An autonomous car are known as an uncrewed
vehicle, driverless car, self-driving car or robotic car,
Vehicle capable of fulfilling the main transportation
capabilities of a regular car on it’s own.
A vehicle capable of sensing its environment and
navigating without human input/assistance/help.
4. BRIEF HISTORY
Experiments have been conducted on automating cars
since at least the 1920s, promising trials took place in
the 1950s and work has proceeded since then
The first self-sufficient and truly autonomous cars
appeared in the 1980s, with Carnegie Mellon
University's Navlab and ALV projects in 1984 and
Mercedes-Benz and Bundeswehr University Munich's
EUREKA Prometheus Project in 1987
5. The RRL's modified 1960 Citroen DS19 to be automatically
controlled at the Science Museum, London (brakes and
accelerates on its own
6. Audi RSQ in the 2004 movie I Robot of Starring will smith
7. CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM
Level 0: The driver completely controls the vehicle at all times.
Level 1: Individual vehicle controls are automated, such as electronic
stability control or automatic braking.
Level 2: At least two controls can be automated in unison, such as
adaptive cruise control in combination with lane keeping.
Level 3: The driver can fully control of all safety-critical functions in certain
Level 4: The vehicle performs all, with the driver not expected to control
the vehicle at any time.
8. HOW IT WORKS
Autonomous vehicles sense their surroundings using special
gadgets placed on the car, examples include the lidar, radar, GPS,
Advanced control systems (artificial intelligence) interpret
sensory information to identify appropriate navigation paths, as
well as obstacles and relevant sign.
Autonomous vehicles are capable of updating their maps based
on sensory input, allowing the vehicles to keep track of their
position even when conditions change or when they enter
3D map and allow the car to “see” potential hazards by bouncing a
laser beam off of surfaces surrounding the car in order to accurately
determine the distance and the profile of that object. Mounted on
top the car on a rotating motor
Ability to accurately monitor speed of surrounding vehicles in real time.
Mounted on the bumpers, with two sensors in the front bumper, and two
in the rear, the radar units allow the car to avoid impact by sending a
signal to the on-board processor. works in conjunction with other
features on the car such as inertial measurement units
13. Sonar technology have narrow field of
view and its relatively short effective
range (about 6 meters) but allows the
car to effectively cross-reference data
from other systems in real time
SONAR AND HIGH-POWERED CAMERAS
Cameras mounted to the exterior with
slight separation in order to give an
overlapping view of the car’s
surroundings just like the human eye
which provides overlapping images to
the brain before determining things
like depth of field, peripheral
movement, and dimensionality of
objects. Each camera has a 50-degree
field of view and is accurate to about
14. The Positioning system works alongside
the on-board cameras to process real-
world information as well as GPS data,
and driving speed to accurately
determine the precise position of each
vehicle, down to a few centimetres all
while making smart corrections for
things like traffic, road construction,
POSITIONING AND SOFTWARE
The software processes all of the data
in real-time as well as modelling
behavioural dynamics of other
drivers, pedestrians, and objects
around you. While some data is hard-
coded into the car, such as stopping
at red lights, other responses are
learned based on previous driving
experiences. Every mile driven on
each car is logged, and this data is
processed in an attempt to find
solutions to every applicable situation.
The learning algorithm processes the
data of not just the car you’re riding
in, but that of others in order to find
an appropriate response to each
15. SOME MAJOR HURDLES THE PROJECT FACES
Do Consumers Even Want It?
16. POTENTIAL ADVANTAGES
Avoid traffic collisions caused by human driver errors.
Increased roadway capacity and reduced traffic congestion due to
reduced need for safety gaps and the ability to better manage traffic
Relief of vehicle occupants from driving and navigation duties.
Higher speed limit for autonomous cars
Removal of constraints on occupants' state; it would not matter if
the occupants were under age, over age, unlicensed, blind,
distracted, drunk or otherwise impaired.
Reduction in the need for traffic police and premium on vehicle
Reduction in car theft, due to the vehicle's increased awareness.
The cost of implementing the new technology could be way out of
reach for most people or countries
Security issues (hacking and location based information stored).
Loss of jobs (taxi drivers, driving schools , automobile companies not
in autonomous production, traffic wards, etc.)
A self-driving car doesn't completely eliminate the likelihood of a car
accident as things could malfunction eg networks and software's
corruption and weather related circumstances which could destroy or
Heavy reliance technology making it difficult to function in their
absences eg bad traffic light or no bad road sign placed for it to read
Most of all people who enjoy driving and racing would not be
These cars seem to be a part of the near future transportation, if
they are successfully deployed across roadways and it will be a
revolution not just for drivers and traffic patterns but also for the
transportation industry as a whole as the use of automated cars
does not mean they will be no more accidents, but will eventually
reduce number of accidents to the barest minimum and ease of a
lot of driving burdens.
While the question remains would you buy