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FCE Unit 1 Grammar Contents - Lifestyle

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Gerunds and infinitives
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FCE Unit 1 Grammar Contents - Lifestyle

  1. 1. 1 Unit 1 FCE by Matifmarin. GRAMMAR: Habitual behaviour in the Present & in the Past VOCABULARY: Topic: Clothes and different lifestyles. English Matifmarin Habitual Behaviour
  2. 2. 2 1. Habitual behaviour in the present Adverbs of frequency (1) Subject + adverb + main verb (2) Subject + BE + adverb (3) Subject + Auxiliary + adverb + main verb Natàlia always passes her exams She is always happy She has always passed her exams. % Adverbs of frequency Examples 100% always She always studies after class 90% usually They usually walk to work 80% normally / generally He normally gets good marks at school 70% often / frequently I often read in bed at night 50% sometimes My sister sometimes sings in the shower 30% occasionally The children occasionally go to bed late 10% seldom My granny seldom puts salt on her food 5% hardly ever / rarely She hardly ever gets angry 0% never Vegetarians never eat meat FCE by Matifmarin. Habitual Behaviour → Habitual behaviour is a form of automatic and routine behaviour. English Matifmarin (1) Present simple for habitual behaviour → They work in a factory; WITH a frequency adverb: They always get up very early I the morning. (2) The present continuous + frequency advs: → They are always asking for a higher salary. STRUCTURE for FREQUENCY ADVERBS:
  3. 3. 3 FCE by Matifmarin. žž We use the present simple to talk about habits in the present. We use it with or without an adverb of frequency. Example: - Peter often goes shopping with his girlfriend. - They have lunch in a café. USE OF PRESENT FOR Habitual behaviour Frequency adverbs are used to indicate how often an action occurs. (1) An adverb of frequency goes before a main verb (except with To Be). Subject + adverb + main verb I always remember to do my homework. He normally gets good marks in exams. (2) An adverb of frequency goes after the verb TO BE. Subject + to be + adverb They are never pleased to see me. She isn't usually bad tempered. POSITION of ADVERBS: English Matifmarin (3) An adverb of frequency goes between the auxiliary and the main verb. Subject + aux. + adverb + main verb They have never seen the sea. He hasn't ever got bad marks in exams.
  4. 4. 4 FCE by Matifmarin. We can also use the present continuous to talk about habits, especially (but not always) those habits which we find annoying. Present continuous + frequency adverb ● We must include a suitable adverb: always, constantly, continually, forever. Those neighbours are always talking at my door. She’s constantly saying how beautiful and intelligent she is. He's always leaving the bath taps running. English Matifmarin
  5. 5. 5 tend to is used to make general statements about the habitual actions or situations. FCE by Matifmarin. Tend to + infinitive Other examples: (1) Teenagers tend to be moody (2) People in big cities tend to be more tolerant than people from small cities. (3) Older people tend to be more easily wakened by noises than younger people. e.g.: First Certificate students tend to be hard-working. ● Check explanations and more examples in your Coursebook French people tend to drink coffee rather than tea. English Matifmarin
  6. 6. 6 FCE by Matifmarin. Will + bare infinitive  We can use will to talk about habitual behaviour. The meaning is present, not future. Examples:  It´s 10 o’clock in the evening. Nathaly will be on her way home from her English class now. → She has classes from 8 to 10 in the evening and it’s usual for her to go home after the class.  My neighbour will always greet me with a smile. → It’s what she always does as a habit.  Don’t call the Johnston now, they’ll be having dinner. → I know they always have dinner at this time. English Matifmarin
  7. 7. 7 FCE by Matifmarin. He keeps (on) annoying his sister. Keep on + gerund To be healthy, I keep on drinking water. ● Check explanations and more examples in your Course book My flowers English Matifmarin
  8. 8. 8 Would is an auxiliary verb, a modal auxiliary verb. We use would mainly to: - talk about the past →We would go to the same beach every summer. - talk about the future in the past → I knew she would marry him. / I knew she wouln't marry him. - express the conditional mood →The student wouldn’t have failed this semester if he had studied harder. We also use would for other functions, such as: expressing desire, polite requests and questions, opinion or hope, wish and regret... Structure of Would: subject + would + main verb The main verb is always the bare infinitive (infinitive without "to"). WOULD 2. Habitual behaviour in the past FCE by Matifmarin. - Past simple + frequency verbs - Used to + infinitive - Would + infinitive Past simple + frequency verbs: - I always got up at 7 in the morning when I lived in London. - I hardly ever went away on holiday when I was young. • I Would like some coffee? • Since you ask me I'd say the red one is best. • Would you open the door, please? • I wish you would stay / I wish I wouldn’t have said that. English Matifmarin
  9. 9. 9   subject auxiliary verb main verb   + She would like tea. 'd - She would not like whisky. wouldn't ? Would she like coffee? FCE by Matifmarin. Notice that: •Would is never conjugated. It is always would or 'd (short form). •The main verb is always the bare infinitive. Would is never conjugated!!!! when I was younger, I would always seduce ladies with my exquisite personality English Matifmarin
  10. 10. 10 FCE by Matifmarin. (a) This structure expresses a past action and state. It has no present equivalent. e.g.: When I was a child, we used to go on holiday to the seaside. Pay attention to the negative and the question: e.g.: Where did you use to go? - I used to go to the beach. - We didn't use to do anything interesting. IMPORTANT!! We cannot use used to with a time reference + a number. Compare: *We used to have a holiday there for 10 years/three times But … We used to go there every year. Used to + infinitive ● You can see more examples in the Contents of unit 14 (also in my blog) ● Check also the difference between “be use to + gerund”, “get used to” and “used to + inf.” English Matifmarin
  11. 11. 11 FCE by Matifmarin. 1. Be used to + -ing / noun in the affirmative describe the state in which one no longer finds situations new or strange. e.g.: I am used to the heat = it is no problem for me now. 2. Get used to + -ing / noun in the affirmative describes the process of reaching normality with a new or strange situation. e.g.: I am getting used to the heat = it 's less of a problem for me now than before. 3. What form of the verb is used after 'be used to" and "get used to" → the gerund → Please, check information on pg. 206 of Grammar reference in your Coursebook!! Check the following: English Matifmarin
  12. 12. 12 □ Practise doing this activity FCE by Matifmarin. For each of the following sentences, choose either "used to" or "would". If both are possible, use "would". 1. Do you remember how your Uncle David ______________ sit in that chair and smoke those disgusting cigars. 2. Your mother ______________ have a Yorkshire Terrier when she was a young girl, didn't she? 3. For years, they _______________ go on holiday to the Rockies, but then it became very fashionable and, hence, expensive. 4. Years ago, I ______________ write a diary every day but then I got bored with doing it and I stopped. Maybe it was my life that was boring! 5. At the start of their marriage, they ________________ be very happy - but then it all went wrong! 6. You __________________ spell so well. Whatever happened? 7. When I was five, I _________________ be able to do incredible gymnastics. Now I can't even touch my toes. 8. Before getting my driving licence, I _________________ ride a bicycle everywhere. English Matifmarin
  13. 13. 13 ANSWER KEY FCE by Matifmarin. Answers "used to - would" 1 - would. 2 - used to. 3 - would. 4 - would. 5 - used to. 6 - used to. 7 - used to. 8 - would. English Matifmarin
  14. 14. 14 UNIT 1 topic Lifestyle and fashion Read the article about teenage models in your Coursebook and talk about this topic to a classmate FCE by Matifmarin. English Matifmarin
  15. 15. 15 □ VOCABULARY FCE by Matifmarin. belt(s) LIFESTYLE → Vocabulary: Clothes Men's Clothes | Women's Clothes | Uni-Sex | Baby Clothes / Holiday/Leisure Clothes | Nightwear | Underwear | Headwear | Footwear  shirt(s) bow tie(s) boxers waitscoat(s) / vest(s) tie(s) suit(s) Patterns striped polka-dotted checked spotted plain Men's Clothes men’s underpants Y-front Men's underwear socks English Matifmarin
  16. 16. 16 □ VOCABULARY FCE by Matifmarin. LIFESTYLE → Vocabulary: Clothes Men's Clothes | Women's Clothes | Uni-Sex | Baby Clothes / Holiday/Leisure Clothes | Nightwear | Underwear | Headwear | Footwear Women's Clothes dress(es) blouse(s) skirt(s) tanktop(s) party dress(es) night dress(es) bra(s) pant(s) knicker(s) stocking(s) tight(s) Women's underwear Ladies (Lingerie) English Matifmarin
  17. 17. 17 □ VOCABULARY FCE by Matifmarin. LIFESTYLE → Vocabulary: Clothes Men's Clothes | Women's Clothes | Uni-Sex | Baby Clothes / Holiday/Leisure Clothes | Nightwear | Underwear | Headwear | Footwear Uni-Sex coat(s) denim jacket(s) t-shirt(s) jean(s) trouser(s) short (s) jumper(s) pullover(s) sweatshirt(s) with a hood = hoodie(s) cardigan(s)glove(s) scarf mitten(s) English Matifmarin
  18. 18. 18 □ VOCABULARY FCE by Matifmarin.  End unit 1End unit 1 LIFESTYLE → Vocabulary: Clothes Men's Clothes | Women's Clothes | Uni-Sex | Baby Clothes / Holiday/Leisure Clothes | Nightwear | Underwear | Headwear | Footwear Baby Clothess Nightwear.. rompers nappy (nappies) bib(s) nightdress(es) nightie(s) pyjama(s) dressing gown(s) English Matifmarin

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