2. • Open Source Definition
• Open-Source Software (OSS) Definition
• OSS Development philosophy
• The 4 Freedom Provided by OS
• OS Society and culture
3. • In production and development, open
source is a philosophy, or pragmatic
methodology, that promotes free
redistribution and access to an end product's
design and implementation details.
– Opening the source code enabled a self-enhancing
diversity of production models, communication
paths, and interactive communities.
4. • It is computer software that is available in
source code form
– The source code and certain other rights normally
reserved for copyright holders are provided under
a free software license that permits users to study,
change, improve and at times also to distribute
5. • Eric S. Raymond suggests a model for developing OSS
known as the bazaar model
– The traditional model of development, which he called
the cathedral model, development takes place in a centralized
• Software developed using the bazaar model should exhibit
the following patterns:
– Users should be treated as co-developers
– Early releases
– Frequent integration
– Several versions
– High modularization
– Dynamic decision making structure
6. • Doesn't just mean access to the source code, the
distribution terms of open-source software must
comply with the following criteria:
• Free Redistribution • No Discrimination Against
• Source Code Persons or Groups
• Derived Works • No Discrimination Against
• Integrity of The Author's Fields of Endeavour
Source Code • License Must Not Be
• Distribution of License Specific to a Product
• License Must Be • License Must Not Restrict
Technology-Neutral Other Software
7. • Redefining OSS:
– OSS can be viewed as a ‘virtual’ community of practice
made up of inventors who voluntarily contribute to
multiple collective inventions.
• Three key economic problems with OSS:
– Motivation: Why do programmers write Open Source
codes if no one pays them to do it? (Knowledge & Skills)
– Co-ordination: How do hundreds of people dotted around
the world manage to effectively co-ordinate with each
other in the absence of any hierarchical structure? (Labors)
– Diffusion: Why is it that OSS is becoming so widespread in
a world? (Economic Values)
8. 1. Government
– Open politics (sometimes known as Open-source
politics) is a term used to describe a political
process that uses Internet technologies such as
blogs, email and polling to provide for a rapid
feedback mechanism between political
organizations and their supporters.
– Open-source governance is similar to open-source
politics, but it applies more to the democratic
process and promotes the freedom of information
9. 2. Ethics
– Open-source ethics as an ethical school
– Open-source ethics as a professional body of rules
– Weblogs, or blogs
– Messageboards (also known as discussion boards
– Open-source movie production
10. 4. Education
– Open-source curricula are instructional resources
whose digital source can be freely used,
distributed and modified.
– Another strand to the academic community is in
the area of research. Many funded research
projects produce software as part of their work.
There is an increasing interest in making the
outputs of such projects available under an open-
11. 5. Innovation communities
– Open innovation is also a new emerging concept
which advocate putting R&D in a common pool.
6. Arts and recreation
– Copyright protection is used in the performing
arts and even in athletic activities. Some groups
have attempted to remove copyright from such
12. • Evaluation and Pragmatism
• Open Source and Human Capacity Building
• Problems and Obstacles to Open Source
• Open source trends
13. • Security Benefits
– According to the maxim, "Given enough eyeballs,
all bugs are shallow." What that means is that the
more people who can see and test a set of
code, the more likely any flaws will be caught and
• Android and Windows
14. • Quality Benefits
– Which is more likely to be better: a software
package created by a handful of developers, or a
software package created by thousands of
– open source software gets closest to what users
want because those users can have a hand in
making it so.
18. • The most widely-cited intrinsic motivation for
OSS developers is sharing and learning.
• Open & Share: Lerner and Tirole (1999):
working freely for the Open Source movement
would be an investment activity aimed at
increasing the signaling of quality of human
• FREE: it is often used in universities and
schools for teaching
19. • Support (is the community sufficiently skilled
to help you solve any potential problems)
• Future Updates (can you be guaranteed that
the application will continue to be developed
or will you be left with an application that
becomes more and more out of date)
20. • Documentation (is the application fully supported
by instructions written by someone who knows
how to write support material. The original
developer may not be the best person to write
the user guide)
• Resources Available to the Developer (does the
supporting community have the
time/money/energy to make any significant
changes to the software. Or will these become
the responsibility of the end user).
21. • More commercial open source
• More experimentation with business models
• More acquisitions
– Sun acquired MySQL
22. • More power in the user community
– As open source becomes more widespread in
corporations, IT users are going to weigh in more
in open source projects to make sure that they
have a voice in what's important to them.
• More mainstream
– open source continues to be more and more of
the core fabric of IT, especially at the operating
system, middleware, and database layers.
24. • Open Source Licenses are tailored to meet
certain goals for specific kinds of content (for
example, some for software, others for
documentation, still others for images or data)
and varies in its terms.
– What a license does is grant specific permissions
for others to use that work.
– As mentioned, the rights subsisting in a piece of
software cannot be waived by its author, but must
be transferred or licensed.
25. • Each Open Source shares five fundamental intents:
1. Licensees are free to use open source software for any
2. Licensees are free to make copies of open source software
and are free to distribute those copies without payment of
royalties to a licensor.
3. Licensees are free to create derivative works of open
source software and are free to distribute those works
without payment of royalties to a licensor.
4. Licensees are free to access and use the source code of
open source software.
5. Licensees are free to combine open source and other
26. • Fifty licenses may seem like a daunting number,
but most of those fall into two categories:
– Academic licenses: allow software to be used for any
purpose without expectations of any kind.
• Freely modified, sold, redistributed, sublicensed, and
combined with other software
• Other software licenses may preclude such combination.
– Reciprocal licenses: allow software to be used for any
purpose, but mandate that a derivative work be
relicensed under the exact same license terms.
27. • GNU General Public License (GPL):
– One of the most commonly used licenses for open-
– Guarantees a wide range of rights to developers who
work on open-source projects.
– You can:
• Copy the software
• Distribute the software however you want.
• Charge a fee to distribute the software.
• Make whatever modifications to the software you want.
28. • GNU LESSER GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE (LGPL)
– Appropriate for libraries that want to allow linking
from non-GPL and non-open-source software.
– Not requiring other projects with parts of the
code to be similarly licensed.
29. • BSD License:
– Represent a family of permissive free software
licenses that have fewer restrictions on
– The New BSD License (“3-clause license”) allows
unlimited redistribution for any purpose as long as
its copyright notices and the license’s disclaimers
of warranty are maintained.
30. • MIT License:
– The shortest and probably broadest of all the
popular open-source licenses.
– It means:
• You can use, copy and modify the software however
• You have no restrictions on how to distribute it.
• The only restriction is that it be accompanied by the
31. • Apache License
– Can be applied to both copyrights and patents.
– Apache License allows:
• Rights are perpetual.
• Rights are worldwide.
• Rights are granted for no fee or royalty.
• Rights are non-exclusive.
• Rights are irrevocable.
32. • Creative Commons (CC)
– Aren’t quite open-source licenses, but they are
commonly used for design projects.
– A CC license has four basic parts, which can be
enacted individually or in combination:
• Share Alike
• No Derivative Works
33. • Commercial Licenses:
– Licenses are purchased for each of its products.
– License management is a big deal.
• Tracking software licenses for a company can be very
confusing and time consuming, and the time needed to
manage them can compound very quickly.
– Licenses get misplaced, forgotten, and are usually
not top priority when software purchases are
34. • Tension in the Software Marketplace
• Success Stories
• Open Source Business Models
• Stating your own OS Project
38. • RedHat placed well on track for billion-dollar revenues in 2010.
• Marty Roesch - created an OSS called Snort having sold
Sourcefire, the company he created to sell add-ons to Snort, for
$225 million to security software leader Check Point.
• John Powell, CEO of Alfresco, has declared that the open source
industry is worth $60 billion.
• In 2004, Australia paid $430 million per year, because of not
using Open Source product.
• In Norwegian Software Industry, close to 50% of the software
industry integrate OSS components into vertical solutions
serving all major business sectors.
• IBM is reported to have spent over $1 billion in 2001 alone on
Open Source projects.
40. • Support Ware: Pay us money and we’ll support the software.
• Product Ware: The software is free, you just buy the box it
• Cloud Ware: Our software is in the clouds now. Pay us for
what it does.
• Project Ware: Need something done? We’ll do it with OSS.
• Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) Ware: Our software is SaaSy. You
can rent it.
• Ad Ware: You don’t pay anything, the advertiser pays instead.
• Sugar Daddy Ware
• Foundation Ware
• Beg Ware
41. 1. Before starting an open source project
– Always look around to see if there's an existing project
that does what you want.
2. Starting From What You Have
– Must decide what the project is really about—that is,
decide its limitations, what it won't do as well as what it
will—and write up a mission statement.
– Every new open source project would start out life with a
thorough design document, a complete user manual
(with special markings for features planned but not yet
implemented), beautifully and portably packaged code,
capable of running on any computing platform, and so
42. • Choose a Good Name
• Have a Clear Mission Statement
• State That the Project is Free
• Features and Requirements List
• Development Status
• Version Control and Bug Tracker Access
• Communications Channels
• Developer Guidelines
• Example Output and Screenshots
43. 3. Choosing a License and Applying It
4. Setting the Tone
– Avoid Private Discussions
– Nip Rudeness in the Bud
– Practice Conspicuous Code Review