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Unit 9 Grammar Contents: Modal for Speculation & Question Tags

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Unit 9 Grammar Contents: Modal for Speculation & Question Tags

  1. 1. 1 FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 9GRAMMAR – UNIT 9 1. Modals of Speculation Certainty: must, can’t, couldn’t + infinitive without to. Possibility: may (not), might (not), or could. Use: TO MAKE GUESSES ABOUT □ The PRESENT or the FUTURE □ The PAST Structure: ● must ● may ● might ● could ● can’t + bare infinitive  Next pageNext page
  2. 2. 2 FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 9GRAMMAR – UNIT 9 1. Modals of Speculation Which modal shall we use? When you are not sure Might May Could When you are sure something is probable or certain Must When your are sure something is NOT probable Can’t The use of could instead of “may” / “might” can be used but it expresses more doubt: the speaker thinks it is possible but more unlikely: —Where’s the boss? —Well, I’m really not sure. He could be at the coffee room.  Next pageNext page
  3. 3. 3 FCE by Matifmarin MUST We use “must” to express that something is certain or highly probable. Examples: ● She’s been working very hard the whole day, she MUST be tired GRAMMAR – UNIT 9GRAMMAR – UNIT 9 1. Modals of Speculation ● He’s been drinking a lot, he MUST be drunk.  Next pageNext page
  4. 4. 4 FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 9GRAMMAR – UNIT 9 1. Modals of Speculation CAN’T We use “can’t” to express that something is certainly NOT the case or highly improbable. Examples: ● He CAN’T be English, he doesn’t speak a word in English. ● She CAN’T be a mother, she is only fourteen, the baby MUST be her brother or a nice or nephew.  Next pageNext page
  5. 5. 5 FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 9GRAMMAR – UNIT 9 1. Modals of Speculation MAY - MIGHT We use “may” or “might” when there is little possibility that somthing happen Examples: ● He MIGHT be a handsome guy when he grows up. ● They MAY have a happy marriage.  Next pageNext page
  6. 6. 6 FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 9GRAMMAR – UNIT 9 1. Modals of Speculation MAY, MIGHT or COULD? Conversation 1: A: I think she may be from Catalonia. B: Why do you think so? A: Well, her surname is Puigcorbé, and I know it is a Catalan surname. → Speaker A has something in mind which supports the idea that the woman is from Catalonia. Therefore, speaker A chooses to use "may" and not "might". Conversation 2: C: Is she from Catalonia? D: She might be. Why do you ask? D: Well, I once spoke to someone from Catalonia who said that by comparison to other people from Spain, Catalonians seem to be quieter. C: Yeah, she seems kind of quiet, but there's no way to know that for sure. What's her name? D: I don't know....... ah.... I mean I can't remember...... but we can ask one of the other people from Spain, one of them might know her surname. C: Alright. But it could be that she is from any part of Spain with a Catalan surname. → Here, speaker D doesn't feel strongly enough about the idea that the woman is from Catalonia. Therefore, speaker D chooses to use "might". Speaker C feels better about basing the idea that the woman is from Catalonia on her surname rather than on her quiet personality. However, not very certain, speaker C sees this as a possibility therefore he/she uses "could". SUMMARY examples: Where’s Peter? 1. He could have gone to the cinema. – possibility 2. He might have gone to the cinema. – weaker possibility 3. He may have gone to the cinema. – stronger possibility Read the following conversations:
  7. 7. 7 FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 9GRAMMAR – UNIT 9 1. Modals of Speculation Auditions & Open Casting Calls Models search for men and women Magazines, catalogues and TV commercials. YOUR TURN!! What do you think? must / can’t / may / might / could (not) they be chosen? ● ● ● My weakness is beer and thus my little belly, but I think I’m still quite handsome. I know I've put on some weight since I've had my four kids, but I'm still the same jeans size!!  Next pageNext page
  8. 8. 8 FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 9GRAMMAR – UNIT 9 1. Modals of Speculation 1: General summary when talking about the present: must / might / could / may / can't Structure: must + bare infinitive might / might not + bare infinitive could / could not + bare infinitive may / may not + bare infinitive can't + bare infinitive Examples: □ I am waiting for Maria with another friend, Peter, and I ask: 'Where is Maria?' Peter guesses/ speculates: ● She must be on the train. (I'm fairly sure she on her way on the train.) ● She might come soon. (maybe) ● She could be lost. (maybe) ● She may be in the wrong train. (maybe) ● She can't be at home. (I'm fairly sure she isn’t at home.) → Notice that the opposite of 'must' is 'can't ( = I’m sure it’s the case/ I’m sure it isn’t the case).  Next pageNext page
  9. 9. 9 FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 9GRAMMAR – UNIT 9 1. Modals of Speculation 1. I've worked 12 hours today. (a) You might be exhausted. (b) You can't be exhausted. (c) You must be exhausted. (d) You may be exhausted. 2. All he eats is bread and chocolate. (a) That must be healthy. (a) That can't be healthy. (c) That could be healthy. (d) That may be healthy. 3. She hasn't been at home for a week. (a) She might be on holiday. (b) She must be on holiday. (c) She could be on holiday. (d) all statements are possible Some questions for you!!  Next pageNext page
  10. 10. 10 FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 9GRAMMAR – UNIT 9 1. Modals of Speculation  Next pageNext page 2: Using modal verbs to talk about the PAST: must / might / could / may / can't + have + past participle Structure: must have + past participle might / might not have + past participle could / couldn't have + past participle may / may not have + past participle can't have + past participle Example: □ You: Where was Mary last night? Peter: ● She must have forgotten about obout the party. ● She might have worked until late. ● She could have taken the wrong train. ● She may have felt ill. ● She can't have stayed at home, her parents were having a dinner with friends.
  11. 11. 11 FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 9GRAMMAR – UNIT 9 1. Modals of Speculation  Next pageNext page SUMMARY for Past Modals for speculation You can use these past modals to speculate about the past.   They must have gotten tied up in traffic.   I bet they got tied up in traffic.   She could have tried to call.   It's possible she tried to call.   They may/ might have had a fight.   Maybe they had a fight.     Notice the difference in meaning:   They couldn't have forgotten.   It is not possible they forgot.   She may/ might not have remembered.   It's possible she didn't remember.
  12. 12. 12 FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 9GRAMMAR – UNIT 9 1. Modals of Speculation 3: Using modal verbs to talk about ACTIONS in PROGRESS: Structure: ● must ● may ● might ● could ● can’t + BE + ING Example: □ Do you know where Peter is? ● I don’t know, he may be listening to music in his room. □ Have you seen my book? ● I think your brother took it, so he may be reading it now.
  13. 13. 13 FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 9GRAMMAR – UNIT 9 1. Modals of Speculation  Next pageNext page Now you!! Try to guess what’s happening in the pictures Use these verbs: argue – sleep – gossip - listen
  14. 14. 14 FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 9GRAMMAR – UNIT 9 2. Question Tags / Tag questios 1. A tag question is a short question (e.g. have you? / haven’t you?) that follows a statement: □ You haven’t got a car, have you? □ It was a good film, wasn’t it? → We normally use a positive question tag with a negative sentence; and we use a negative question tag with a positive sentence: 2. How do we form QUESTION TAGS? a) Auxiliaries like be, have, can, may, must, should, etc. used in the statement are reported at the end followed by the subject (always a pronoun): □ John was annoyed, wasn’t he? □ He wasn’t annoyed, was he? □ I am late, aren’t I? → Notice that we say aren’t I? (= am I not)  Next pageNext page
  15. 15. 15 FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 9GRAMMAR – UNIT 9 SUMMARY Negative sentence + positive tag □ Tom won’t be late, will he? □ They don’t like us, do they? □ That isn’t George over there, is it? 2. Question Tags  Next pageNext page PRACTICE 1. He will come as soon as he hears the news, ____________? 2. We won't let him bully the smaller children, _________? 3. The doctor should advise her to take a holiday, ____________? 4. Anyone who wants to come can do so, _____________? 5. They will make it in time,______________? 6. You don't have to be a member of the society to attend its meetings,____________? 7. He had intended to come here as soon as he was able to,_____________? 8. Peter and John are going to buy us some cold drinks,_____________?
  16. 16. 16 FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 9GRAMMAR – UNIT 9 Answers 1. He will come as soon as he hears the news, won't he ? 2. We won't let him bully the smaller children, will we ? 5. They will make it in time, won't they ? 3. The doctor should advise her to take a holiday, shouldn't he ? 4. Anyone who wants to come can do so, can't they ? 6. You don't have to be a member of the society to attend its meetings, do you ? 8. Peter and John are going to buy us some cold drinks, aren't they ? 7. He had intended to come here as soon as he was able to, hadn't he ? 2. Question Tags  EndEnd

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