps submerge entirely in the water. During the working of the submersible water pump, it pushes the water toward the surface.  As the water of well or reservoir enters into the pump by the foot valve, it strikes the impeller. An impeller is a rotatory unit that has multiple fixed blades.  This impeller is connected with an electric motor through a shaft. The impeller rotates with the rotation of the shaft.
  54. 54. Working Principle of Submersible Pump  As the water strikes the blades of the impeller, the blades convert the water kinetic energy into speed and increase the speed of the water.  After passing through the impeller, the water enters into the diffuser, which further transforms the speed of the water into pressure energy.  In this way, the diffuser increases desired pressure of the water. After that, pressurized water discharges through the outlet valve of the pump.  In this way, submersible pumps push the water towards the surface.
  55. 55. Applications of Submersible Pump  Submersible pumps are used for dewatering, oil production, drinking water supply, irrigation applications.  These pumps work in wells, drains, and wet wells. Multiple stage submersible pumps are typically lowered down a borehole and most typically used for residential, commercial, municipal and industrial water extraction, water wells and in oil wells.  This pump can also use in plants and pools. Pools usually use submersible water pumps to pump sewage that enters homes and other buildings, building lots, and sewers.