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Unit 7 Grammar Contents - Present perfect

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Unit 6 Grammar Contents
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Unit 7 Grammar Contents - Present perfect

  1. 1. GRAMMAR – UNIT 7GRAMMAR – UNIT 7FCE by Matifmarin 1. Present Perfect  Next pageNext page □ FORM: [have / has + past participle] □ USE 1 Unspecified Time Before Now ● We use the Present Perfect to say that an action happened at an unspecified time before now. The exact time is not important. You CANNOT use the Present Perfect with specific time expressions such as: yesterday, one year ago, last week, when I was a child, when I lived in Japan, at that moment, that day, one day, etc. ● We CAN use the Present Perfect with unspecific expressions such as: ever, never, once, many times, several times, before, so far, already, yet, etc. Examples: - I have seen that film twenty times. - I think I have met him once before. - There have been many earthquakes in California. - People have once travelled to the Moon. - People have never travelled to Mars. - Have you read the book yet? - Nobody has ever climbed that mountain. A: Has there ever been a war in the United States? B: Yes, there has been a war in the United States. Examples: [+] I have seen that film many times. [?] Have you seen that film many times? [-] You haven’t seen that film many times.
  2. 2. GRAMMAR – UNIT 7GRAMMAR – UNIT 7FCE by Matifmarin 1. Present Perfect  Next pageNext page 1.1. Time Expressions with Present Perfect □ When we use the Present Perfect it means that something has happened at some point in our lives before now. Remember, the exact time the action happened is not important. □ BUT sometimes, we want to limit the time we are looking in for an experience. We can do this with expressions such as: in the last week, in the last year, this week, this month, so far, up to now, etc. Examples: - Have you been to France in the last year? - I have seen that film three times in the last month. - They have had three tests in the last week. - She graduated from university less than three years ago. She has worked for three different companies so far. - My car has broken down three times this week. NOTICE: "Last year" and "in the last year" are very different in meaning. "Last year" means the year before now, and it is considered a specific time which requires Simple Past. "In the last year" means from 365 days ago until now. It is not considered a specific time, so it requires Present Perfect. Examples: - I went to Mexico last year. = Simple Past (specific time) - I have been to Mexico three times in the last year. = Present Perfect (unspecified time)
  3. 3. GRAMMAR – UNIT 7GRAMMAR – UNIT 7FCE by Matifmarin  Next pageNext page 1.2. PRESENT PERFECT or PAST SIMPLE? PRESENT PERFECT PAST SIMPLE USE 1. Experiences in an undetermined time in the past: "I have studied French." 2. Actions that began in the past and continue in the present: "I have lived here for two years." "We have talked to her for two hours." 1. Actions in a determined, specific time in the past: " Last Wednesday, I went to my French class." 2. Actions that began and finished in the past: "I lived there for two years." "We talked to her for two hours.“ TIME EXPRESSIONS TODAY FOR / SINCE THIS WEEK / MONTH ... HOW LONG ...? EVER / NEVER ALREADY / JUST / YET etc. YESTERDAY AGO LAST WEEK / MONTH ... WHEN ON (Monday ...) / IN (1999) etc.
  4. 4. GRAMMAR – UNIT 7GRAMMAR – UNIT 7FCE by Matifmarin  Next pageNext page CONNECTORS: CONTRASTING OR OPPOSING IDEAS: □ Connectors are used to show relationships between ideas. The connectors (the words in bold) introduce a contrast or an opposing idea. ● BUT, YET: The connectors but and yet have the same meaning. They are followed by an adjective, noun phrase or a sentence. EXAMPLES: - The book is short but/yet interesting. - The story is short but/yet interesting. ● IN SPITE OF, DESPITE: The connectors in spite of and despite have the same meaning. They are followed by a noun phrase (often including gerunds) EXAMPLES: - In spite of/despite the cold weather, she didn’t take a coat. - She didn’t pass the test in spite of/despite studying hard. ● ALTHOUGH, THOUGH, EVEN THOUGH, IN SPITE OF THE FACT THAT: These connectors have the same meaning. They are followed by a sentence (subject and verb) EXAMPLES: - She didn’t take a coat although/though/even though/in spite of the fact that it was cold. ● WHILE, WHEREAS: They have the same meaning and are followed by a sentence. EXAMPLES: - This restaurant has a good reputation, while/whereas that one does not. ● HOWEVER, NEVERTHELESS, EVEN SO, ON THE ONE HAND,ON THE OTHER HAND, ON THE CONTRARY: These connectors are followed first by a comma and then by a complete sentence. EXAMPLES: - He was very rude. However/Nevertheless/Even so , we forgave him. - On the one hand, the city is fun. On the other hand, it’s very noisy. A: I thought you liked Italian food. B: On the contrary, I hate it. 2. Contrasting ideas
  5. 5. GRAMMAR – UNIT 7GRAMMAR – UNIT 7FCE by Matifmarin  Next pageNext page Exercises:Exercises: 1. Fill in the gaps with but or However 2.1. Contrasting ideas. Practice -I tried to lift the box, ______ it was too heavy for me. -I tried to lift the box. __________, it was too heavy for me. - ____________ I exercise every day, I can’t seem to lose any weight. - She still loves him, _______________ he treated her very badly. 3. Fill in the gaps with despite / In spite of -Our plane arrived on time in __________ the delay during takeoff. -We won the game __________ having two fewer players. 2. Fill in the gaps with although / even though 4. Fill in the gaps with despite the fact that / in spite of the fact that -Our plane arrived on time in _________________ it left 30 minutes late. -We won the game __________________ we had two fewer players. 5. Fill in the gaps with while / whereas / unlike -I like tennis, ___________ my brother prefers bowling. -This mobile phone plan costs € 0.05 per minute, _____________ that one gives you up to 800 minutes per - month for a fixed price. -His boss allows him to work from home, ____________ mine. -She’s very friendly, _______________her sister.
  6. 6. GRAMMAR – UNIT 7GRAMMAR – UNIT 7FCE by Matifmarin  Next pageNext page AnAnswer Key:swer Key: 1.But or However (but - However) 2.1. Contrasting ideas. Practice 2. Although / Even though (Although even though) 3. Despite / In spite of (in spite of despite) Explanation: But is more informal than however. You can use however at the beginning of a sentence, but you CAN’T use but at the beginning of a sentence (in written English). Explanation: These linking words are the same, and they are both followed by a subject + verb. Explanation: These linking words are the same, and they are followed by a noun or a gerund (-ing form of the verb, which can function as a noun). 4. Despite the fact that / in spite of the fact that (in spite of the fact that despite the fact that) Explanation: These phrases are followed by a subject + verb. 5. While / Whereas / Unlike (while whereas - unlike - unlike ) Explanation: These linking words are used to make contrasts. While and whereas are usually used between two complete phrases. Unlike is typically used with only a subject.
  7. 7. GRAMMAR – UNIT 7GRAMMAR – UNIT 7FCE by Matifmarin 3. EXPRESSING PREFERENCE PREFER: + Noun + TO + Noun : I prefer coffee to tea + -ING Form + TO + ING Form: I prefer skiing to swimming. = to talk about general preferences + TO Infinitive + RATHER THAN + Bare Infinitive :I prefer to eat fish rather than (eat) meat = to talk about general preferences WOULD PREFER + TO Infinitive : Would you like to have a cup of coffee? I’d prefer to have some water. = To talk about specific preference Another clause can be introduced by rather than + bare infinitive : He’d prefer to stay at home rather than drive to the restaurant. Prefer takes an object when we want to introduce a new subject: I would prefer her to stay at home. WOULD RATHER/SOONER SAME SUBJECT : followed by the bare infinitive: I'd rather play football than golf but I prefer football to golf Or the Perfect Infinitive: I'd rather have stayed at home DIFFERENT SUBJECT: → Use a Past Tense with present or future meaning: A: Shall I open the window? B: I'd rather you didn't. → Use a Past Perfect with past meaning: I'd rather you hadn't called him silly. HAD BETTER + Bare Infinitive (= should/ought) - You had/'d better book your flight early - I'd better not take out a loan; I won't be able to pay it back This structure is used to give advice or to say what the best thing to do in a particular situation is. Had better is more emphatic than Should or Ought to but it is not as emphatic as Must Examples: - You must see a lawyer . (strong advice) - You had better see a lawyer ( less emphatic than "Must") - You should/ought to see a lawyer ( even less emphatic)  Next pageNext page
  8. 8. GRAMMAR – UNIT 7GRAMMAR – UNIT 7 FCE by Matifmarin FormForm UseUse ExampleExample preferprefer ++noun/-ingnoun/-ing ++toto noun/-ingnoun/-ing expressingexpressing generalgeneral preferencepreference II preferprefer biologybiology toto history.history. II preferprefer readreadinging English booksEnglish books toto speakspeakinging English.English. would preferwould prefer ++ full infinitivefull infinitive ++rather thanrather than (+ bare infinitive)(+ bare infinitive) expressingexpressing specificspecific preference (on thispreference (on this occasion)occasion) I’I’d preferd prefer to haveto have the lessonthe lesson onon MondayMonday rather thanrather than ((to have itto have it)) on Tuesday, if that’s possible.on Tuesday, if that’s possible. would preferwould prefer ++ bare infinitivebare infinitive ++thanthan (+ bare infinitive)(+ bare infinitive) expressingexpressing generalgeneral or specificor specific preferencepreference I’I’d ratherd rather havehave the lesson onthe lesson on MondayMonday thanthan ((have ithave it)) onon Tuesday, if that’s possible.Tuesday, if that’s possible. would ratherwould rather ++ sbsb ++ pastpast simple/past continuoussimple/past continuous expressingexpressing generalgeneral or specificor specific preference (aboutpreference (about someone else)someone else) II’’d ratherd rather youyou didn’t sitdidn’t sit next tonext to Brian.Brian. had betterhad better ++ bare infinitivebare infinitive givinggiving adviceadvice You’You’d betterd better askask your parentsyour parents if you can come on the schoolif you can come on the school trip.trip. 3. EXPRESSING PREFERENCE SUMMARY  Next pageNext page
  9. 9. GRAMMAR – UNIT 7GRAMMAR – UNIT 7FCE by Matifmarin 3. EXPRESSING PREFERENCE We don’t usually sayWe don’t usually say I don’t preferI don’t prefer….…. We useWe use I prefer not toI prefer not to…. .…. . Example:Example: I prefer not to have music on when I’m studying.I prefer not to have music on when I’m studying.  Next pageNext page
  10. 10. GRAMMAR – UNIT 7GRAMMAR – UNIT 7FCE by Matifmarin 3.1. EXPRESSING PREFERENCE. Practice  Next pageNext page ExerciseExercise II The following sentences are wrong, rewrite them correctly replacing the words and phrases in boldThe following sentences are wrong, rewrite them correctly replacing the words and phrases in bold 1. I generally prefer coffee1. I generally prefer coffee fromfrom tea.tea. 2. Do you prefer watching a DVD at home to2. Do you prefer watching a DVD at home to gogo to the cinema.to the cinema. 3. I3. I hadhad prefer to meet you a bit later, if that’s all night with you.prefer to meet you a bit later, if that’s all night with you. 4. He’d4. He’d preferprefer not have to get up so early tomorrow, but he will if he has to.not have to get up so early tomorrow, but he will if he has to. 5. I’d rather you5. I’d rather you writewrite your essay in a notebook, to be honest.your essay in a notebook, to be honest. 6. Would you prefer to get a pizza rather6. Would you prefer to get a pizza rather fromfrom go out tonight.go out tonight. 7. You7. You wouldwould better see a doctor if you’re not feeling well.better see a doctor if you’re not feeling well. 8. I8. I hadhad rather be poor and happy than rich and lonely.rather be poor and happy than rich and lonely. 9. I’d prefer9. I’d prefer having an early night tonight, if that’s okay with you.an early night tonight, if that’s okay with you. 10. She’d10. She’d ratherrather starts revising if she wants to do well in the exam next week.starts revising if she wants to do well in the exam next week. 11. Sharon prefers11. Sharon prefers to notto not wear make-up to work.wear make-up to work. not to - to have -- had - wrote -- would - going – rather - to - than – would - better You can use the words in this box to help you:
  11. 11. GRAMMAR – UNIT 7GRAMMAR – UNIT 7FCE by Matifmarin  Next pageNext page ExerciseExercise IIII Open cloze. Write one word in each gap.Open cloze. Write one word in each gap. 1. I prefer pop music ___________ rock, to be honest.1. I prefer pop music ___________ rock, to be honest. 2. I would prefer to go to the concert tomorrow ___________ than on Saturday.2. I would prefer to go to the concert tomorrow ___________ than on Saturday. 3. I ______________ playing the piano on my own performing.3. I ______________ playing the piano on my own performing. 4. I’d rather ____________ to that jazz club than a nightclub.4. I’d rather ____________ to that jazz club than a nightclub. 5. I’d ______________ you didn’t practise playing the trumpet while I’m trying to study.5. I’d ______________ you didn’t practise playing the trumpet while I’m trying to study. 6. You’d ___________ get tickets soon as they’re running out.6. You’d ___________ get tickets soon as they’re running out. 7. I actually prefer __________ to listen to music through speakers; it sounds so much7. I actually prefer __________ to listen to music through speakers; it sounds so much better through headphones.better through headphones. 3.2. EXPRESSING PREFERENCE. Practice
  12. 12. GRAMMAR – UNIT 7GRAMMAR – UNIT 7FCE by Matifmarin ANSWER KEY Exercise IExercise I 1. to 2. going 3. would 4. rather 5. wrote 6. than 7. had 8. would 9. to have 10. better 11. not to 1. to – rather – prefer – go – rather - better - not Exercise IIExercise II  EndEnd 3.2. EXPRESSING PREFERENCE. Practice

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