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UNIT 22 Reported Speech
also called
Indirect Speech
SUMMARY OF CONTENTS PETSUMMARY OF CONTENTS PETPET
by Matifmarin.
We ...
2
FCE
by Matifmarin
The two most common reporting verbs are “say” and “tell”. They are usually in the past simple.
Sara sa...
3
SUMMARY OF CONTENTS PETSUMMARY OF CONTENTS PETPET
by Matifmarin.
UNIT 22 Reported Speech
In timeIn time
OnOn
ee
Main rul...
4
FCE
by Matifmarin
Usually, the tense in reported speech is one tense back in time from the tense in direct speech:
She s...
5
FCE
by Matifmarin
Although the most common reporting verbs are say and tell, there are a number of
other reporting verbs...
6
FCE
by Matifmarin
I am going to the
opera this afternoon.
I saw Cathy two days
ago and she told me
she was going to the
...
7
SUMMARY OF CONTENTS PETSUMMARY OF CONTENTS PETPET
by Matifmarin.
UNIT 22 Reported Speech
□ Rewrite the sentences in repo...
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SUMMARY OF CONTENTS PETSUMMARY OF CONTENTS PETPET
by Matifmarin.
UNIT 22 Reported Speech
ANSWERANSWER
1. She said (that)...
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SUMMARY OF CONTENTS PETSUMMARY OF CONTENTS PETPET
by Matifmarin.
Indirect speech for sentence having MODALS
UNIT 22 Repo...
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SUMMARY OF CONTENTS PETSUMMARY OF CONTENTS PETPET
by Matifmarin.
Indirect speech for sentence having MODALS
UNIT 22 Rep...
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PET Unit 22 Summary of Grammar Contents

  1. 1. 1 UNIT 22 Reported Speech also called Indirect Speech SUMMARY OF CONTENTS PETSUMMARY OF CONTENTS PETPET by Matifmarin. We used the Indirect Speech to Report what we have heard from other people
  2. 2. 2 FCE by Matifmarin The two most common reporting verbs are “say” and “tell”. They are usually in the past simple. Sara says, “I am going to buy a new car next week.”” (DIRECT) Reported clause: Sara said (that) she was going to buy a new car the following week. (INDIRECT) or Sara told me (that) she was going to buy a new car the following week. (INDIRECT) → With the verb tell we need an object pronoun. UNIT 22 Reported Speech □ The relative pronoun "that" is only obligatory if it is the object of the main clause and subject of the subordinate clause: e.g.: We saw a car that was too expensive → They said (that) they had seen a car that was too expensive subj. Rel. verb compl. [ ] relative clause main clause → Conclusion, in Reported Speech, “that” is only obligatory if it appears in the original sentence, otherwise it’s always optional. We’ll see Relative clauses in UNIT 23 SUMMARY OF CONTENTS PETSUMMARY OF CONTENTS PET
  3. 3. 3 SUMMARY OF CONTENTS PETSUMMARY OF CONTENTS PETPET by Matifmarin. UNIT 22 Reported Speech In timeIn time OnOn ee Main rules:Main rules:
  4. 4. 4 FCE by Matifmarin Usually, the tense in reported speech is one tense back in time from the tense in direct speech: She said, "I am tired." She said that she was tired. DIRECT SPEECH Simple present "I always drink coffee", she said Present continuous "I am reading a book", he explained. Simple past "Bill arrived on Saturday", he said. Present perfect "I have been to Spain", he told me. Past perfect "I had just turned out the light," he explained. Present perfect continuous They complained, "We have been waiting for hours". Past continuous "We were living in Paris", they told me. Future "I will be in Geneva on Monday", he said Future continuous She said, "I'll be using the car next Friday". REPORTED SPEECH Simple past She said that she always drank coffee. Past continuous He explained that he was reading a book Past perfect He said that Bill had arrived on Saturday Past perfect He told me that he had been to Spain Past perfect He explained that he had just turned out the light. Past perfect continuous They complained that they had been waiting for hours. Past perfect continuous They told me that they had been living in Paris. Present conditional He said that he would be in Geneva on Monday. Conditional continuous She said that she would be using the car next Friday. UNIT 22 Reported Speech Summary of Rules
  5. 5. 5 FCE by Matifmarin Although the most common reporting verbs are say and tell, there are a number of other reporting verbs such as “explain”, “assure”, “refuse”, “promise”, “warn”, etc. that can be used instead of say or tell to make reported statements and questions. STRUCTURES: subject + reporting verb + (that) + clause □ She explained (that) she had been abroad at the time. (‘that’ is optional) subject + reporting verb + direct object + (that) + clause □ They assured us (that) there would be no delay. subject + reporting verb + infintive □ He refused to work at weekends. subject + reporting verb + direct object + infintive □ She reminded me to come to the meeting. UNIT 22 Reported Speech
  6. 6. 6 FCE by Matifmarin I am going to the opera this afternoon. I saw Cathy two days ago and she told me she was going to the opera that afternoon. There are also changes in time and adverbs in indirect speech. The common rules are the following: Today changes to that day/the same day Tomorrow changes to the next day/the following day Yesterday changes to the day before/the previous day Next week/month/year changes to the following week/month/year Last week/month/year changes to the previous week/month/year Now changes to then Ago changes to before Here changes to there This changes to that Ready for a little test? Let’s go!! UNIT 22 Reported Speech
  7. 7. 7 SUMMARY OF CONTENTS PETSUMMARY OF CONTENTS PETPET by Matifmarin. UNIT 22 Reported Speech □ Rewrite the sentences in reported speech. Change pronouns and time expressions where necessary. 1. She said, "I am reading a good book.“ 2. They said, "We are busy at the office." 3. Peter said, "I know a good hotel in this twon." 4. Alba said, "I woke up early.“ 5. Sergi said, "I will ring her.“ 6. The students said, "We have just arrived at school.“ 7. My father said, "I will clean the car.“ 8. Núria said, "I didn’t say that.“ 9. Sonia said, "I don't know where my books are.“ 10. David said: "I won't tell anyone."
  8. 8. 8 SUMMARY OF CONTENTS PETSUMMARY OF CONTENTS PETPET by Matifmarin. UNIT 22 Reported Speech ANSWERANSWER 1. She said (that) she was reading a good book 2. They said (that) they were busy at the office. 3. Peter said (that) he knew a good hotel in that twon. 4. Alba (that) she had woken up early. 5. Sergi said (that) he would ring her 6. The students said (that) they had just arrived at school. 7. My father said (that) he would clean the car 8. Núria said (that) she had not / hand't said that 9. Sonia said (that) she did not know where her books were 10. David said (that) he would not / wouldn't tell anyone ● Notice that the relative pronoun "that" in these sentences is optional because it 's the subject of both clauses.
  9. 9. 9 SUMMARY OF CONTENTS PETSUMMARY OF CONTENTS PETPET by Matifmarin. Indirect speech for sentence having MODALS UNIT 22 Reported Speech Some Present modals changed to past modals Direct Speech Indirect Speech  Indirect speech for sentence having MODALS, “will, can, may, must, shall”                                             WILL changes into WOULD         She said, "I'll go to the English class tomorrow." She said she would go to the English class the following day.                          CAN changes into COULD                  He said, “I can drive a car” She said, “he can play a violin.” They said, “we can climb on a hill” He said (that) he could drive a car. She said (that) he could play a violin. They said (that) they could climb on a hill.                   MAY changes into MIGHT                        He said, “I may buy a computer” She said, “he may visit a doctor.” They said, “they may go to zoo” He said (that) he might buy a computer. She said (that) he might visit a doctor. They said that they might go to zoo..     MUST changes into HAD TO He said, “I must work hard” She said, “they must carry on their work” I said to him, “you must learn the test-taking strategies” He said (that) he had to work hard. She said (that) they had to carry on their work. I said to him (that) he had to learn the test-taking strategies SHALL changes into SHOULD She said, "What shall we do now?" She asked what we should do then.
  10. 10. 10 SUMMARY OF CONTENTS PETSUMMARY OF CONTENTS PETPET by Matifmarin. Indirect speech for sentence having MODALS UNIT 22 Reported Speech REMEMBER that there is no change with the modal: “could, would, should, might and ought to”. Direct speech Indirect speech "We could go to the cinema", he said. He said we could go to the cinema "I would wait here", he said. He said he would wait there "You should stay home", he said. He told me I should stay home "I might go to the cinema", he said. He said he might go to the cinema "I ought to study hard for the exam", he said . He said he ought to study hard for the exam  EndEnd

PET Unit 22 Summary of Grammar Contents with examples and activities

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